Aesthetics is a branch of philosophy that explores the nature of art and taste, with the creation and appreciation of beauty. It is more defined as the study of sensory or sensori-emotional values, sometimes called judgements of sentiment. More broadly, scholars in the field define aesthetics as critical reflection on art, in modern English, the term aesthetic can refer to a set of principles underlying the works of a particular art movement or theory, one speaks, for example, of the Cubist aesthetic. The word aesthetic is derived from the Greek αἰσθητικός, which in turn was derived from αἰσθάνομαι, for some, aesthetics is considered a synonym for the philosophy of art since Hegel, while others insist that there is a significant distinction between these closely related fields. In practice, aesthetic judgement refers to the sensory contemplation or appreciation of an object, philosophical aesthetics has not only to speak about art and to produce judgments about art works, but has to give a definition of what art is.
Art is an entity for philosophy, because art deals with the senses. Hence, there are two different conceptions of art in aesthetics, art as knowledge or art as action, any aesthetic doctrines that guided the production and interpretation of prehistoric art are mostly unknown. Western aesthetics usually refers to Greek philosophers as the earliest source of aesthetic considerations. Plato believed in beauty as a form in which beautiful objects partake and he felt that beautiful objects incorporated proportion and unity among their parts. Similarly, in the Metaphysics, Aristotle found that the elements of beauty were order, symmetry. From the late 17th to the early 20th century Western aesthetics underwent a revolution into what is often called modernism. German and British thinkers emphasized beauty as the key component of art and of the aesthetic experience, and saw art as necessarily aiming at absolute beauty. For Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten aesthetics is the science of the experiences, a younger sister of logic.
For Immanuel Kant the aesthetic experience of beauty is a judgment of a subjective but similar human truth, beauty cannot be reduced to any more basic set of features. For Friedrich Schiller aesthetic appreciation of beauty is the most perfect reconciliation of the sensual and rational parts of human nature, for Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling, the philosophy of art is the organon of philosophy concerning the relation between man and nature. So aesthetics began now to be the name for the philosophy of art, Friedrich von Schlegel, August Wilhelm Schlegel, Friedrich Schleiermacher and Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel gave lectures on aesthetics as philosophy of art after 1800. For Hegel, all culture is a matter of absolute spirit coming to be manifest to itself, stage by stage, Art is the first stage in which the absolute spirit is manifest immediately to sense-perception, and is thus an objective rather than subjective revelation of beauty. It is thus for Schopenhauer one way to fight the suffering, the British were largely divided into intuitionist and analytic camps
Alfonso I d'Este, Duke of Ferrara
Alfonso dEste was Duke of Ferrara during the time of the War of the League of Cambrai. He was the son of Ercole I dEste and Eleanor of Naples, in the first year of his rule he uncovered a plot by his brother Ferrante and half-brother Giulio dEste, directed against him and his other brother Ippolito. They were led away to two cells in the Torre dei Leoni, Ferrante died in his cell after 34 years of imprisonment, while Giulio held on until he was pardoned in 1559, after 53 years of imprisonment. After his release, Giulio was ridiculed in the streets of Ferrara for his outdated clothes and these successes were based on Ferraras artillery, produced in his own foundry which was the best of its time. In both of his portraits by Titian, he poses with his arm across the mouth of one of his cannon, alfonsos first wife was Anna Sforza, the sister of Gian Galeazzo Sforza. His second wife was Lucrezia Borgia and he turned to Bellinis pupil, for a sequence of paintings. The pallor of the led to the name of this room as the chamber of alabaster.
There are documents from Mario Equicola on 9 October 1511, noting plans for painting of a room in Ferrara, I have already found them and have presented them in writing. A letter from Alfonso, dated 14 November 1514, authorized payment to Giovanni Bellini, over the next two decades, Titian added three more paintings, The Worship of Venus, The Bacchanal of the Andrians, and Bacchus and Ariadne. All the bacchanals in the Alabaster Chamber dealt with love, after the Este family lost control of Ferrara in 1598, the Alabaster Chambers paintings and sculpture were dispersed. Alfonso inherited from Cardinal dEste the poet Ariosto, when Alfonso’s grandson Alfonso II dEste -- Robert Brownings duke of My Last Duchess -- produced no male heir, the main dEste line died out. A grandson of Alfonso I and cousin of Alfonso II, Cesare dEste had been out of wedlock. He was recognized by the Emperor but not by the Pope, the House of Este continued in Modena and Reggio. House of Este Italian Wars Taylor, Frederick Lewis, the Art of War in Italy, 1494-1529.
