Provinces and territories of Canada
The provinces and territories of Canada are the sub-national governments within the geographical areas of Canada under the authority of the Canadian Constitution. In the 1867 Canadian Confederation, three provinces of British North America—New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the Province of Canada —were united to form a federated colony, becoming a sovereign nation in the next century. Over its history, Canada's international borders have changed several times, the country has grown from the original four provinces to the current ten provinces and three territories. Together, the provinces and territories make up the world's second-largest country by area. Several of the provinces were former British colonies, Quebec was a French colony, while others were added as Canada grew; the three territories govern the rest of the area of the former British North America. The major difference between a Canadian province and a territory is that provinces receive their power and authority from the Constitution Act, 1867, whereas territorial governments have powers delegated to them by the Parliament of Canada.
The powers flowing from the Constitution Act are divided between the Government of Canada and the provincial governments to exercise exclusively. A change to the division of powers between the federal government and the provinces requires a constitutional amendment, whereas a similar change affecting the territories can be performed unilaterally by the Parliament of Canada or government. In modern Canadian constitutional theory, the provinces are considered to be sovereign within certain areas based on the divisions of responsibility between the provincial and federal government within the Constitution Act 1867, each province thus has its own representative of the Canadian "Crown", the lieutenant governor; the territories are not sovereign, but instead their authorities and responsibilities come directly from the federal level, as a result, have a commissioner instead of a lieutenant governor. Notes: There are three territories in Canada. Unlike the provinces, the territories of Canada have no inherent sovereignty and have only those powers delegated to them by the federal government.
They include all of mainland Canada north of latitude 60° north and west of Hudson Bay, as well as most islands north of the Canadian mainland. The following table lists the territories in order of precedence. Ontario, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia were the original provinces, formed when several British North American colonies federated on July 1, 1867, into the Dominion of Canada and by stages began accruing the indicia of sovereignty from the United Kingdom. Prior to this and Quebec were united as the Province of Canada. Over the following years, British Columbia, Prince Edward Island were added as provinces; the British Crown had claimed two large areas north-west of the Canadian colony, known as Rupert's Land and the North-Western Territory and assigned them to the Hudson's Bay Company. In 1870, the company relinquished its claims for £300,000, assigning the vast territory to the Government of Canada. Subsequently, the area was re-organized into the province of the Northwest Territories; the Northwest Territories were vast at first, encompassing all of current northern and western Canada, except for the British holdings in the Arctic islands and the Colony of British Columbia.
The British claims to the Arctic islands were transferred to Canada in 1880, adding to the size of the Northwest Territories. The year of 1898 saw the Yukon Territory renamed as Yukon, carved from the parts of the Northwest Territories surrounding the Klondike gold fields. On September 1, 1905, a portion of the Northwest Territories south of the 60th parallel north became the provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan. In 1912, the boundaries of Quebec and Manitoba were expanded northward: Manitoba's to the 60° parallel, Ontario's to Hudson Bay and Quebec's to encompass the District of Ungava. In 1869, the people of Newfoundland voted to remain a British colony over fears that taxes would increase with Confederation, that the economic policy of the Canadian government would favour mainland industries. In 1907, Newfoundland acquired dominion status. In the middle of the Great Depression in Canada with Newfoundland facing a prolonged period of economic crisis, the legislature turned over political control to the Newfoundland Commission of Government in 1933.
