KCET, virtual and UHF digital channel 28, is a non-commercial educational, independent television station licensed to Los Angeles, United States. Owned by the Public Media Group of Southern California, it is the sister station to Huntington Beach, California-licensed Public Broadcasting Service member station KOCE-TV. KCET's studios are located at The Pointe in Burbank, its transmitter is located atop Mount Wilson in the San Gabriel Mountains. KCET was the second attempt at establishing an educational station in the Los Angeles area: KTHE, operated by the University of Southern California, had broadcast on channel 28, beginning on September 22, 1953, it was the second educational television station in the United States, signing on six months and four days after KUHT in Houston, but ceased broadcasting after only nine months on the air because its primary benefactor, the Hancock Foundation, determined that the station was too much of a financial drain on its resources. KCET—the call letters of which stand for either California Educational Television, Committee for Educational Television, Community Educational Television, or Cultural and Educational Television—first signed on the air on September 28, 1964, as an affiliate of National Educational Television.
The station was licensed to the non-profit group Community Television of Southern California. Part of the station's initial funding came from four of Los Angeles's commercial stations–KNXT, KNBC, KTTV and KCOP –along with grants from the Ford Foundation and the U. S. Department of Health and Welfare. KCET broadcast in black and white from Monday through Friday. James Loper, a co-founder of CTSC, served as the station's director of education from 1964 to 1966 and vice president and general manager from 1966 to 1971. Loper served as president of KCET from 1971 to 1983. Creative Person—John Burton a 30-minute film biography of Glass artist and Philosopher John Burton was the first color film commissioned by KCET-TV in 1965, it won the first two Los Angeles area Emmys for KCET for John Burton, for the production by George Van Valkenburg. Van Valkenburg produced a one-hour documentary film titled Paris Air Show 1967 for KCET. Prior to applying for and receiving a construction permit to build the new channel 28, CTSC attempted to acquire one of Los Angeles's seven existing VHF commercial stations.
In 1968, Community Television of Southern California emerged as a potential buyer of KTLA's channel 5 license from then-owner Gene Autry, but could not raise the cash needed to make a serious offer. If CTSC succeeded in moving KCET to channel 5, the move would have mirrored a similar occurrence seven years earlier in the New York City area, where local broadcasters assisted a non-profit group in purchasing commercial independent VHF station WNTA-TV and converting it into non-commercial, educational WNDT. On October 5, 1970, KCET became a charter member of the Public Broadcasting Service at the programming service's inception. For most of the next 40 years, it was the second most-watched PBS station in the country and produced programs distributed to PBS and to individual public television stations; the station served as Southern California's flagship PBS member station, with San Bernardino-licensed KVCR —which the San Bernardino Community College District signed on the air on September 11, 1962—as the service's original sole secondary outlet.
KCET gained additional competitors when the Coast Community College District signed on Huntington Beach-licensed KOCE-TV on November 20, 1972, the Los Angeles Unified School District signed on secondary Los Angeles member KLCS on November 5, 1973. In 1971, KCET purchased the former Monogram Pictures property at 1725 Fleming Street in a historic area of East Hollywood—which was used as a film and television studio from 1912 to 1970—to serve as the station's headquarters, an acquisition assisted in part by financial contributions from both the Ford Foundation and the Michael Connell Foundation; the building was renamed the Weingart Educational Telecommunications Center and housed KCET's master control, digital control rooms and editing stations on the first floor, engineering, new media operations, news and public affairs departments on the second floor. In 1994, KCET and Store of Knowledge Inc. a Carson-based company, launched the KCET Store of Knowledge in Glendale as the first of many partnership stores with PBS affiliates.