Dosso Dossi, Court Painter in Renaissance Ferrara, a full text exhibition catalog from The Metropolitan Museum of Art Alfonso dEste, Duke of Ferrara Reconstructing the Dukes private gallery
Palazzo Schifanoia is a Renaissance palace in Ferrara, Emilia-Romagna built for the Este family. The highlights of its decorations are the frescoes with details in tempera by or after Francesco del Cossa and Cosmè Tura, executed ca 1469–70. As the equivalent of a Roman villa suburbana, the Palazzo Schifanoia long predated the first such pleasure villa built in Renaissance Rome, in 1452 Borso dEste received the title of Duke for the imperial fiefs of Modena and Reggio Emilia that he held from Emperor Frederick III. The occasion for the cycle of frescoes was the expected investiture of Borso dEste as Duke of Ferrara in 1471 by Pope Paul II, the palace was often used by Marfisa dEste, a great patron of the arts. Above the arched door, flanked by pilasters, the Este arms are displayed and the unicorn, a symbol of ducal benevolence, in 1493 the terracotta cornice was added to designs by Biagio Rossetti, who was commissioned by Ercole I dEste to extend the palace. From the Salone dei Mesi the visitor once passed directly into the gardens reached by a stair from the summer loggia.
After the Este left Ferrara in 1598, the palazzo was inherited through successive heirs, eventually by the Tassoni family, during administration of the duchy as part of the Papal States, with a Habsburg garrison, it became a tobacco warehouse and manufactory. When Palazzo Schifanoia came into the possession of the comune of Ferrara in the aftermath of World War I, Palazzo Schifanoia forms part of the heritage of Ferrara conserved under the umbrella of the Musei Civici dArte Antica di Ferrara. The 14th and 15th century rooms contain collections of antiquities, a collection and medals cast by Pisanello. Palazzo Schifanoia Gallery, details of the frescoes after Cossas designs
Painting is the practice of applying paint, color or other medium to a solid surface. The medium is commonly applied to the base with a brush, but other implements, such as knives, Painting is a mode of creative expression, and the forms are numerous. Drawing, composition, narration, or abstraction, among other aesthetic modes, may serve to manifest the expressive, Paintings can be naturalistic and representational, abstract, symbolistic, emotive, or political in nature. A portion of the history of painting in both Eastern and Western art is dominated by motifs and ideas. In art, the term painting describes both the act and the result of the action, the term painting is used outside of art as a common trade among craftsmen and builders. What enables painting is the perception and representation of intensity, every point in space has different intensity, which can be represented in painting by black and white and all the gray shades between. In practice, painters can articulate shapes by juxtaposing surfaces of different intensity, the basic means of painting are distinct from ideological means, such as geometrical figures, various points of view and organization, and symbols.
In technical drawing, thickness of line is ideal, demarcating ideal outlines of an object within a perceptual frame different from the one used by painters. Color and tone are the essence of painting as pitch and rhythm are the essence of music, color is highly subjective, but has observable psychological effects, although these can differ from one culture to the next. Black is associated with mourning in the West, but in the East, some painters, theoreticians and scientists, including Goethe and Newton, have written their own color theory. Moreover, the use of language is only an abstraction for a color equivalent, the word red, for example, can cover a wide range of variations from the pure red of the visible spectrum of light. There is not a register of different colors in the way that there is agreement on different notes in music. For a painter, color is not simply divided into basic, painters deal practically with pigments, so blue for a painter can be any of the blues, phthalocyanine blue, Prussian blue, cobalt, and so on.