Following Canada's participation in World War II, in a 1948 referendum, a narrow majority of Newfoundland citizens voted to join the Confederation, on March 31, 1949, Newfoundland became Canada's tenth province. In 2001, it was renamed Newfoundland and Labrador. In 1903, the Alaska Panhandle Dispute fixed British Columbia's northwestern boundary; this was one of only two provinces in Canadian history to have its size reduced. The second reduction, in 1927, occurred when a boundary dispute between Canada and the Dominion of Newfoundland saw Labrador increased at Quebec's expense – this land returned to Canada, as part of the province of Newfoundland, in 1949. In 1999, Nunavut was created from the eastern portion of the Northwest Territories. Yukon lies in the western portion of Northern Canada. All t
Quebec Autoroute 13
Autoroute 13, is a freeway in the urban region of Montreal, Canada. Its southern end is at the junction of A-20 on the Island of Montreal near Pierre Elliott Trudeau International Airport, its northern terminus is at the junction of A-640 near Boisbriand. The road traverses through Laval. Autoroute 13 was built as a toll highway in 1975 with a goal to connect the two international airports and Dorval; the freeway is six-laned and tolls no longer apply. The designation of Autoroute Chomedey refers to the community of Chomedey in Laval, through which A-13 passes. Common usage was to refer to the autoroute as Autoroute Chomedey south of the Milles-Îles river, Autoroute Mirabel north of that point. In recent usage, the Autoroute Chomedey name is used for the full length of the autoroute. Boulevard Pitfield is routed as a parallel service road to A-13 in St-Laurent. Boulevard Pitfield derives its name from the origin of the actual route. In the 1920s, the actual route was a Polo Pony Trail leading from the various estates of the Saraguay Village residents to their Polo Fields, now where the area of St. Laurent Blvd and Bois Franc merge.
In the late 1930s the path became an unpaved local road. Over the next several decades Saraguay Farms, owned by Mrs. W. C. Pitfield, was paid to clear the road in the winter by the municipality of St. Laurent; the road was developed into a two-lane highway in the 1960s. The Quebec provincial government was planning to extend Autoroute 13 north of A-640 in the late 1990s as an alternate route for A-15. Lowest Annual Average Daily Traffic: 38 000 Highest Annual Average Daily Traffic: 140 000 Transport Quebec website Transport Quebec map A-13 at Exitlists.com A-13 at Quebec Autoroutes Steve Anderson's MontrealRoads.com: Chomedey Autoroute
Island of Montreal
The Island of Montreal, in southwestern Quebec, Canada, is at the confluence of the Saint Lawrence and Ottawa rivers. It is separated from Île Jésus by the Rivière des Prairies, it is the largest island in the Hochelaga Archipelago, the second largest in the Saint Lawrence River. The St. Lawrence widens into Lake Saint-Louis south-west of the island, narrows into the Lachine Rapids widens again into the Bassin de La Prairie before becoming the St. Lawrence again and flowing toward Quebec City. Saint Helen's Island and Notre Dame Island are in the Saint Lawrence southeast of downtown Montreal; the Ottawa becomes Lac des Deux-Montagnes north-west of the island. The Sainte-Anne-de-Bellevue Canal, between the western tip of the island and Île Perrot, connects Lac des Deux-Montagnes and Lake Saint-Louis. Another outlet of Lac des Deux-Montagnes, the Rivière des Prairies, flows along the north shore of the island and into the St. Lawrence at the northeastern tip of the island. Man has altered the topography of the island as evidenced by historical maps that name a lake St Pierre in the island.
The island is 50 km long and 16 km wide at its widest point. The area of the Urban agglomeration of Montreal, which includes the Island of Montreal and several other smaller islands, is 499 km²; the island of Montreal has a shoreline of 266 km. At its centre are the three peaks of Mount Royal; the southwest of the island is separated by the Lachine Canal between Lachine and Montreal's Old Port. The island of Montreal is the major component of the territory of the city of Montreal, along with Île Bizard, Saint Helen's Island, Notre Dame Island, Nuns' Island, some 69 smaller islands. With a population of 2,014,221 inhabitants, it is by far the most populous island in Canada, it is the 6th most populous island of the Americas and the 37th most populated island on Earth, outranking Manhattan Island in New York City. In addition, it is the most populous island surrounded by freshwater on Earth. Montréal and the other municipalities on the island compose the administrative region of Montréal; the crossings which connect the island to its surroundings are some of the busiest bridges in the country and the world.
