Photojournalism is a particular form of journalism that employs images in order to tell a news story. It is now understood to refer only to still images. Photojournalists create pictures that contribute to the media, and help communities connect with one other. Photojournalists must be informed and knowledgeable about events happening right outside their door. They deliver news in a format that is not only informative. Timeliness The images have meaning in the context of a published record of events. Objectivity The situation implied by the images is a fair and accurate representation of the events they depict in both content and tone, narrative The images combine with other news elements to make facts relatable to the viewer or reader on a cultural level. Like a writer, a photojournalist is a reporter, but he or she must often make decisions instantly and carry photographic equipment, the practice of illustrating news stories with photographs was made possible by printing and photography innovations that occurred in the mid 19th century.
The illustrations were printed with the use of engravings, during the Crimean War, the ILN pioneered the birth of early photojournalism by printing pictures of the war that had been taken by Roger Fenton. Other photographers of the war included William Simpson and Carol Szathmari, the American Civil War photographs of Mathew Brady were engraved before publication in Harpers Weekly. Disaster, including wrecks and city fires, was a popular subject for illustrated newspapers in the early days. The printing of images in newspapers remained an isolated occurrence in this period, Photos were used to enhance the text rather than to act as a medium of information in its own right. This began to change with the work of one of the pioneers of photojournalism, John Thomson, in collaboration with the radical journalist Adolphe Smith, he began publishing a monthly magazine, Street Life in London, from 1876 to 1877. The project documented in photographs and text, the lives of the people of London. On March 4,1880, The Daily Graphic published the first halftone reproduction of a news photograph, in March 1886, when General George Crook received word that the Apache leader Geronimo would negotiate surrender terms, photographer C. S.
Fly took his equipment and attached himself to the military column, during the three days of negotiations, Fly took about 15 exposures on 8 by 10 inches glass negatives. His photos of Geronimo and the other free Apaches, taken on March 25 and 26, are the known photographs taken of American Indians while still at war with the United States. Fly coolly posed his subjects, asking them to move and turn their heads and faces, the popular publication Harpers Weekly published six of his images in their April 24,1886 issue
Ansel Easton Adams was an American photographer and environmentalist. His black and white photographs of the American West, especially Yosemite National Park, have been widely reproduced on calendars, books. Adams and Fred Archer developed the Zone System as a way to determine proper exposure, the resulting clarity and depth characterized his photographs. He primarily used large-format cameras because their high resolution helped ensure sharpness in his images, Adams founded the photography group known as Group f/64, along with fellow photographers Willard Van Dyke and Edward Weston. Adams was born in the Western Addition of San Francisco, California and he was named after his uncle, Ansel Easton. His mothers family came from Baltimore, where his grandfather had a successful freight-hauling business but lost his wealth investing in failed mining. The Adams family came from New England, having migrated from Northern Ireland in the early 18th century and his paternal grandfather founded and built a prosperous lumber business which his father ran, though his fathers natural talents lay more with sciences than with business.
Later in life, Adams condemned that very same industry for cutting many of the great redwood forests. In 1907, his family moved 2 miles west to a new home near the Seacliff neighbourhood, the home had a splendid view of the Golden Gate and the Marin Headlands. San Francisco was devastated by the April 18,1906 San Francisco earthquake, the four year-old Ansel Adams was uninjured in the initial shaking but was tossed face-first into a garden wall during an aftershock three hours later and scarring his nose. Among his earliest memories was watching the smoke from the fire that destroyed much of the city a few miles to the east. A doctor recommended that his nose be reset once he reached maturity, Adams was a hyperactive child and prone to frequent sickness and hypochondria. He had few friends, but his home and surroundings on the heights facing the Golden Gate provided ample childhood activities. His father bought a telescope, and they enthusiastically shared the hobby of amateur astronomy. His father went on to serve as the paid secretary-treasurer of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific from 1925 to 1950, Ansels fathers business suffered great financial losses after the death of Ansels grandfather and the aftermath of the Panic of 1907.