Psychological and symbolical meanings of color are not, strictly speaking, colors only add to the potential, derived context of meanings, and because of this, the perception of a painting is highly subjective. The analogy with music is quite clear—sound in music is analogous to light in painting, shades to dynamics and these elements do not necessarily form a melody of themselves, they can add different contexts to it. Modern artists have extended the practice of painting considerably to include, as one example, some modern painters incorporate different materials such as sand, straw or wood for their texture. Examples of this are the works of Jean Dubuffet and Anselm Kiefer, there is a growing community of artists who use computers to paint color onto a digital canvas using programs such as Adobe Photoshop, Corel Painter, and many others. These images can be printed onto traditional canvas if required, rhythm is important in painting as it is in music
The Cumaean Sibyl was the priestess presiding over the Apollonian oracle at Cumae, a Greek colony located near Naples, Italy. The word sibyl comes from the ancient Greek word sibylla, meaning prophetess, there were many sibyls in different locations throughout the ancient world. Centuries ago, concurrent with the 50th Olympiad not long before the expulsion of Romes kings, tarquin relented and purchased the last three at the full original price, whereupon she disappeared from among men. The books were kept in the Temple of Jupiter on the Capitoline Hill, Rome. The temple burned down in the 80s BC, and the books with it and these were carefully sorted and those determined to be legitimate were saved in the rebuilt temple. The Emperor Augustus had them moved to the Temple of Apollo on the Palatine Hill, the Cumaean Sibyl is featured in the works of, among others, Virgil and Petronius. The Cumaean Sibyl prophesied by “singing the fates” and writing on oak leaves and these would be arranged inside the entrance of her cave but, if the wind blew and scattered them, she would not help to reassemble the leaves to form the original prophecy again.
The Sibyl was a guide to the underworld, its entry being at the crater of Avernus. All night long, all day, the doors of Hades stand open, but to retrace the path, to come up to the sweet air of heaven, That is labour indeed. The Sibyl acts like a bridge between the world and the deads sphere. She shows the way to Aeneas, and she teaches him what he has to know facing the dangers of their journey in the underworld, although she was a mortal, the Sibyl lived about a thousand years. This came about when Apollo offered to grant her a wish in exchange for her virginity, she took a handful of sand, after she refused the gods love, he allowed her body to wither away because she failed to ask for eternal youth. Her body grew smaller with age and eventually was kept in a jar, eventually only her voice was left. In the Middle Ages, both the Cumaean Sibyl and Virgil were considered prophets of the birth of Christ, because the fourth of Virgils Eclogues appears to contain a Messianic prophecy by the Sibyl.
In it, she foretells the coming of a saviour, whom Christians identified as Jesus and this was seized on by early Christians as such—one reason why Dante Alighieri chose Virgil as his guide through the underworld in The Divine Comedy. Virgil may have influenced by Hebrew texts, according to Tacitus. The title of Sylvia Plaths semi-autobiographical novel The Bell Jar has been said to be a reference to the ampulla in which the Sibyl lived, robert Graves fashioned a poetic prophesy by the Sibyl to bind the story together in his work of historical fiction, I, Claudius. Geoffrey Hills poem After Cumae in For the Unfallen refers to the Sibyls mouthy cave and she edited these writings into the current first-person narrative of a man living at the end of the 21st century, which proves to be the end of humanity
Cosimo Tura, known as Il Cosmè or Cosmè Tura, was an Italian early-Renaissance painter and considered one of the founders of the School of Ferrara. Born in Ferrara, he was a student of Francesco Squarcione of Padua, he obtained patronage from both Dukes Borso and Ercole I dEste. By 1460, he was given a stipend by the Ferrarese Court and his pupils include Francesco del Cossa and Francesco Bianchi. He appears to have influenced by Mantegnas and Piero della Francescas Quattrocento styles. In Ferrara, he is represented by frescoes in the Palazzo Schifanoia. This pleasure palace, with facade and architecture of little note, along with Francesco del Cossa, helped produce an intricately conceived allegorical series about the months of the year and zodiac symbols. The series contains portraits of musicians and carnival floats in idyllic parades. As in Piero della Francescas world, the unemotive figures mill in classical serenity and he painted the organ doors for the Duomo showing the Annunciation. He collaborated in the painting of a series of muses for a Studiolo of the Palace Belfiore of Leonello dEste in Ferrara, portrait Eleonora dAragona, Duchess of Ferrara - Pierpont Morgan Library, New York Spring or the muse Calliope - National Gallery, London.