The Champlain Bridge and the Jacques Cartier Bridge together accommodate 101 million vehicle crossings a year. The first French name for the island was l'ille de Vilmenon, noted by Samuel de Champlain in a 1616 map, derived from the sieur de Vilmenon, a patron of the founders of Quebec at the court of Louis XIII. However, by 1632 Champlain referred to the Isle de Mont-real in another map; the island derived its name from Mount Royal, spread its name to the town, called Ville-Marie. In the Kanien' kéha, the island is called Tiohtià: Ka-wé-no-te. In Anishninaabemowin, the land is called Mooniyaang. List of rivers and water bodies of Montreal Island Flags and Coats of Arms Municipalities of Montreal Island - City of Montreal
Greater Montreal is the most populous metropolitan area in Quebec, the second most populous in Canada after Greater Toronto. In 2015, Statistics Canada identified Montreal's Census Metropolitan Area as 4,258.31 square kilometres with a population of 4,027,100. A smaller area of 3,838 square kilometres is governed by the Montreal Metropolitan Community; this level of government is headed by a president. The inner ring is composed of densely populated municipalities located in close proximity to Downtown Montreal, it includes the entire Island of Montreal and the Urban Agglomeration of Longueuil. The outer ring is composed of low-density municipalities located on the fringe of Metropolitan Montreal. Most of these cities and towns are semi-rural; the term off-island suburbs refers to those suburbs that are located on the North Shore of the Mille-Îles River, those on the South Shore that were never included in the megacity of Longueuil, those on the Vaudreuil-Soulanges Peninsula. Communities in that area are informally referred to as the 450, after the telephone area code that has served the region since 1998.
Due to their proximity to Montreal's downtown core, some suburbs on the South Shore are not included in the off-island suburbs though they are on the mainland. There are 82 municipalities that are part of the MMC and 91 municipalities that are part of the CMA. A total of 79 municipalities overlap between the two, with 3 municipalities being part of the MMC but not the CMA, 12 municipalities being part of the CMA but not the MMC. Kanesatake and Kahnawake are not included in the previous counts. Exo operates the region's commuter rail and metropolitan bus services, is the second busiest such system in Canada after Toronto's GO Transit. Established in June 2007, Exo's commuter rail system has six lines linking the downtown core with communities as far west as Hudson, as Far south as Mont-Saint-Hilaire, as far east as Mascouche, as far north as Saint-Jérôme. Along with Exo, a sister agency, the Autorité régionale de transport métropolitain plans and coordinates public transport across Greater Montreal, including the Island of Montreal and communities along both the north shore of the Rivière des Mille-Îles and the south shore of the Saint Lawrence River.
The ARTM's mandate includes the management of reserved High-occupancy vehicle lanes, metropolitan bus terminuses, park-and-ride lots, a budget of $163 million, shared amongst the transit corporations and inter-municipal public transit organizations. The Exo/ARTM's territory spans 63 municipalities and one native reserve, 13 regional county municipalities, 21 transit authorities, it serves a population of 3.7 million people who make more than 750,000 trips daily. The major transit commissions under the ARTM are: Société de transport de Montréal, serving the Island of Montreal Société de transport de Laval, serving the city of Laval Réseau de transport de Longueuil, serving the Urban agglomeration of Longueuil Montreal Urban Community Group 1 Group 2 Group 3 Metropolitan Community of Montreal website Greater Montreal Area Restaurants Greater Montreal Area map in.pdf
Quebec Autoroute 20
Autoroute 20 is a Quebec Autoroute, following the Saint Lawrence River through one of the more densely populated parts of Canada, with its central section forming the main route of the Trans-Canada Highway from the A-25 interchange to the A-85 interchange. At 585 km, it is the longest Autoroute in Quebec, it is one of two main links between Quebec City. There are two sections of the A-20, separated by a 57 km gap; the mainline extends for 540 km from the Ontario border to its current terminus at Trois-Pistoles. The second, more northerly section is far shorter. Constructed as a super two autoroute, this section of the A-20 bypasses Rimouski to the south and ends at a roundabout junction with Highway 132 in Mont-Joli. While the Quebec government has completed environmental and economic reviews of the impact of linking the two sections of Autoroute 20, it has not committed the funds necessary for construction. Citing the high number of accidents on the Rimouski-Mont-Joli link of the A-20, many politicians in the Bas-Saint-Laurent region have criticized the government's lack of progress in linking the two sections of autoroute and twinning the two-lane portion.