By 1912, the standard of living had dropped sharply. Ansel was dismissed from several schools for being restless and inattentive. Adams was educated by tutors, his aunt Mary
Sharecropping is a form of agriculture in which a landowner allows a tenant to use the land in return for a share of the crops produced on their portion of land. Sharecropping has a history and there are a wide range of different situations. Some are governed by tradition, and others by law, legal contract systems such as the Italian mezzadria, the French métayage, the Spanish mediero, or the Islamic system of muqasat, occur widely. Sharecropping has benefits and costs for both the owners and the tenant and it encourages the cropper to remain on the land, solving the harvest rush problem. At the same time, since the cropper pays in shares of his harvest and croppers share the risks of harvests being large or small and of prices being high or low. Because tenants benefit from larger harvests, they have an incentive to work harder, however, by dividing the working force into many individual workers, large farms no longer benefit from economies of scale. On the whole, sharecropping was not as efficient as the gang agriculture of slave plantations.
In the U. S. tenant farmers own their own mules and equipment, and sharecroppers do not, Sharecropping occurred extensively in Scotland and colonial Africa, and came into wide use in the Southern United States during the Reconstruction era. The South had been devastated by war - planters had ample land, at the same time, most of the former slaves had labor but no money and no land - they rejected the kind of gang labor that typified slavery. A solution was the system focused on cotton, which was the only crop that could generate cash for the croppers, merchants. Poor white farmers, who previously had done little cotton farming, needed cash as well, jeffery Paige made a distinction between centralized sharecropping found on cotton plantations and the decentralized sharecropping with other crops. The former is characterized by political conservatism and long lasting tenure, tenants are tied to the landlord through the plantation store. Their work is heavily supervised as slave plantations were and this form of tenure tends to be replaced by wage slavery as markets penetrate.
Decentralized sharecropping involves virtually no role for the landlord, plots are scattered, peasants manage their own labor, leases are very short which leads to peasant radicalism. This form of tenure becomes more common when markets penetrate, use of the sharecropper system has been identified in England. It is still used in many poor areas today, notably in Pakistan. It has therefore been seen as an issue of reform in contexts such as the Mexican Revolution. Sharecropping agreements can however be made fairly, as a form of tenant farming or sharefarming that has a variable rental payment, there are three different types of contracts
Columbia University is a private Ivy League research university in Upper Manhattan, New York City. It was established in 1754 as Kings College by royal charter of George II of Great Britain, after the American Revolutionary War, Kings College briefly became a state entity, and was renamed Columbia College in 1784. Columbia is one of the fourteen founding members of the Association of American Universities and was the first school in the United States to grant the M. D. degree. The university has global research outposts in Amman, Istanbul, Mumbai, Rio de Janeiro, Asunción, Columbia administers annually the Pulitzer Prize. Additionally,100 Nobel laureates have been affiliated with Columbia as students, faculty, Columbia is second only to Harvard University in the number of Nobel Prize-winning affiliates, with over 100 recipients of the award as of 2016. In 1746 an act was passed by the assembly of New York to raise funds for the foundation of a new college. Classes were initially held in July 1754 and were presided over by the colleges first president, Dr.
Johnson was the only instructor of the colleges first class, which consisted of a mere eight students. Instruction was held in a new schoolhouse adjoining Trinity Church, located on what is now lower Broadway in Manhattan, in 1763, Dr. Johnson was succeeded in the presidency by Myles Cooper, a graduate of The Queens College, and an ardent Tory. In the charged political climate of the American Revolution, his opponent in discussions at the college was an undergraduate of the class of 1777. The suspension continued through the occupation of New York City by British troops until their departure in 1783. The colleges library was looted and its sole building requisitioned for use as a hospital first by American. Loyalists were forced to abandon their Kings College in New York, the Loyalists, led by Bishop Charles Inglis fled to Windsor, Nova Scotia, where they founded Kings Collegiate School. After the Revolution, the college turned to the State of New York in order to restore its vitality, the Legislature agreed to assist the college, and on May 1,1784, it passed an Act for granting certain privileges to the College heretofore called Kings College.