The Princess - Museo del Duomo, cosme Tura of Ferrara, Style and the Renaissance City, 1450-1495. Cosme Tura at Panopticon Virtual Art Gallery Italian Paintings, North Italian School, a collection catalog containing information about Tura and his works
Hercules is the Roman adaptation of the Greek divine hero Heracles, who was the son of Zeus and the mortal Alcmene. In classical mythology, Hercules is famous for his strength and for his numerous far-ranging adventures, the Romans adapted the Greek heros iconography and myths for their literature and art under the name Hercules. In Western art and literature and in culture, Hercules is more commonly used than Heracles as the name of the hero. Hercules was a figure with contradictory characteristics, which enabled artists and writers to pick. This article provides an introduction to representations of Hercules in the tradition, Hercules is known for his many adventures, which took him to the far reaches of the Greco-Roman world. One cycle of these adventures became canonical as the Twelve Labours, one traditional order of the labours is found in the Bibliotheca as follows, Slay the Nemean Lion. Capture the Golden Hind of Artemis, clean the Augean stables in a single day. Obtain the girdle of Hippolyta, Queen of the Amazons, obtain the cattle of the monster Geryon.
Steal the apples of the Hesperides, Hercules was a favorite subject for Etruscan art, and appears often on bronze mirrors. The Etruscan form Herceler derives from the Greek Heracles via syncope, a mild oath invoking Hercules was a common interjection in Classical Latin. Hercules had a number of myths that were distinctly Roman, one of these is Hercules defeat of Cacus, who was terrorizing the countryside of Rome. The hero was associated with the Aventine Hill through his son Aventinus, Mark Antony considered him a personal patron god, as did the emperor Commodus. Roman brides wore a belt tied with the knot of Hercules. The comic playwright Plautus presents the myth of Hercules conception as a sex comedy in his play Amphitryon, during the Roman Imperial era, Hercules was worshipped locally from Hispania through Gaul. Tacitus records a special affinity of the Germanic peoples for Hercules, in chapter 3 of his Germania, Tacitus states. They say that Hercules, once visited them, and they have those songs of theirs, by the recital of this barditus as they call it, they rouse their courage, while from the note they augur the result of the approaching conflict.
For, as their line shouts, they inspire or feel alarm, some have taken this as Tacitus equating the Germanic Þunraz with Hercules by way of interpretatio romana. In the Roman era Hercules Club amulets appear from the 2nd to 3rd century, distributed over the empire, mostly made of gold, a specimen found in Köln-Nippes bears the inscription DEO HER, confirming the association with Hercules
Venetian school (art)
From the part of the 15th century, Venice had a distinctive and influential art scene. Beginning with the work of Giorgione, and the workshop of Giovanni Bellini, major artists of the Venetian school included Titian, Tintoretto and the Bassano. During the early-15th century, Venetian art was dominated by the earlier styles arising from its Byzantine links, another external factor was the visit by Leonardo da Vinci, who was particularly influential on Giorgione. During his long career, Bellini has been credited with creating the Venetian style, with such works he has been described as reaching the High Renaissance ideals, and certainly expresses the key distinctive factors of the Venetian school. Giorgione and Titian were both apprentices at Bellinis workshop and they collaborated on numerous paintings, and their styles could be so similar that it is difficult to conclusively assign authorship. This emphasis on nature as a setting was a contribution of the Venetian School. Titian, through his long and productive life, with a variety of themes and subjects was the most influential.
His early Pesaro Madonna shows a new composition for such a traditional religious subject, putting the focal point of the Madonna off from the centre. Although pre-figured by the Sleeping Venus Titian is credited with establishing the female nude as an important subgenre in art. Using mythological subjects, works such as the Venus of Urbino richly depict the fabrics and other textures, and use a composition that is carefully controlled by organising colours. As an example, in painting the diagonal of the nude is matched by the opposite diagonal between the red of the cushions in the front with the red skirts of the woman in the background. With such paintings, readily transported by virtue of being oils on canvas, Titian became famous, although Tintoretto is sometimes classified as a Mannerist artist, he incorporates Venetian and individualistic aspects. In his Miracle of the Slave, the Mannerist features include the scene, the twisting linking of figures. Following Tintoretto, were Veronese, and the Bassano and these are a few of the most outstanding in the great number of artists in the Venetian tradition, many originally from outside the Republics territory.
