Dortmund is, with a population of 586,600, the third-largest city of Germany's most populous federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia after Cologne and Düsseldorf, Germany's eighth-largest city. It is the largest city of the Ruhr, Germany's largest urban area with some 5.1 million inhabitants, as well as the largest city of Westphalia. On the Emscher and Ruhr rivers, it lies in the Rhine-Ruhr Metropolitan Region and is considered the administrative and cultural centre of the eastern Ruhr. Dortmund is the second largest city in the Low German dialect area after Hamburg, Dortmund was one of the host cities of the official tournaments of the 1974 and 2006 FIFA World Cup. Founded around 882, Dortmund became an Imperial Free City. Throughout the 13th to 14th centuries, it was the "chief city" of the Rhine, the Netherlands Circle of the Hanseatic League. During the Thirty Years' War, the city was destroyed and decreased in significance until the onset of industrialization; the city became one of Germany's most important coal and beer centres.

Dortmund was one of the most bombed cities in Germany during World War II. The devastating bombing raids of 12 March 1945 destroyed 98% of buildings in the inner city center; these bombing raids, with more than 1,110 aircraft, hold the record to a single target in World War II. The region has adapted since the collapse of its century-long steel and coal industries and shifted to high-technology biomedical technology, micro systems technology, services. In 2009, Dortmund was classified as a Node city in the Innovation Cities Index published by 2thinknow and is the most sustainable and digital city in Germany. Dortmund is home to many cultural and educational institutions, including the Technical University of Dortmund and Dortmund University of Applied Sciences and Arts, International School of Management and other educational and administrative facilities with over 49,000 students, many museums, such as Museum Ostwall, Museum of Art and Cultural History, German Football Museum, as well as theatres and music venues like the Konzerthaus or the Opera House of Dortmund.

The city is known as Westphalia's "green metropolis". Nearly half the municipal territory consists of waterways, woodland and green spaces with spacious parks such as Westfalenpark and Rombergpark; this stands in a stark contrast with nearly a hundred years of extensive coal mining and steel milling in the past. Dortmund is home to Ballspielverein Borussia 09 e. V. Dortmund known as Borussia Dortmund, a successful club in German football; the Sigiburg was a Saxon hillfort in the South of present-day Dortmund, overlooking the River Ruhr near its confluence with the River Lenne. The ruins of the Hohensyburg castle now stand on the site of the Sigiburg; the hillfort was raised ca. 700 by Westphalian Saxons. During the Saxon Wars, it was taken by the Franks under Charlemagne in 772, retaken by the Saxons in 774, taken again and refortified by Charlemagne in 775. Archaeological evidence suggests the Sigiburg site was occupied in the Neolithic era; the first time Dortmund was mentioned in official documents was around 882 as Throtmanni – In throtmanni liber homo arnold viii den nob soluit.

In 1005 the "Ecclesiastical council" and in 1016 the"Imperial diet" meets in Dortmund. After it was destroyed by a fire, the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I had the town rebuilt in 1152 and resided there for two years. In 1267 St. Mary's Church and three years in 1270 St. Reinold's Church first mentioned; the combination of crossroad, market place, administrative centre – town hall, made Dortmund an important centre in Westphalia. It became an Imperial Free City and one of the first cities in Europe with an official Brewing right in 1293. Throughout the 13th to 14th centuries, it was the "chief city" of the Rhine, the Netherlands Circle of the Hanseatic League. After 1320, the city appeared in writing as "Dorpmunde". In the years leading up to 1344, the English King borrowed money from well-heeled Dortmund merchant families Berswordt and Klepping, offering the regal crown as security. In 1388, Count von Mark joined forces with the Archbishop of Cologne and issued declarations of a feud against the town.

Following a major siege lasting 18 months, peace negotiations took place and Dortmund emerged victorious. In 1400 the seat of the first Vehmic court was in Dortmund, in a square between two linden trees, one of, known as the Femelinde. With the growing influence of Cologne during the 15th century, the seat was moved to Arnsberg in 1437. After Cologne was excluded after the Anglo-Hanseatic War, Dortmund was made capital of the Rhine-Westphalian and Netherlands Circle; this favors the founding of one of the oldest schools in Europe in 1543 - Stadtgymnasium Dortmund. The 1661 earthquake made the Reinoldikirche collapse. With the Reichsdeputationshauptschluss resolution in 1803, Dortmund was added to the Principality of Nassau-Orange-Fulda, with as a result that it was no longer a free imperial city. William V, Prince of Orange-Nassau did not want stolen areas and therefore let his son Prince Willem Frederik take possession of the city and the principality; this prince held its entry on 30 June 1806, as such the County of Dortmund became part of the principality.

On 12 July 1806, most of the Nassau principalities were deprived of their sovereign rights by means of the Rhine treaty. In October of the same year, the County of


Oceanborn is the second studio album by Finnish symphonic metal band Nightwish, released in December 1998 in Finland and in the spring of 1999 worldwide. Oceanborn has sold more than 68,000 copies in Finland; the single "Sleeping Sun" was released in August 1999, the song has been included in every re-issue of the album since then. The album was released in the US by Century Media in March 2001. Speaking to Kerrang! in 2008, band founder Tuomas Holopainen reminisced that the band got ambitious after the debut album "that was never meant to be released as a proper record. It happened by accident, so we decided to put everything into making Oceanborn great." He added: We were all such amateurs when it came to recording. We didn't know what we were doing, so we were just experimenting with a lot of different things, we brought in this string trio who were complete shit another violin another violin on top. So we ended up with'Moondance' having 20 tracks of violin, just because we hadn't done this before and didn't know what we were doing!