The Regents finally became aware of the colleges defective constitution in February 1787 and appointed a revision committee, in April of that same year, a new charter was adopted for the college, still in use today, granting power to a private board of 24 Trustees. On May 21,1787, William Samuel Johnson, the son of Dr. Samuel Johnson, was unanimously elected President of Columbia College, prior to serving at the university, Johnson had participated in the First Continental Congress and been chosen as a delegate to the Constitutional Convention. The colleges enrollment and academics stagnated for the majority of the 19th century, with many of the college presidents doing little to change the way that the college functioned. In 1857, the college moved from the Kings College campus at Park Place to a primarily Gothic Revival campus on 49th Street and Madison Avenue, during the last half of the 19th century, under the leadership of President F. A. P. Barnard, the institution assumed the shape of a modern university
Hoboken, New Jersey
Hoboken is a city in Hudson County, New Jersey, United States. Hoboken is part of the New York metropolitan area and is the site of Hoboken Terminal, Hoboken was first settled as part of the Pavonia, New Netherland colony in the 17th century. During the early 19th century the city was developed by Colonel John Stevens, first as a resort and it became a township in 1849 and was incorporated as a city in 1855. Hoboken is the location of the first recorded game of baseball and of the Stevens Institute of Technology, located on the Hudson Waterfront, the city was an integral part of the Port of New York and New Jersey and home to major industries for most of the 20th century. The character of the city has changed from a blue collar town to one of upscale shops, the name Hoboken was chosen by Colonel John Stevens when he bought land, on a part of which the city still sits. Like Weehawken, its neighbor to the north and Harsimus to the south, old Dutch for high bluff and likely referring to Castle Point, was used during the colonial era and spelled as Hobuck, Hobock and Hoboocken.
The origin of Hobokens name was not related to the Hoboken district of Antwerp, however, in the nineteenth century, a folk etymology had emerged linking the town of to the similarly-named Flemish town. Hoboken was originally an island, surrounded by the Hudson River on the east and it was a seasonal campsite in the territory of the Hackensack, a phratry of the Lenni Lenape, who used the serpentine rock found there to carve pipes. Soon after it part of the province of New Netherland. Three Lenape sold the land that was to become Hoboken for 80 fathoms of wampum,20 fathoms of cloth,12 kettles, six guns and these transactions, variously dated as July 12,1630 and November 22,1630, represent the earliest known conveyance for the area. Pauw failed to settle the land, and he was obliged to sell his holdings back to the Company in 1633 and it was acquired by Hendrick Van Vorst, who leased part of the land to Aert Van Putten, a farmer. In 1643, north of what would be known as Castle Point, Van Putten built a house.
In series of Indian and Dutch raids and reprisals, Van Putten was killed and his buildings destroyed, deteriorating relations with the Lenape, its isolation as an island, or relatively long distance from New Amsterdam may have discouraged more settlement. In 1664, the English took possession of New Amsterdam with little or no resistance, english-speaking settlers interspersed with the Dutch, but it remained scarcely populated and agrarian. At the end of the Revolutionary War, Bayards property was confiscated by the Revolutionary Government of New Jersey, in 1784, the land described as William Bayards farm at Hoebuck was bought at auction by Colonel John Stevens for £18,360. In the early 19th century, Colonel John Stevens developed the waterfront as a resort for Manhattanites, on October 11,1811, Stevens ship the Juliana, began to operate as a ferry between Manhattan and Hoboken, making it the worlds first commercial steam ferry. In 1825, he designed and built a locomotive capable of hauling several passenger cars at his estate.
Sybils Cave, a cave with a spring, was opened in 1832
Southern California has the largest Japanese American population in North America, and the city of Torrance holds the most dense Japanese American population in the 48 contiguous states. People from Japan began migrating to the US in significant numbers following the political, large numbers went to Hawaii and to the West Coast. The Immigration Act of 1924 banned the immigration of nearly all Japanese, the ban on immigration produced unusually well-defined generational groups within the Japanese American community. Original immigrants belonged to an immigrant generation, the Issei, the Issei comprised exclusively those who had immigrated before 1924. Because no new immigrants were permitted, all Japanese Americans born after 1924 were—by definition—born in the US and this generation, the Nisei, became a distinct cohort from the Issei generation in terms of age and English-language ability, in addition to the usual generational differences. Institutional and interpersonal racism led many of the Nisei to marry other Nisei, resulting in a distinct generation of Japanese Americans.