List of painters and architects of Venice References Sources Gardners, Art Through the Ages—International Edition, Brace Harcourt Jovanovich, maria Dolores Jimenez-Blanco, Museo National Del Prado, English 2nd revised edition,2009. Federico Zeri, Elizabeth E. Gardner, Italian Paintings, Venetian School, A Catalogue of the Collection of the Metropolitan Museum of Art
National Gallery of Canada
The National Gallery of Canada, located in the capital city of Ottawa, Ontario, is one of Canadas premier art galleries. The Gallery is now housed in a glass and granite building on Sussex Drive with a view of the Canadian Parliament buildings on Parliament Hill. The building was designed by Moshe Safdie and opened in 1988, the Gallerys former director Jean Sutherland Boggs was chosen especially by Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau to oversee construction of the national gallery and museums. Marc Mayer was named the director, succeeding Pierre Théberge. In 1911, the Gallery moved to the Victoria Memorial Museum, in 1913, the first National Gallery Act was passed outlining the Gallerys mandate and resources. In 1962, the Gallery moved to the Lorne Building site, adjacent to the British High Commission, the building has since been demolished for a 17 storey office building that is to house the Federal Finance Department. The museum moved into its current building on Sussex Drive in 1988, in 1985, the newly created Canadian Museum of Contemporary Photography, formerly the Stills Photography Division of the National Film Board of Canada, was affiliated to the National Gallery.
The CMCPs mandate and staff moved to its new location in 1992, at 1 Rideau Canal, in 1998, the CMCPs administration was amalgamated to that of the National Gallerys. In 2000, the Royal Architectural Institute of Canada chose the National Gallery as one of the top 500 buildings produced in Canada during the last millennium, although its focus is on Canadian art, it holds works by many noted American and European artists. It has a contemporary art collection with some of Andy Warhols most famous works. In 1990 the Gallery bought Barnett Newmans Voice of Fire for $1.8 million, since that time its value has appreciated sharply. In 2005, the Gallery acquired a painting by Italian Renaissance painter Francesco Salviati for $4.5 million and its most famous painting is likely The Death of General Wolfe by Anglo-American artist Benjamin West. In 2005, a sculpture of a giant spider, Louise Bourgeoiss Maman, was installed in the plaza in front of the Gallery. The Canadian collection, the most comprehensive in Canada, holds works by Louis-Philippe Hébert, Tom Thomson, the Gallery organizes its own exhibits which travel across Canada and beyond, and hosts shows from around the world, often co-sponsored with other national art galleries and museums.
The Gallerys collection has been built up through purchase and donations, much of the collection was donated, notably the British paintings donated by former Governor General Vincent Massey and that of the Southam family. The museum features Canadian and Inuit art and European painting, sculpture and drawings, modern and contemporary art and photographs. After the convent was demolished in 1972, the chapel was dismantled and reconstructed within the gallery as a work of art in 1988. Francis Bacon, Study for Portrait No.1 Hans Baldung, the Serpent and Death Pompeo Batoni, Vulcan at his forge
Benvenuto Tisi was a Late-Renaissance-Mannerist Italian painter of the School of Ferrara. Garofalos career began attached to the court of the Duke dEste and his early works have been described as idyllic, but they often conform to the elaborate conceits favored by the artistically refined Ferrarese court. His nickname, may derive from his habit of signing some works with a picture of a carnation, born in Ferrara, Tisi is claimed to have apprenticed under Panetti and perhaps Costa and was a contemporary, and sometimes collaborator with Dosso Dossi. In 1495 he worked at Cremona under his maternal uncle Niccolò Soriano, and at the school of Boccaccino and he may have spent three years, in Rome. This led to a classical style, more influenced by Giulio Romano. Invited by a Ferrarese gentleman, Geronimo Sagrato, to Rome, from Rome family affairs recalled him to Ferrara, there Duke Alfonso I commissioned him to execute paintings, along with the Dossi, in the Delizia di Belriguardo and in other palaces.