In 2004, as part of its image-reclaiming public relations after the Gulf oil spill, BP started granting KCET half the funding for preschool shows including A Place of Our Own and Los Ninos en Su Casa, a Spanish language version. The other half of the $50 million grants for the show and supporting outreach programs came from First 5 California plus additional funding from an anonymous donor; the show won Peabody and local Emmy awards and was shown nationally over PBS. KCET renamed its production studio to BP Studios in thanks. PBS included BP's and other grants for the two pre-school shows in its complex progressive dues structures though the grants came with the stipulation that they could not be used for administrative costs; the PBS dues for KCET had been $4.9 million but with the grants included the dues increased by 40% to close to $7 million. Other large funding sources, counted on were shrinking and thus could not be tapped to pay the dues. KCET's request that these specific grants, which were restricted to show production on
62nd Academy Awards
The 62nd Academy Awards ceremony, presented by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences, honored the best films of 1989 and took place on March 26, 1990, at the Dorothy Chandler Pavilion in Los Angeles beginning at 6:00 p.m. PST / 9:00 p.m. EST. During the ceremony, AMPAS presented Academy Awards in 23 categories; the ceremony, televised in the United States by ABC, was produced by Gil Cates and directed by Jeff Margolis. Actor Billy Crystal hosted the show for the first time. Three weeks earlier in a ceremony held at The Beverly Hilton in Beverly Hills, California on March 3, the Academy Awards for Technical Achievement were presented by hosts Richard Dysart and Diane Ladd. Driving Miss Daisy won four awards including Best Picture and Best Actress for Jessica Tandy, the oldest person at the time to win a competitive acting Oscar. Other winners included Glory with three awards, Born on the Fourth of July, The Little Mermaid, My Left Foot with two, The Abyss, Batman, Cinema Paradiso, Common Threads: Stories from the Quilt, Dead Poets Society, Henry V, Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade, The Johnstown Flood, Work Experience with one.
The telecast garnered more than 40 million viewers in the United States. The nominees for the 62nd Academy Awards were announced on February 14, 1990 at the Samuel Goldwyn Theater in Beverly Hills, California, by Karl Malden, president of the Academy, the actress Geena Davis. Driving Miss Daisy received the most nominations with nine total. Winners were announced during the awards ceremony on March 26, 1990. Driving Miss Daisy became the third film to win Best Picture without a Best Director nomination. At age 80, Jessica Tandy became the oldest winner of competitive acting Oscar at the time. Kenneth Branagh was the fifth person nominated for Best Lead Actor and Best Director for the same film. Winners are highlighted in boldface and indicated with a double-dagger. Akira Kurosawa Howard W. Koch The following individuals presented awards or performed musical numbers. After the negative reception received from the preceding year's ceremony, AMPAS created an Awards Presentation Review Committee to evaluate and determine why the telecast earned such a negative reaction from the media and the entertainment industry.
The committee determined that Carr's biggest mistake was allowing the questionable opening number to run for 12 minutes. Producer and former Directors Guild of America president Gilbert Cates, who headed the committee, said that Carr would have not received such harsh criticism if the number had been much shorter. Newly elected AMPAS president Karl Malden commented on the last year's telecast, "Some of the people in the Academy felt the show got a little out of control."In September 1989, Cates was chosen as producer of the 1990 telecast. Malden explained the decision to hire him saying, "Cates, a veteran film and TV director known for his tasteful work in both media will attempt to rectify the damage the last Oscar show did to the Academy's reputation." The following January and comedian Billy Crystal was chosen as host of the ceremony. "We are pleased to have Billy host the show," Cates said in a press release justifying his choice. "His unique talents and his ability to handle the unexpected will be important assets this year."Cates christened the show with the theme "Around the World in 3 1/2 Hours" commenting that it would "a party thrown around the world".
He explained, "The world is changing, the awards show is changing, matching the changes in the world." In tandem with the program's theme, several presenters announced the winners from various international locales such as Buenos Aires, London and Sydney, Australia. Several other people participated in the production of the ceremony. Documentary filmmaker Chuck Workman assembled a montage saluting "100 Years at the Movies", shown at the beginning of the telecast. Film composer and musician Bill Conti served as musical director for the ceremony. Dancer and singer Paula Abdul supervised the Best Song nominee performances and a dance number featuring the Best Costume Design nominees. Singer Diana Ross performed the Oscar-winning song Over the Rainbow in a tribute to the 50th anniversary of The Wizard of Oz. At the time of the nominations announcement on February 14, the combined gross of the five Best Picture nominees at the US box office was $244 million with an average of $48.9 million. Dead Poets Society was the highest earner among the Best Picture nominees with $95.8 million in the domestic box office receipts.
