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Dorsal column–medial lemniscus pathway

The dorsal column–medial lemniscus pathway is a sensory pathway of the central nervous system that conveys sensations of fine touch, two-point discrimination, proprioception from the skin and joints. It transmits information from the body to the primary somatosensory cortex in the postcentral gyrus of the parietal lobe of the brain; the pathway receives information from sensory receptors throughout the body, carries this in nerve tracts in the white matter of the dorsal columns of the spinal cord to the medulla, where it is continued in the medial lemniscus, on to the thalamus and relayed from there through the internal capsule and transmitted to the somatosensory cortex. The name dorsal-column medial lemniscus comes from the two structures that carry the sensory information: the dorsal columns of the spinal cord, the medial lemniscus in the brainstem. There are three groupings of neurons that are involved in the pathway: first-order neurons, second-order neurons, third-order neurons; the first-order neurons are sensory neurons located in the dorsal root ganglia, that send their afferent fibers through the two dorsal columns – the gracile fasciculus, or gracile tract, the cuneate fasciculus, or cuneate tract.

The first-order axons make contact with second-order neurons of the dorsal column nuclei in the lower medulla. The second-order neurons send their axons to the thalamus; the third-order neurons are in the ventral nuclear group in the thalamus and fibres from these ascend to the postcentral gyrus. Sensory information from the upper half of the body is received at the cervical level of the spinal cord and carried in the cuneate tract, information from the lower body is received at the lumbar level and carried in the gracile tract; the gracile tract is medial to the more lateral cuneate tract. The axons of second-order neurons of the gracile and cuneate nuclei are known as the internal arcuate fibers and when they cross over the midline, at the sensory decussation in the medulla, they form the medial lemniscus which connects with thalamus. All of the axons in the DCML pathway are conducting, myelinated fibers; the DCML pathway is made up of the axons of first and third-order sensory neurons, beginning in the dorsal root ganglia.

The axons from the first-order neurons form the ascending tracts of the gracile fasciculus, the cuneate fasciculus which synapse on the second-order neurons in the gracile nucleus and the cuneate nucleus known together as the dorsal column nuclei. The gracile fasciculus carries sensory information from the lower half of the body entering the spinal cord at the lumbar level; the cuneate fasciculus carries sensory information from the upper half of the body entering the spinal cord at the cervical level. The gracile fasciculus is wedge-shaped on transverse section and lies next to the posterior median septum, its base is at the surface of the spinal cord, its apex directed toward the posterior gray commissure. The gracile fasciculus increases in size from inferior to superior; the cuneate fasciculus is triangular on transverse section, lies between the gracile fasciculus and the posterior column, its base corresponding with the surface of the spinal cord. Its fibers, larger than those of the gracile fasciculus, are derived from the same source, viz. the posterior nerve roots.

Some ascend for only a short distance in the tract, entering the gray matter, come into close relationship with the cells of the dorsal nucleus, while others can be traced as far as the medulla oblongata, where they end in the gracile nucleus and cuneate nucleus. The two ascending tracts meet at the T6 level. Ascending tracts have three levels of neurons, namely first-order, second-order, third-order neurons, that relay information from the physical point of reception to the actual point of interpretation in the brain; when an action potential is generated by a mechanoreceptor in the tissue, the action potential will travel along the peripheral axon of the first- order neuron. The first-order neuron is pseudounipolar in shape with its body in the dorsal root ganglion; the action signal will continue along the central axon of the neuron through the posterior root, into the posterior horn, up the posterior column of the spinal cord. Axons from the lower body enter the posterior column below the level of T6 and travel in the midline section of the column called the gracile fasciculus.

Axons from the upper body enter at or above T6 and travel up the posterior column on the outside of the gracile fasiculus in a more lateral section called the cuneate fasiculus. These fasciculi are in an area known as the posterior funiculus that lies between the posterolateral and the posterior median sulcus, they are separated by a partition of glial cells which places them on either side of the posterior intermediate sulcus. The column reaches the junction between the spinal cord and the medulla oblongata, where lower body axons in the gracile fasciculus connect with neurons in the gracile nucleus, upper body axons in the cuneate fasciculus synapse with neurons in the cuneate nucleus. First-order neurons secrete substance P in the dorsal horn as a chemical mediator of pain signaling; the dorsal horn of the spinal cord

Gustaaf Eeckeman

Gustaaf "Staftje" Eeckeman was a Belgian football left winger. Eeckeman was born in Bruges, he joined Cercle Brugge as a youth player in 1928, much to the despair of his family, who all supported Cercle rivals Club Brugge. Eeckeman made his debut at the highest level of Belgian football in 1934, in a 3–0 win over White Star AC, one of the predecessors of the current FC Brussels. However, his debut was overshadowed by a heavy injury. Eeckeman was only 16 then. At Cercle, he was infamous for his smoking habits before and after the match. Staftje Eeckeman was called up for Belgium for the first time in 1940, only a few months before World War II, he received his first of two caps on 17 March, in a 7–1 win against the Netherlands. When Cercle relegated in 1946, Eeckeman signed with SK Roeselare. However, he left one season when AA Gent offered him a contract and a job as police officer, he ended his career with a lower league side, Sint-Joris Sportief. He died in his home city of Bruges. Cerclemuseum.be

The Long Haul (1957 film)

The Long Haul is a 1957 British drama film directed by Ken Hughes and starring Victor Mature, Patrick Allen and Diana Dors. An American ex-serviceman leaves Allied-occupied Germany after WWII and is persuaded by his English wife to settle in Liverpool' Looking for work, he becomes a lorry driver, he comes into contact with criminals involved in theft from commercial vehicles and draws close to the girlfriend of a major crime figure. The film was based on the novel by Mervyn Mills, published in 1956, it was Mills' first novel. According to his obituary, the novel "stemmed from his journeys through early post-war Britain on a moped, before the advent of the motorways, when he absorbed, on the Great North Road, something of the lives of the long-distance lorry drivers, their roadside cafes and the people women, who frequented them; the book was turned down by 12 publishers before being accepted by the 13th, then Mills had to fight for his artistic integrity with the director and general editor, Lovat Dickson, to retain the more colourful passages.