Significant Japanese immigration did not occur again until the Immigration Act of 1965 ended 40 years of bans against immigration from Japan, the Naturalization Act of 1790 restricted naturalized U. S. citizenship to free white persons, which excluded the Issei from citizenship. As a result, the Issei were unable to vote and faced restrictions such as the inability to own land under many state laws. Japanese Americans were parties in several important Supreme Court decisions, including Ozawa v. United States, the Korematsu case originated the strict scrutiny standard, which is applied, with great controversy, in government considerations of race since the 1989 Adarand Constructors v. Peña decision. In recent years, immigration from Japan has been more like that from Western Europe, the numbers involve on average 5 to 10 thousand per year, and is similar to the amount of immigration to the US from Germany. This is in stark contrast to the rest of Asia, where family reunification is the impetus for immigration.
Japanese Americans have the oldest demographic structure of any ethnic group in the US. The internments were based on the race or ancestry rather than activities of the interned, including children, were interned together. Decades later, the Civil Liberties Act of 1988 officially acknowledged the violations of the basic civil liberties. Many Japanese-Americans consider the term internment camp a euphemism and prefer to refer to the relocation of Japanese-Americans as imprisonment in concentration camps. Websters New World Fourth College Edition defines a concentration camp as, A prison camp in which political dissidents, members of minority ethnic groups, etc. are confined. The Japanese American communities have themselves distinguished their members with terms like Issei and Sansei, which describe the first, the fourth generation is called Yonsei, and the fifth is called Gosei. The term Nikkei encompasses Japanese immigrants in all countries and of all generations, the kanreki, a pre-modern Japanese rite of passage to old age at 60, is now being celebrated by increasing numbers of Japanese American Nisei
Berkeley is a city on the east shore of San Francisco Bay in northern Alameda County, California. It is named after the 18th-century Anglo-Irish bishop and philosopher George Berkeley and it borders the cities of Oakland and Emeryville to the south and the city of Albany and the unincorporated community of Kensington to the north. Its eastern border with Contra Costa County generally follows the ridge of the Berkeley Hills, the 2010 census recorded a population of 112,580. It has the Graduate Theological Union, one of the largest religious studies institutions in the world and it is one of the most politically liberal cities in the United States. The site of todays City of Berkeley was the territory of the Chochenyo/Huchiun band of the Ohlone people when the first Europeans arrived, other artifacts were discovered in the 1950s in the downtown area during remodeling of a commercial building, near the upper course of the creek. The first people of European descent arrived with the De Anza Expedition in 1776, this is noted by signage on Interstate 80, which runs along the San Francisco Bay shoreline of Berkeley.
The De Anza Expedition led to establishment of the Spanish Presidio of San Francisco at the entrance to San Francisco Bay, luis Peralta was among the soldiers at the Presidio. For his services to the King of Spain, he was granted a vast stretch of land on the east shore of San Francisco Bay for a ranch, luis Peralta named his holding Rancho San Antonio. The primary activity of the ranch was raising cattle for meat and hides, Peralta gave portions of the ranch to each of his four sons. What is now Berkeley lies mostly in the portion that went to Peraltas son Domingo, with a little in the portion that went to another son, no artifact survives of the Domingo or Vicente ranches, but their names survive in Berkeley street names. However, legal title to all land in the City of Berkeley remains based on the original Peralta land grant, the Peraltas Rancho San Antonio continued after Alta California passed from Spanish to Mexican sovereignty after the Mexican War of Independence. The lands of the brothers Domingo and Vicente were quickly reduced to reservations close to their respective ranch homes, the rest of the land was surveyed and parceled out to various American claimants.
Politically, the area that became Berkeley was initially part of a vast Contra Costa County, on March 25,1853, Alameda County was created from a division within Contra Costa County, as well as from a small portion of Santa Clara County. The area of Berkeley was at this period mostly a mix of land and ranches. It was not yet Berkeley, but merely the part of the Oakland Township subdivision of Alameda County. In 1866, Oaklands private College of California looked for a new site, according to the Centennial Record of the University of California, In 1866…at Founders Rock, a group of College of California men watched two ships standing out to sea through the Golden Gate. Although the philosophers name is pronounced bark-lee, the pronunciation of the name has evolved to suit American English as burk-lee. The College of Californias College Homestead Association planned to raise funds for the new campus by selling off adjacent parcels of land, to this end, they laid out a plat and street grid that became the basis of Berkeleys modern street plan
Museum of Modern Art
The Museum of Modern Art is an art museum located in Midtown Manhattan in New York City, on 53rd Street between Fifth and Sixth Avenues. MoMA has been important in developing and collecting modernist art, and is identified as one of the largest and most influential museums of modern art in the world. The MoMA Library includes approximately 300,000 books and exhibition catalogs, over 1,000 periodical titles, the archives holds primary source material related to the history of modern and contemporary art. The idea for The Museum of Modern Art was developed in 1929 primarily by Abby Aldrich Rockefeller and they became known variously as the Ladies, the daring ladies and the adamantine ladies. They rented modest quarters for the new museum in the Heckscher Building at 730 Fifth Avenue in Manhattan, and it opened to the public on November 7,1929, nine days after the Wall Street Crash. Abby had invited A. Conger Goodyear, the president of the board of trustees of the Albright Art Gallery in Buffalo, New York.