The film was followed by Field of Dreams, Born on the Fourth of July, Driving Miss Daisy and My Left Foot. Of the 50 grossing movies of the year, 43 nominations went to 14 films on the list. Only Parenthood, Dead Poets Society, When Harry Met Sally... Field of Dreams, Born on the Fourth of July, Driving Miss Daisy and Sex and Videotape were nominated for Best Picture, directing, or screenwriting; the other top 50 box office hits that earned nomination were Batman, Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade, Lethal Weapon 2, Back to the Future II, The Little Mermaid, The Abyss, Black Rain. The show received a mixed reception from media publications; some media outlets were more critical of the show. Film critic Janet Maslin of The New York Times gave an average review of Crystal but lamented, "The effort to make this year's Academy Awards show an international media miracle led to nothing but headaches." The Washington Post television critic Tom Shales bemoaned, "while Crystal's opening monologue seemed to hit the right no
Dodger Stadium called by the metonym Chavez Ravine, is a baseball park located in the Elysian Park neighborhood of Los Angeles, the home field to the Los Angeles Dodgers, the city's National League franchise of Major League Baseball. Opened 57 years ago on April 10, 1962, it was constructed in less than three years at a cost of US$23 million, financed by private sources. Dodger Stadium is the oldest ballpark in MLB west of the Mississippi River, third-oldest overall, after Fenway Park in Boston and Wrigley Field in Chicago and is the world's largest baseball stadium by seat capacity. Referred to as a "pitcher's ballpark", the stadium has seen twelve no-hitters, two of which were perfect games; the stadium hosted the Major League Baseball All-Star Game in 1980 - and will host in 2020 - as well as games of 10 World Series. It hosted the semifinals and finals of the 2009 and 2017 World Baseball Classics, it hosted exhibition baseball during the 1984 Summer Olympics. It will host baseball and softball during the 2028 Summer Olympics.
The stadium hosted a soccer tournament on August 3, 2013 featuring four clubs, the hometown team Los Angeles Galaxy, Europe's Real Madrid and Juventus. For the first time at Dodger Stadium, the Los Angeles Kings and Anaheim Ducks played a regular season game on January 25, 2014 as part of the NHL Stadium Series. In the mid-1950s, Brooklyn Dodgers team president Walter O'Malley had tried to build a domed stadium in the New York City borough of Brooklyn, but was unable to reach an agreement with city officials for the land acquisition, reached a deal with the city of Los Angeles; the land for Dodger Stadium was seized from local owners and inhabitants in the early 1950s by the city of Los Angeles using eminent domain with funds from the Federal Housing Act of 1949. The city had planned to develop the Elysian Park Heights public housing project, which included two dozen 13-story buildings and more than 160 two-story townhouses, in addition to newly rebuilt playgrounds and schools, a college. Before construction could begin on the housing project, the local political climate changed when Norris Poulson was elected mayor of Los Angeles in 1953.
Proposed public housing projects such as Elysian Park Heights lost most of their support as they became associated with socialist ideals. Following protracted negotiations, the city purchased the Chavez Ravine property back from the Federal Housing Authority at a drastically reduced price, with the stipulation that the land be used for a public purpose, it was not until June 3, 1958, when Los Angeles voters approved a "Taxpayers Committee for Yes on Baseball" referendum, that the Dodgers were able to acquire 352 acres of Chavez Ravine from the city. While Dodger Stadium was under construction, the Dodgers played in the league's largest capacity venue from 1958 through 1961 at their temporary home, the Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum, which could seat in excess of 90,000 people. Los Angeles-based Mike Davis, in his seminal work on the city, City of Quartz, describes the process of convincing Chavez Ravine homeowners to sell. With nearly all of the original Spanish-speaking homeowners unwilling to sell, developers resorted to offering immediate cash payments, distributed through their Spanish-speaking agents.
Once the first sales had been completed, remaining homeowners were offered lesser amounts of money, to create a community panic of not receiving fair compensation, or of being left as one of the few holdouts. Many residents continued to hold out despite the pressure being placed upon them by developers, resulting in the Battle of Chavez Ravine, a ten-year struggle by the residents to maintain control of their property, which they lost. Dodger Stadium was the first Major League Baseball stadium since the initial construction of the original Yankee Stadium to be built using 100% private financing, the last until Oracle Park in San Francisco opened in 2000. Ground was broken for Dodger Stadium on September 17, 1959; the top of local ridges were removed and the soil was used to fill in Sulfur and Cemetery Ravines to provide a level surface for a parking lot and the stadium. A local elementary school was buried and sits beneath the parking lot northwest of third base. A total of 8 million cubic yards of earth were moved in the process of building the stadium.