The A-20 begins at the Ontario-Quebec border near Rivière-Beaudette as the continuation of Ontario Highway 401. The westernmost section of the A-20 was named the Autoroute du Souvenir in 2007 to honour Canadian veterans. Road marker signs on this stretch of the autoroute feature a poppy. At km 29, the A-20 crosses A-30 before becoming an urban boulevard for eight kilometers in Vaudreuil-Dorion and L'Île-Perrot; this stretch of highway takes the A-20 across the Ottawa River. The speed limit is 70 km/h in L'Île-Perrot; the A-20 once again becomes a limited-access highway at km 38, just before crossing the Sainte-Anne-de-Bellevue Canal onto the Island of Montreal. The A-20 traverses the West Island along the north shore of Lac Saint-Louis to an interchange with the A-520. Called the Dorval Interchange, this exit is the main access to Montreal's Trudeau International Airport. Further east, the A-20 crosses the A-13 at its southern terminus, at the St. Pierre Interchange, Route 138 west towards the Mercier Bridge.
Just west of downtown Montreal, the A-20, A-15, A-720 meet at the Turcot Interchange. From this interchange, A-15 continues north to Laval while A-20 east is multiplexed with A-15 south on the approach to the Champlain Bridge. Traffic bound for the city centre continues as the A-720. Multiplexed with the A-10 and A-15, all three autoroutes cross the Saint Lawrence River via the Champlain Bridge to the South Shore; the multiplex splits south of the bridge. The A-20 parallels the south shore of the river through suburban Longueuil; the junction with the A-25 affords a direct connection to the Louis Hippolyte Lafontaine Bridge-Tunnel and Montreal's East End. The Trans-Canada Highway joins the A-20 at this junction; the largest section of the A-20 is named after Jean Lesage, who served as Premier of Quebec from 1960 to 1966, during the Quiet Revolution. Autoroute Jean-Lesage exists as two discontinuous sections separated by about 55 kilometers: The main section between the Louis-Hippolyte-Lafontaine Bridge-Tunnel and Trois-Pistoles in the Bas-Saint-Laurent region.
A shorter section that serves as a bypass of Rimouski and extends east to a final terminus at Route 132 in Mont-Joli. From the junction with A-25, the A-20 travels away from the St. Lawrence River. At kilometer 98, the A-20 intersects the A-30 near Mont Saint-Bruno, crossing the Richelieu River just north of Mont-Saint-Hilaire. Bypassing Saint-Hyacinthe, the A-20 forms a multiplex with Route 116 for six kilometers between exits 141 and 147; this section of the A-20 in Centre-du-Québec is located the furthest from the St. Lawrence River. Between Drummondville and Sainte-Eulalie, the A-20 forms a multiplex with A-55 for 37 kilometers; the A-20 continues across Quebec's agricultural heartland. The autoroute once again parallels the river. From this point eastward, the A-20 is never more than five kilometers from the river. At km 312, the A-20 crosses the A-73, a north-south link between Saint-Georges and Quebec City via the Pierre Laporte Bridge. While the control city on the A-20 is listed as "Québec", the autoroute never enters the city proper.
Before departing the region the A-20 bypasses suburban Lévis. This section of the A-20 offers the motorist splendid views over the St. Lawrence River and the mountains of the Côte-Nord Mont-Sainte-Anne and Le Massif; as it continues eastward, the A-20 passes the regional centres of Montmagny and La Pocatière before approaching Rivière-du-Loup and the junction with A-85 at km 499. The Trans-Canada Highway departs the A-20 at this interchange and travels south on A-85 toward Edmundston, New Brunswick and the Maritime Provinces; the eastern end of the main section of the A-20 is located in Trois-Pistoles 40 kilometres east of Rivière-du-Loup. The second section of Autoroute Jean-Lesage connects Rimouski to Mont-Joli, it begins at a junction with Route 132 in the village of Le Bic 55 km from the current terminus of the A-20 main section. Like its larger counterpart, the Rimouski section of the A-20 parallels the St. Lawrence, providing a southern bypass of Rimouski before ending at the
The West Island is the unofficial name given to the cities and boroughs at the western end of the Island of Montreal, in Quebec, Canada. It is considered to consist of the cities of Dorval, Pointe-Claire, Dollard-des-Ormeaux, Baie-D'Urfé, Sainte-Anne-de-Bellevue, the village of Senneville, two boroughs of the city of Montreal: Pierrefonds-Roxboro and L'Île-Bizard–Sainte-Geneviève. Furthermore, given the nature of suburban demographic development in Montréal, off-island suburbs towards the west of the island in addition to outer-ring boroughs of Montréal are sometimes considered part of the West Island; this is in large part due to similarities in personal income, design of the communities, services available, quality of life and economic engines supporting the population as well as the bilingual characteristic of the population. There was a linguistic division of the island of Montreal into French and English'halves', with Francophones inhabiting the eastern portion of the island and Anglophones inhabiting the western half.