At the time, it was Americas premier museum devoted exclusively to art. One of Abbys early recruits for the staff was the noted Japanese-American photographer Soichi Sunami. Goodyear enlisted Paul J. Sachs and Frank Crowninshield to join him as founding trustees, the associate director and curator of prints and drawings at the Fogg Museum at Harvard University, was referred to in those days as a collector of curators. Goodyear asked him to recommend a director and Sachs suggested Alfred H. Barr, under Barrs guidance, the museums holdings quickly expanded from an initial gift of eight prints and one drawing. Its first successful exhibition was in November 1929, displaying paintings by Van Gogh, Gauguin, Cézanne. Abbys husband was opposed to the museum and refused to release funds for the venture. Nevertheless, he donated the land for the current site of the museum, plus other gifts over time. During that time it initiated many more exhibitions of noted artists, the museum gained international prominence with the hugely successful and now famous Picasso retrospective of 1939–40, held in conjunction with the Art Institute of Chicago.
In its range of presented works, it represented a significant reinterpretation of Picasso for future art scholars, Boy Leading a Horse was briefly contested over ownership with the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum. In 1941, MoMA hosted the exhibition, Indian Art of the United States. His brother, David Rockefeller, joined the board of trustees in 1948. David subsequently employed the noted architect Philip Johnson to redesign the garden and name it in honor of his mother
Life was an American magazine that ran weekly from 1883 to 1936 as a humor magazine with limited circulation. Time owner Henry Luce bought the magazine in 1936, solely so that he could acquire the rights to its name, Life was published weekly until 1972, as an intermittent special until 1978, and as a monthly from 1978 to 2000. After 2000 Time Inc. continued to use the Life brand for special, Life returned to regularly scheduled issues when it became a weekly newspaper supplement from 2004 to 2007. The website life. com, originally one of the channels on Time Inc. s Pathfinder service, was for a time in the late 2000s managed as a joint venture with Getty Images under the name See Your World, LLC. On January 30,2012 the LIFE. com URL became a channel on Time. com. When Life was founded in 1883, it was developed as similar to the British magazine and it was published for 53 years as a general-interest light entertainment magazine, heavy on illustrations and social commentary. The Luce Life was the first all-photographic American news magazine, the magazines role in the history of photojournalism is considered its most important contribution to publishing.
Life was wildly successful for two generations before its prestige was diminished by economics and changing tastes, Life was founded January 4,1883, in a New York City artists studio at 1155 Broadway, as a partnership between John Ames Mitchell and Andrew Miller. Mitchell held a 75 per cent interest in the magazine with the remainder by Miller, both men retained their holdings until their deaths. Miller served as secretary-treasurer of the magazine and was very successful managing the side of the operation. Mitchell, a 37-year-old illustrator who used a $10,000 inheritance to invest in the weekly magazine, Mitchell created the first Life name-plate with cupids as mascots, he drew its masthead of a knight leveling his lance at the posterior of a fleeing devil. Mitchell took advantage of a new printing process using zinc-coated plates. This edge helped because Life faced stiff competition from the humor magazines Judge and Puck. Edward Sandford Martin was brought on as Lifes first literary editor, the motto of the first issue of Life was, While theres Life, theres hope.