21,000 precast concrete units, some weighing as much as 32 tons, were fabricated onsite and lowered into place with a specially built crane to form the stadium's structural framework. The stadium was designed to be expandable to 85,000 seats by expanding the upper decks over the outfield pavilions. Dodger Stadium was the home of the Los Angeles Angels from 1962 through 1965. To avoid referring to their landlords, the Angels called the park Chavez Ravine Stadium, after the geographic feature in which the stadium sits. At the conclusion of the 2005 season, the Los Angeles Dodgers made major renovations during the subsequent off-season; the largest of these improvements was the replacement of nearly all the seats in the stadium. The seats that were removed had been in use since 1975 and helped give the stadium its unique "space age" feel with a color palette of bright yellow, orange and red; the new seats are in the original 1962 color scheme consisting of yellow, light orange and sky blue. 2,000 pairs of seats were made available for purchase with the proceeds going to charity.
The baseline seating sections have been converted into retro-style "box" seating, adding leg ro
Welton David Becket was an American modern architect who designed many buildings in Los Angeles, California. Becket was born in Seattle and graduated from the University of Washington program in Architecture in 1927 with a Bachelor of Architecture degree, he moved to Los Angeles in 1933 and formed a partnership with his University of Washington classmate Walter Wurdeman and Angelean architect Charles F. Plummer, their first major commission was the Pan-Pacific Auditorium in 1935, which won them residential jobs from James Cagney, Robert Montgomery, other film celebrities. Plummer died in 1939; the successor firm Wurdeman and Becket went on to design Bullock's Pasadena and a couple of corporate headquarters. Wurdeman and Becket developed the concept of "total design," whereby their firm would be responsible for master planning, interiors, fixtures, landscaping and menus, silverware and napkins. After Wurdeman's death in 1949, Becket formed Welton Becket and Associates and continued to grow the firm to the extent that it was one of the largest architectural offices in the world by the time of his death in 1969.
In 1987, his firm was acquired by Ellerbe Associates, the merged firm continued as Ellerbe Becket until the end of 2009, when it was acquired by AECOM. It is now known as an AECOM Company. Becket's buildings used unusual facade materials such as ceramic tile and stainless steel grillwork, repetitive geometric patterns, a heavy emphasis on walls clad in natural stone travertine and flagstone. With The Walt Disney Company and the United States Steel Corporation, Becket's firm co-designed Disney's Contemporary Resort, which opened in 1971 at Walt Disney World Resort; the Contemporary was designed as a 14-story steel A-frame with a monorail running through the building. Modular guest rooms were assembled, furnished equipped and their doors locked, on the ground lifted by crane and inserted into the frame. Welton Becket was elected a Fellow of the American Institute of Architects in 1952. Becket's sons, Welton MacDonald Becket & Bruce Becket, are practicing architects, as well as his nephew MacDonald G. Becket and granddaughter Alexandra Becket.
Becket's extensive list of credits includes: Pan-Pacific Auditorium, Los Angeles, 1935 Jones Dog & Cat Hospital, West Hollywood, California, 1938 Manila Jai Alai Building, Philippines, 1939 General Petroleum Building, Los Angeles, 1949 Beverly Hilton Hotel, Beverly Hills, 1953 Ronald Reagan UCLA Medical Center, Los Angeles, 1953 Parker Center, Los Angeles, 1955 Capitol Records Building, Los Angeles, Project Designer Lou Naidorf, 1956 Texaco Building on Wilshire Boulevard, Los Angeles, 1957 Santa Monica Civic Auditorium, Santa Monica, 1958 Hotel Tryp Habana Libre, Cuba, 1958 The Nile Ritz-Carlton, Cairo, Egypt, 1959 Sheraton Dallas Hotel, Dallas, 1959 100 California Street, San Francisco, 1960 Kaiser Center, Oakland, 1960 Grosmont Center, La Mesa CA, 1961 Christown Mall, Phoenix Arizona, 1961 Petersen Automotive Museum, Los Angeles, 1962 Walt Whitman Shops, Huntington Station, NY, 1962 Southern Cross Hotel, Australia, 1962 U. S. Embassy, Poland, 1963 Cinerama Dome, Los Angeles, 1963 Century City, Los Angeles, 1963 Gateway West Building, Century City, Los Angeles, 1963 Hartford National Bank, Hartford, CT 1963 McCarran International Airport, Las Vegas, NV 1963 Phillips Petroleum Building, Bartlesville, OK 