The West Island's population is 234,000 and although the overwhelming majority of its residents are today bilingual if not multi-lingual, anglophones still make up a plurality of the West Island's population. Given its population, the West Island is similar in size to Windsor, Longueuil, Burnaby or Regina. Curiously, as late as the 1960s, much of the West Island was farmland populated by French Canadians, which in turn accounts for a significant Francophone cultural influence in the region; the region is home to the Montréal–Pierre Elliott Trudeau International Airport, John Abbott College, Cégep Gérald-Godin, the Macdonald Campus of McGill University, the Fairview Pointe-Claire and Galeries des Sources malls, as well as Montreal's largest park, the Cap-Saint-Jacques Nature Park. Hospitals include the Veteran's Hospital in Sainte-Anne's and the Lakeshore General Hospital in Pointe-Claire. Municipalities range in character from the modern bedroom communities of Kirkland or Dollard-des-Ormeaux to the former cottage-country homes of Dorval, Pointe Claire and Beaconsfield.
Development and the concentration of industrial activity along highways 20, 40 and 15 over the last twenty years has made securing the region's remaining tracts of open land a priority for many West Island residents. Indeed, the West Island is home to one of the last large remaining tracts of Montreal-region wilderness on island; the history of human settlement in the West Island of Montréal predates European colonization beginning towards the early-mid 17th century, but far too little is known of the history of the St. Lawrence Iroquoians who inhabited the island in the pre-colonial era. Indeed, between Cartier's first contact in 1535–1536 and the arrival of Champlain in 1608, the local Iroquoians had disappeared, most from near-constant warfare with other neighbouring Iroquois tribes the Mohawk; the West Island may have had areas of regular human habitation as the history of human settlement in Montreal goes back at least as far as 8,000 years. European colonization led to the establishment of parishes and small trading outposts along a Chemin du Roy laid out in the 17th century that corresponds more or less directly with the Gouin & Lakeshore boulevards of today.
Lachine, Sainte-Anne-de-Bellevue, Sainte-Genevieve and Pointe-Claire developed in a more or less interconnected fashion as colonial outposts spread out along the edge of the island. During the Ancien Régime of the early colonial era, these communities had their own parish churches, many of which still exist. In addition to the churches and rectories, religious orders of various types had set up monasteries and convents and the like throughout the West Island, given its proximity to Ville-Marie. Seigneurial system land divisions and the development of the'montée & rang' main road system allowed for the development of a vast agricultural territory, protected by forts, seigneurial manor houses and the geographic advantages of being on a densely forested island. Though much of the West Island is today a vast low-density modern suburban development, most of the principal roads were developed in the 17th and 18th centuries, inasmuch as land division follows examples common to the Ancien Régime. Moreover, the West Island has a small number of critical 18th century heritage properties, in addition to parish churches, summer villas and the remnants of Fort Senneville, constituting the principle remnants from the early and middle colonial period in this area.
Other important heritage properties include the numerous 19th century summer homes, farm houses and the turn of the century villages in Pointe-Claire, Saint-Anne's or Sainte-Genevieve. A key element of local architecture, as noted by author-historian Jean-Claude Marsan, is that the Habitant house-style of the 17th century proved so reliable and aesthetically pleasing it was repeated well into the 20th century with few major structural modifications. Houses of this kind can be found throughout the region. Key early settlements leading up to the major post-war suburban developments include: Dorval, founded between 1665–1667 as a Sulpician mission, became a village in 1892, a town in 1903 and a city in 1956, its development came in 1855 when the Grand Trunk Railroad established a station at Dorval, leading the hamlet to develop into a summer retreat for wealthy early-Victorian Era Montreal elites. Through the start of the century until the Second World War, the village became a town we
Montreal is the most populous municipality in the Canadian province of Quebec and the second-most populous municipality in Canada. Called Ville-Marie, or "City of Mary", it is named after Mount Royal, the triple-peaked hill in the heart of the city; the city is centred on the Island of Montreal, which took its name from the same source as the city, a few much smaller peripheral islands, the largest of, Île Bizard. It has a distinct four-season continental climate with cold, snowy winters. In 2016, the city had a population of 1,704,694, with a population of 1,942,044 in the urban agglomeration, including all of the other municipalities on the Island of Montreal; the broader metropolitan area had a population of 4,098,927. French is the city's official language and is the language spoken at home by 49.8% of the population of the city, followed by English at 22.8% and 18.3% other languages. In the larger Montreal Census Metropolitan Area, 65.8% of the population speaks French at home, compared to 15.3% who speak English.