The new magazine set forth its principles and policies to its readers and we shall try to domesticate as much as possible of the casual cheerfulness that is drifting about in an unfriendly world. The magazine was a success and soon attracted the leading contributors. Among the most important was Charles Dana Gibson, three years after the magazine was founded, the Massachusetts native first sold Life a drawing for $4, a dog outside his kennel howling at the moon. Encouraged by a publisher who was an artist, Gibson was joined in Life early days by such illustrators as Palmer Cox
Clarence Hudson White
Clarence Hudson White was an American photographer, teacher and a founding member of the Photo-Secession movement. He grew up in towns in Ohio, where his primary influences were his family. After visiting the Worlds Columbian Exposition in Chicago in 1893, he took up photography, as he became well known for his images, White was sought out by other photographers who often traveled to Ohio to learn from him. He became friends with Alfred Stieglitz and helped advance the cause of photography as an art form. In 1906 White and his moved to New York City in order to be closer to Stieglitz and his circle. Due to the demands of his duties, his own photography declined. In 1925 he suffered an attack and died while teaching students in Mexico City. White was born in 1871 in West Carlisle, the son and youngest child of Lewis Perry White. He was raised in what was known as The American House and his childhood was described as idyllic, unlike many children of the time, he grew up in good health and with no deaths or tragedies in his family.
He and his brother Pressley, who was two years older, spent much of their playing in the fields and hills near their small hometown. When White was sixteen the family moved to the town of Newark, Ohio. With his father gone much of the time White was left to pursue his own interests, from his late teens into his mid-twenties White kept a diary in which recorded both the events of his days and his interests and opinions. He wrote increasingly of his interest in music and pictorial arts, after high school White became a bookkeeper at the firm where his father worked. He was a diligent worker, but his job gave him opportunity to pursue his artistic interests. He wrote that he reported to work at 7 am six days a week and left at 6 in the evening, some of the artistic vision White developed during this time he applied to his photography. He learned how to use light, or the lack of it and he learned how to visualize his subjects in his mind. This same imagery appeared repeatedly in Whites photography and it was through his musical interests that White met his future wife, Jane Felix, sometime in 1891-92.
She was a schoolteacher, and his diaries contain notes about his taking her on dates to concerts in at nearby Denison University and in Columbus, Ohio
Florence Owens Thompson
Florence Owens Thompson, born Florence Leona Christie, was the subject of Dorothea Langes famous photo Migrant Mother, an iconic image of the Great Depression. The Library of Congress titled the image, Destitute pea pickers in California, Florence Owens Thompson was born Florence Leona Christie on September 1,1903, in Indian Territory, present-day Oklahoma. Her father, Jackson Christie, had abandoned her mother, Mary Jane Cobb, before Florence was born, the family lived on a small farm in Indian Territory outside of Tahlequah, Oklahoma. Seventeen-year-old Florence married Cleo Owens, a 23-year-old farmers son from Stone County and they soon had their first daughter, followed by a second daughter, and a son, Leroy. The family migrated west with other Owens relatives to Oroville, California, by 1931, Florence was pregnant with her sixth child when her husband Cleo died of tuberculosis. Florence worked in the fields and in restaurants to support her six children, in 1933 Florence had another child, returned to Oklahoma for a time, and was joined by her parents as they migrated to Shafter, north of Bakersfield.
There Florence met Jim Hill, with whom she had three more children, during the 1930s the family worked as migrant farm workers following the crops in California and at times into Arizona. Florence recalled periods when she picked 400–500 pounds of cotton from first daylight until after it was too dark to work and she said, I worked in hospitals. I done a bit of everything to make a living for my kids. The family settled in Modesto, California, in 1945, well after World War II, Florence met and married hospital administrator George Thompson. This marriage brought her far greater security than she had ever enjoyed. On the road, the timing chain snapped and they coasted to a stop just inside a pea-pickers camp on Nipomo Mesa. They were shocked to find so many people camping there – as many as 2,500 to 3,500, a notice had been sent out for pickers, but the crops had been destroyed by freezing rain, leaving them without work or pay. Years Florence told an interviewer that when she cooked food for her children that day little children appeared from the pea pickers camp asking, Can I have a bite.
While Jim Hill, her husband, and two of Florences sons went into town to get the damaged radiator repaired, Florence. As Florence waited, photographer Dorothea Lange, working for the Resettlement Administration, drove up and started taking photos of Florence and she took 6 images in the course of 10 minutes. Langes field notes of the read, Seven hungry children. Destitute in pea pickers’ camp … because of failure of the pea crop