1964 Federal Building, Los Angeles, 1964 Los Angeles Music Center, Los Angeles, 1964 General Electric Pavilion, New York City, 1964 Pauley Pavilion at UCLA, Los Angeles, 1965 Santa Monica Shores Apartments, Santa Monica CA, 1967 Gulf Life Tower, Florida, 1967 Xerox Tower, New York, 1967 City Hall, Project Designer Marvin Taff, 1969 Equitable Life Building, Los Angeles, 1969 800 Wilshire, Los Angeles, 1970 PNC Plaza, Louisville, 1971 Beverly Wilshire Hotel expansion, Beverly Hills CA 1971 Disney's Contemporary Resort, Lake Buena Vista, 1971 Worcester Center, Worcester, MA, 1971 Chase Tower, Phoenix, 1972 Nassau Veterans Memorial Coliseum, New York, 1972 Regions Center, Birmingham, 1972 Glendale Central Library, Project Designer, Marvin Taff, 1973 100 Summer Street, Boston, 1974 Reunion Tower, Dallas, 1978 One Market Plaza, San Francisco, 1972 Orange Civic Center, Orange, 1963 Park Plaza Mall, Oshkosh, WI, 1970, now City Center a commercial business center for Oshkosh.
Interiors of the new Los Angeles International Airport, 1962 Oral history — Perkins quote Bigfloridacountry.com: Video clip of construction of the Contemporary Resort Bigfloridacountry.com: Contemporary Pictures MacDonald Becket papers, Welton Becket and Associates Welton Becket architectural drawings and photographs Welton Becket at Find a Grave
José Plácido Domingo Embil is a Spanish opera singer and arts administrator. He has recorded over a hundred complete operas and is well known for his versatility performing in Italian, German, Spanish and Russian in the most prestigious opera houses in the world. Although a lirico-spinto tenor for most of his career popular for his Cavaradossi, Don José, Canio, he moved into more dramatic roles, becoming the most acclaimed Otello of his generation. In the early 2010s, he transitioned from the tenor repertory into exclusively baritone parts, most notably Simon Boccanegra, he has performed 149 different roles. Domingo has achieved significant success as a crossover artist in the genres of Latin and popular music. In addition to winning fourteen Grammy and Latin Grammy Awards, several of his records have gone silver, gold and multi-platinum, his first pop album, Perhaps Love, spread his fame beyond the opera world. The title song, performed as a duet with country and folk singer John Denver, has sold four million copies and helped lead to numerous television appearances for the tenor.
He starred in many cinematically released and televised opera movies under the direction of Franco Zeffirelli. In 1990, he began singing with fellow tenors Luciano Pavarotti and José Carreras as part of The Three Tenors; the first Three Tenors recording became the best-selling classical album of all time. Growing up working in his parents' zarzuela company in Mexico, Domingo has since promoted this form of Spanish opera, he increasingly conducts operas and concerts and is the general director of the Los Angeles Opera in California as of 2017. He was the artistic director and general director of the Washington National Opera from 1996–2011, he has been involved in numerous humanitarian works, as well as efforts to help young opera singers, including starting and running the international singing competition, Operalia. Plácido Domingo was born on 21 January 1941 in the Retiro district of Spain, his mother recalled that she and her husband knew he would be a musician from the age of five, due to his ability to hum complex music from a zarzuela after seeing a performance of it.
In 1949, just days before his eighth birthday, he moved to Mexico with his family. His parents, both singers, had decided to start a zarzuela company there after a successful tour of Latin America. Soon after arriving in Mexico, Domingo won a singing contest for boys, his parents recruited him and his sister for children's roles in their zarzuela productions. Domingo studied piano from a young age, at first and at the National Conservatory of Music in Mexico City, which he entered when he was fourteen. At the conservatory, he attended conducting classes taught by Igor Markevitch and studied voice under Carlo Morelli, the brother of Renato Zanelli; the two brothers were famous practitioners of both tenor roles. Domingo's conservatory classes constituted the entirety of his formal vocal instruction. In 1957, at age sixteen, Domingo made his first professional appearance, accompanying his mother on the piano at a concert at Mérida, Yucatán; the same year he made his major zarzuela debut in Manuel Fernández Caballero's Gigantes y cabezudos, singing a baritone role.