It's a pretty stuffed album, but I think it's one of our best because you can hear the excitement of trying all these new things. It seems strange that this became a breakthrough album, because back at the time the music was so funny, it was operatic, when you look at the pictures, they look pretty horrific. According to Kerrang!, "for all its Royal Albert Hall grandiosity, Oceanborn was recorded in a Finnish school." This album marked a definitive change in musical scope for Nightwish from their folk-laden roots in Angels Fall First, showcasing a more bombastic, power metal-oriented sound with faster tempos, harmonic guitar/keyboard leads, plenty of double-bass-heavy drumwork. During that time, Stratovarius was Holopainen's biggest inspiration, hence the power metal sound of the album. Oceanborn's sound hearkens a more dramatic approach in the overall musical scope relegated to the symphonic keyboard work and lead singer Tarja Turunen's vocals. According to Mape Ollila, who penned the band's biography: Along with Therion's Theli, the album came to be known as one of the cornerstones of the emerging genre of symphonic metal.

Most of the lyrics are fantasy-themed, with tracks like "Swanheart" and "Walking in the Air", a cover from the animated TV special The Snowman, as typical examples. In addition, there are some theatrical tracks like "Devil & the Deep Dark Ocean". Oceanborn is among their darkest albums, making use of the harsh vocals of Tapio Wilska in the songs "The Pharaoh Sails to Orion" and "Devil & the Deep Dark Ocean". Since the album's release, "Sacrament of Wilderness" has remained a fan-favorite at concerts, it was still performed until 2003. In 2007 it returned to the setlist but after 2008, it wasn't performed again until the Decades: World Tour in 2018. Both "Sleeping Sun" and "Walking in the Air" have been performed on shows. "Walking in the Air" returned to the live set list of the band on September 19, 2009 at Hartwall Areena, as an acoustic song sung by then-vocalist Anette Olzon. Having been dropped from their live shows since Turunen's dismissal in 2005, "Stargazers" returned to the live set list on the Endless Forms Most Beautiful World Tour, with Floor Jansen as their newest singer in 2015.

In recent years, former vocalist Tarja Turunen released covers from two Oceanborn songs: "Stargazers", on a live version that can be heard on the CD/DVD Luna Park Ride. All lyrics are written except where noted. Credits for Oceanborn adapted from liner notes. Nightwish's Official Website

Add Insult to Injury

Add Insult to Injury is the fourth album by British electronic musicians Add N to. It was released on October 2000 by Mute Records; the album is two mini-albums fused together, as half was written and performed by Ann Shenton and Steve Claydon, while the other half was written and performed by Barry 7, with occasional help from Dean Honer from The All Seeing I. Early prints of the album came with'scratch and sniff' panels, stickers. "Adding N to X" – 2:39 "Brothel Charge" – 3:02 "You Must Create" – 4:05 "Kingdom of Shades" – 3:47 "Monster Bobby" – 4:03 "Poke'er'ole" – 4:25 "Plug Me In" – 5:31 "Hit for Cheese" – 3:05 "MDMH" – 4:24 "B. P. Perino" – 6:51 "Incinerator No. 1" – 5:33 "The Regent Is Dead" – 15:56 "Violent Breath" Adding N to X Steve Claydon – Synthesizer, Cello, Vocals, Vocoder, Pedals Ann Shenton – Synthesizer, Cello, Theremin, Mellotron, Harmonica Brothel Charge/You Must Create/Kingdom of Shades/Poke/Hit for Cheese/MDMH Rob Allum – Synthesizer, Percussion, Pedals Steve Claydon – Synthesizer, Cello, Vocals, Vocoder, Pedals Ann Shenton – Synthesizer, Cello, Theremin, Mellotron, Harmonica Monster Bobby/Plug Me In/The Regent Is Dead Barry Seven – Synthesizer, Keyboards, Clavinet, Mellotron Dean Honer – Arranger B.

P. Perino Rob Allum – Synthesizer, Percussion, Pedals Steve Claydon – Synthesizer, Cello, Vocals, Vocoder, Pedals Dean Honer – Arranger Ann Shenton – Synthesizer, Cello, Theremin, Mellotron, Harmonica Incinerator No. 1 Barry Seven – Synthesizer, Keyboards, Clavinet, Mellotron Violent Breath Dean Honer – Arranger Rob Allum – Synthesizer, Percussion, Pedal Barry Seven – Synthesizer, Keyboards, Clavinet, Mellotron Ann Shenton – Synthesizer, Cello, Theremin, Mellotron, Harmonica Steve Claydon – Synthesizer, Cello, Vocals, Vocoder, Pedals Dave Williamson – Bass Joe Dilworth – Drums, Photography Rob Allum – Synthesizer, Percussion, Bass Pedals, Machines David Titlow – Photography Add N to – Artwork Ann Shenton – Synthesizer, Arranger, Keyboards, Vocals, Chorus, Moog Synthesizer, Mellotron, Korg Synthesizer, Accompaniment, Arp 2600, Harmonica Barry Seven – Synthesizer, Celeste, Organ, Clavinet, Moog Synthesizer, Engineer, Korg Synthesizer, Guitar Synth, Roland Synthesizer, Chords Steve Claydon – Synthesizer, Arranger, Keyboards, Vocals, Moog Synthesizer, Mellotron, Korg Synthesizer, Omnichord, Bass Pedals, Throat, Micro Moog Richard Hermitage – Management Ben Rymer – Vocals Dean Honer – Arranger Ross Orton – Drums