The agglomeration Montreal is one of the most bilingual cities in Quebec and Canada, with over 59% of the population able to speak both English and French. Montreal is the second-largest French-speaking city in the world, after Paris, it is situated 258 kilometres south-west of Quebec City. The commercial capital of Canada, Montreal was surpassed in population and in economic strength by Toronto in the 1970s, it remains an important centre of commerce, transport, pharmaceuticals, design, art, tourism, fashion, gaming and world affairs. Montreal has the second-highest number of consulates in North America, serves as the location of the headquarters of the International Civil Aviation Organization, was named a UNESCO City of Design in 2006. In 2017, Montreal was ranked the 12th most liveable city in the world by the Economist Intelligence Unit in its annual Global Liveability Ranking, the best city in the world to be a university student in the QS World University Rankings. Montreal has hosted multiple international conferences and events, including the 1967 International and Universal Exposition and the 1976 Summer Olympics.
It is the only Canadian city to have held the Summer Olympics. In 2018, Montreal was ranked as an Alpha− world city; as of 2016 the city hosts the Canadian Grand Prix of Formula One, the Montreal International Jazz Festival and the Just for Laughs festival. In the Mohawk language, the island is called Tiohtià:ke Tsi, it is a name referring to the Lachine Rapids to the island's Ka-wé-no-te. It means "a place where nations and rivers unite and divide". In the Ojibwe language, the land is called Mooniyaang which means "the first stopping place" and is part of the seven fires prophecy; the city was first named Ville Marie by European settlers from La Flèche, or "City of Mary", named for the Virgin Mary. Its current name comes from the triple-peaked hill in the heart of the city. According to one theory, the name derives from mont Réal,. A possibility by the Government of Canada on its web site concerning Canadian place names, is that the name was adopted as it is written nowadays because an early map of 1556 used the Italian name of the mountain, Monte Real.
Archaeological evidence demonstrates that First Nations native people occupied the island of Montreal as early as 4,000 years ago. By the year AD 1000, they had started to cultivate maize. Within a few hundred years, they had built fortified villages; the Saint Lawrence Iroquoians, an ethnically and culturally distinct group from the Iroquois nations of the Haudenosaunee based in present-day New York, established the village of Hochelaga at the foot of Mount Royal two centuries before the French arrived. Archeologists have found evidence of their habitation there and at other locations in the valley since at least the 14th century; the French explorer Jacques Cartier visited Hochelaga on October 2, 1535, estimated the population of the native people at Hochelaga to be "over a thousand people". Evidence of earlier occupation of the island, such as those uncovered in 1642 during the construction of Fort Ville-Marie, have been removed. Seventy years the French explorer Samuel de Champlain reported that the St Lawrence Iroquoians and their settlements had disappeared altogether from the St Lawrence valley.
This is believed to be due to epidemics of European diseases, or intertribal wars. In 1611 Champlain established a fur trading post on the Island of Montreal, on a site named La Place Royale. At the confluence of Petite Riviere and St. Lawrence River, it is where present-day Pointe-à-Callière stands. On his 1616 map, Samuel de Champlain named the island Lille de Villemenon, in honour of the sieur de Villemenon, a French dignitary, seeking the viceroyship of New France. In 1639 Jérôme Le Royer de La Dauversière obtained the Seigneurial title to the Island of Montreal in the name of the Notre Dame Society of Montreal to establish a Roman Catholic mission to evangelize natives. Dauversiere hired Paul Chomedey de Maisonneuve 30, to lead a group of colonists to build a mission on his new seigneury; the colonists left France in 1641 for Quebec, arrived on the island the following year. On May 17, 1642, Ville-Marie was founded on the southern shore of Montreal is