At that time, he was working with his parents' zarzuela company taking several baritone roles and acting as an accompanist for other singers. The following year, the tenor in another company's touring production of Luisa Fernanda fell ill. In his first performance as a tenor, Domingo replaced the ailing singer, although he feared the part's tessitura was too high for him; that same year, he sang the tenor role of Rafael in the Spanish opera El gato montés, illustrating his willingness to assay the tenor range as he still considered himself a baritone. On 12 May 1959 at the Teatro Degollado in Guadalajara, he appeared in the baritone role of Pascual in Emilio Arrieta's Marina. Like El gato montés, Marina is an opera composed in the zarzuela musical style rather than a zarzuela proper, although both are performed by zarzuela companies. In addition to his work with zarzuelas, among his earliest performances was a minor role in the first Latin American production of the musical My Fair Lady, in which he was the assistant conductor and assistant coach.
While he was a member, the company gave 185 performances of the musical in various cities in Mexico. In 1959, Domingo auditioned for the Mexico National Opera at the Palacio de Béllas Artes as a baritone, but was asked to sight-read the tenor aria "Amor ti vieta" from Fedora, he was accepted at the National Opera as a tutor for other singers. In what he considered his operatic debut, Domingo sang the minor role of Borsa in Verdi's Rigoletto on September 23 at the Palacio de Bellas Artes in a production with veteran American baritones Cornell MacNeil and Norman Treigle, he appeared as the Padre Confessor in Dialogues of the Carmelites and Pang in Turandot and Arturo in Lucia di Lammermoor among other small parts. While at the National Opera, he appeared in a production of Lehár's operetta, The Merry Widow, in which he alternated as Camille and Danilo. Domingo made his debut in Verdi's Otello at Béllas Artes at age 21 in the summer of 1962 not in the title rôle for which he has now been internationally famous for decades as one of its greatest interpreters, but in the small compri
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U. S. the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento; the Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, the country's second most populous, after New York City. California has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, its largest county by area, San Bernardino County; the City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. California's $3.0 trillion economy is larger than that of any other state, larger than those of Texas and Florida combined, the largest sub-national economy in the world. If it were a country, California would be the 5th largest economy in the world, the 36th most populous as of 2017.
The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and third-largest urban economies, after the New York metropolitan area. The San Francisco Bay Area PSA had the nation's highest GDP per capita in 2017 among large PSAs, is home to three of the world's ten largest companies by market capitalization and four of the world's ten richest people. California is considered a global trendsetter in popular culture, innovation and politics, it is considered the origin of the American film industry, the hippie counterculture, fast food, the Internet, the personal computer, among others. The San Francisco Bay Area and the Greater Los Angeles Area are seen as global centers of the technology and entertainment industries, respectively. California has a diverse economy: 58% of the state's economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5% of the state's economy, California's agriculture industry has the highest output of any U.
S. state. California is bordered by Oregon to the north and Arizona to the east, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; the state's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the east, from the redwood–Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast. The Central Valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. Although California is well-known for its warm Mediterranean climate, the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains. Over time and wildfires have become more pervasive features. What is now California was first settled by various Native Californian tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries; the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its successful war for independence but was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War.
The western portion of Alta California was organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. The California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom; the word California referred to the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico. The name derived from the mythical island California in the fictional story of Queen Calafia, as recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo; this work was the fifth in a popular Spanish chivalric romance series that began with Amadis de Gaula. Queen Calafia's kingdom was said to be a remote land rich in gold and pearls, inhabited by beautiful black women who wore gold armor and lived like Amazons, as well as griffins and other strange beasts. In the fictional paradise, the ruler Queen Calafia fought alongside Muslims and her name may have been chosen to echo the title of a Muslim leader, the Caliph. It's possible.
Know ye that at the right hand of the Indies there is an island called California close to that part of the Terrestrial Paradise, inhabited by black women without a single man among them, they lived in the manner of Amazons. They were robust of body with great virtue; the island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the craggy rocks. Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America. Various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000; the Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their political organization with bands, villages, on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms, such as the Chumash and Salinan.