After so many rejections, this took courage." The Irish Times called it "an exciting and unusually vivid book."Film rights were bought by Todon Productions, the film company of Tony Owen and Donna Reed, run by Maxwell Seton. Ken Hughes, who had made films for them before, signed to direct. In July 1956 Diana Dors agreed to play the female lead. Like many Todon films, it was distributed through Columbia; the production would be credited to Marksman Films. Robert Mitchum was announced as the male star. In January 1957 Victor Mature signed. Mature had just made three films in England for Warwick Productions, who distributed through Columbia: Zarak and Interpol. Mature had driven trucks for his father's business. Setton was unable to. A lead role was played by newcomer Patrick Allen who Setton signed to a three-picture contract over three years. Filming took place at British Lion studios in Shepperton. Leonard Maltin dismissed the film as "Minor fare". Sure the story is familiar; the performers are cast here.

I'm recommending The Long Haul." List of American films of 1957 The Long Haul on IMDb The Long Haul at AllMovie The Long Haul at BFI

Mudasarlova Park

Mudasarlova Park is an urban park in the Indian city of Visakhapatnam. It is spread over 20 acres of land, it is one of the oldest parks in this Coastal Andhra. The water reservoir in the park supplies drinking water to the city.. It was named one of the best picnic spots for local citizens.. The land for the construction of Mudasarlova was donated by Sri Pusapati Ananda Gajapati Raju from his family trust. Mudasarlova Park has the oldest Water reservoir in Visakhapatnam, it supplies 1 million gallons water per day. This reservoir constructed by the British in 1901.. The Floating solar power plant was built in 20 acres of the reservoir, among the oldest man-made water bodies, on the outskirts of the city, at a cost of ₹11.34 crore. Visakhapatnam Metropolitan Region Development Authority is developing a theme park

Gustaf Bonde (1911–1977)

Count Gustaf Bonde af Björnö was a Swedish diplomat. Bonde was born at Trolleholm Castle, the son of count Gustaf Trolle–Bonde and countess Henriette Falkenberg, he became a second lieutenant in the Scanian Cavalry Regiment's reserve in 1932 and graduated with an administrative degree in 1935. Bonde graduated from the Stockholm School of Economics in 1937 and became an attaché at the Ministry for Foreign Affairs in 1937, he served in Paris, Washington, D. C. Cairo and Athens from 1937 to 1956. Bonde was chief of protocol at the Foreign Ministry from 1956 to 1962 and deputy introducer for foreign emissaries from 1960, he was ambassador in Santiago from 1962 to 1965, in Rio de Janeiro from 1966 to 1970, in Tehran and Kabul from 1970 to 1973 and in Budapest from 1973 to 1977. In 1935 he married countess Jacqueline Barck, daughter of count Nils Barck and Juliette Eberlin, he married a second time in 1961 with Elisabeth Ljunglöf, daughter of captain Oscar Dyrssen and Maria Hallin. Bonde was the father of Carl and Fredrik.

Bonde's awards

Biovista

Biovista Inc. is a private drug development services company based in Charlottesville, Virginia, US. Biovista's core business activities include drug repositioning and drug de-risking as well as disease cohort analysis, adverse event prediction and clinical hold analysis services. Biovista is applying its technology platform to develop its own drug repositioning programs in the areas of central nervous system, diabetes/obesity, eye disorders, oncology. Biovista is an active participant of European Union co-funded R&D projects spanning areas such as post-genomic clinical trials research, mutant mouse models for the investigation of Human Immunological Disease, semantic annotation and ontology driven text mining and systematic knowledge discovery; the company derisks and repositions drugs using multidimensional profiles of pharmacologically relevant entities such as genes, drugs and cell types, to identify and rank potential adverse events and new indications for drugs in development, on the market, or generics.

Biovista is creating software-based tools and services for Reagent companies, researchers in the Life sciences and the consumer and patient health areas. Biovista's technology platform is based on the analysis and integration of Biomedical information available in the scientific literature using Biomedical text mining techniques. Pharmacologically-relevant areas include drug toxicity, drug mode of action, disease mechanisms and biological system interactions. Biovista Inc.’s technology platform integrates literature-based discovery algorithms with Semantic search technologies to identify and rank potential solutions to a variety of drug development related problems such as predicting the adverse events of compounds, identifying suitable biomarkers for diseases and discovering new indications for existing drugs or drug combinations. Biovista’s correlation engine scans potential interactions between pharmacologically relevant entities resulting in a correlation database; the database itself is based on a proprietary design that combines the Relational database management system model with the Object-Oriented model allowing researchers to obtain preliminary answers in weeks rather than years.

In January 2010, Biovista announced that the U. S. Food and Drug Administration has licensed its technology platform to help analyze and better understand the way certain drugs can cause harmful side effects. Since the beginning of 2009, Biovista has started its own drug development programs based on repositioned compounds in CNS diseases, such as Multiple sclerosis and Epilepsy. Official website European Medicines Agency HUM-MOLGEN Registry of biomedical companies Pharmalicensing Registry of biomedical companies