Trade, intermarriage a
New York City Opera
The New York City Opera is an American opera company located in Manhattan in New York City. The company has been active from 1943 through 2013, again since 2016 when it was revived; the opera company, dubbed "the people's opera" by New York Mayor Fiorello La Guardia, was founded in 1943. The company's stated purpose was to make opera accessible to a wide audience at a reasonable ticket price, it sought to produce an innovative choice of repertory, provide a home for American singers and composers. The company was housed at the New York City Center theater on West 55th Street in Manhattan, it became part of the Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts at the New York State Theater from 1966 to 2010. During this time it produced autumn and spring seasons of opera in repertory, maintained extensive education and outreach programs, offering arts-in-education programs to 4,000 students in over 30 schools. In 2011, the company left Lincoln Center due to financial difficulties and moved its offices to 75 Broad Street in Lower Manhattan.
In the 2011−12 and 2012−13 seasons, NYCO performed four operas at various venues in New York City, including the Brooklyn Academy of Music. On October 1, 2013, following an unsuccessful emergency fund-raising campaign, the company filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy. In January 2016, a nonprofit group, NYCO Renaissance, revived the opera company under new management when its reorganization plans for the company to leave bankruptcy and re-launch performances were approved in bankruptcy court; the group, led at the time by Roy Niederhoffer, a hedge fund manager and former board member of the NYCO, announced plans to present a season of opera in 2016−17. The first opera was Puccini's Tosca, presented at the Rose Theater at Jazz at Lincoln Center in January 2016. During its 70-year-plus history, the NYCO has helped launch the careers of many great opera singers including Beverly Sills, Sherrill Milnes, Plácido Domingo, Maralin Niska, Carol Vaness, José Carreras, Shirley Verrett, Tatiana Troyanos, Jerry Hadley, Catherine Malfitano, Samuel Ramey, Gianna Rolandi.
Sills served as the company's director from 1979 until 1989. More recent acclaimed American singers who have called NYCO home include David Daniels, Mark Delavan, Mary Dunleavy, Lauren Flanigan, Elizabeth Futral, Bejun Mehta, Robert Brubaker and Carl Tanner. NYCO has championed the work of American composers; the company's American repertoire has ranged from established works to new works. NYCO's commitment to the future of American opera was demonstrated in its annual series, Contemporary Opera Lab, in which operas-in-progress were showcased, giving composers a chance to hear their work performed by professional singers and orchestra; the company has occasionally produced musicals and operettas, including works by Stephen Sondheim and Gilbert and Sullivan. The NYCO was founded as the New York City Center Opera, made its home at the New York City Center on West 55th Street, in Manhattan. Laszlo Halasz was the company's first director, serving in that position from 1943 until 1951. Given the company's goal of making opera accessible to the masses, Halasz believed that tickets should be inexpensive and that productions should be staged convincingly with singers who were both physically and vocally suited to their roles.
To this end, ticket prices during the company's first season were priced at just 75 cents to $2, the company operated on a budget of $30,463 during its first season. At such prices the company was unable to afford the star billing enjoyed by the Metropolitan Opera. Halasz, was able to turn this fact into a virtue by making the company an important platform for young singers American opera singers; the company's first season opened in February 1944, included productions of Giacomo Puccini's Tosca, Friedrich von Flotow's Martha and Georges Bizet's Carmen, all of them conducted by Halasz. Several notable singers performed with the company in the first season, including Dusolina Giannini, Jennie Tourel and Martha Lipton, poached by the Met after their NYCO debuts. Other notable singers Halasz brought to the NYCO included Frances Bible, Adelaide Bishop, Débria Brown, Mack Harrell, Thomas Hayward, Dorothy Kirsten, Brenda Lewis, Eva Likova, Leon Lishner, Regina Resnik, Norman Scott, Ramón Vinay, Frances Yeend.
In 1945, the company became the first major opera company to have an African American performer. This was with Todd Duncan's performance as Tonio. Lawrence Winters and Robert McFerrin were other notable African American opera pioneers to sing with the company during this period; the first African American woman to sing with the company was soprano Camilla Williams, as the title heroine in Madama Butterfly in 1946. Winters and Williams went on to sing the title roles in the most complete recording made up to that time of Gershwin's Porgy and Bess, for Columbia Masterworks Records in 1951. Halasz had a tumultuous relationship with the company's board of directors, given his strong opinions about what the NYCO should be. For one, he supported the idea of performing foreign language works in English to make opera more accessible to American audiences, he insisted on offering at least one production in English every season. The issue that created, the most tension between Halasz and the board was Halasz's commitment to staging new works by American composers and rarely