Thus the style of Tisi partakes of the Lombard, the Roman and the Venetian modes. He painted extensively in Ferrara, both in oil and in fresco, two of his works being the Massacre of the Innocents, in the church of S. Francesco. For the former he made models for study and a clay figure. He continued constantly at work until in 1550 blindness overtook him and he had married at the age forty-eight, and died at Ferrara on the 6th of September 1559, leaving two children. He was a friend of Giulio Romano, Giorgione and Ariosto, in youth he was fond of lute-playing and of fencing. He ranks among the best of the Ferrarese painters, his pupil was Girolamo da Carpi. Even his least successful works retain, amid their frigid and porcelain quality and his youthful works include the Boar Hunt in the Palazzo Sciarra. Later, the Knights Procession in the Palazzo Colonna in Rome — gave promise of an Italianate Cuyp, less commonplace, more romantic, and more refined than the Dutch artist. His youthful works include the Boar Hunt in the Palazzo Sciarra, the Pietà in the Brera Gallery in Milan reveals an increasingly stylized treatment.
Garofalo is one of the known and described by Vasari. From 1550 till his death Garofalo was blind, in 1520, Girolamo da Carpi is said to have apprenticed in Garofalos workshop, and worked with him in Ferrarese projects in the 1530–40. Il Garofalo influenced Antonio Pirri and Nicola Pisano, 1530s, oil on panel, Dallas Museum of Art Adoration of the Magi, c
In Greco-Roman mythology, Aeneas was a Trojan hero, the son of the prince Anchises and the goddess Venus. His father was a first cousin of King Priam of Troy and he is a character in Greek mythology and is mentioned in Homers Iliad. Aeneas receives full treatment in Roman mythology, most extensively in Virgils Aeneid and he became the first true hero of Rome. Snorri Sturluson identifies him with the Norse Æsir Vidarr, Aeneas is the Latin spelling of Greek Αἰνείας. In the Homeric Hymn to Aphrodite, Aeneas is first introduced with Aphrodite naming him Αἰνείας for the αὶνóν ἄχος he caused her and it is a popular etymology for the name, apparently exploited by Homer in the Iliad. Later in the Medieval period there were writers who held that, as such, in the natural order, the meaning of Aeneas name combines Greek ennos and demas, which becomes ennaios, meaning in-dweller. However, there is no certainty regarding the origin of his name, in imitation of the Iliad, Virgil borrows epithets of Homer, Anchisiades, magnus and bonus.
Though he borrows many, Virgil gives Aeneas two epithets of his own in the Aeneid and pius. The epithets applied by Virgil are an example of a different from that of Homer, for whilst Odysseus is poikilios, Aeneas is described as pius. Likewise, Aeneas is called pater when acting in the interest of his men, the story of the birth of Aeneas is told in the Hymn to Aphrodite, one of the major Homeric Hymns. Aphrodite has caused the other gods Zeus, to fall in love with mortal women, in retaliation, Zeus puts desire in her heart for Anchises, who is tending his cattle among the hills near Mount Ida. When Aphrodite sees him she is smitten and she adorns herself as if for a wedding among the gods and appears before him. He is overcome by her beauty, believing that she is a goddess, after they make love, Aphrodite reveals her true identity to him and Anchises fears what might happen to him as a result of their liaison. Aphrodite assures him that he will be protected, and tells him that she bear him a son to be called Aeneas.
However, she warns him that he must never tell anyone that he has lain with a goddess, when Aeneas is born, Aphrodite takes him to the nymphs of Mount Ida. She directs them to raise the child to age five, take him to Anchises, according to other sources, Anchises brags about his encounter with Aphrodite, and as a result is struck in the foot with a thunderbolt by Zeus. Thereafter he is lame in that foot, so that Aeneas has to carry him from the flames of Troy. Aeneas is a character in the Iliad, where he is twice saved from death by the gods as if for an as-yet-unknown destiny
Trento listen is a city located in the Adige River valley in Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol in Italy. It is the capital of Trentino, in the 16th century, the city was the location of the Council of Trent. Formerly part of Austria and Austria-Hungary, it was annexed by Italy in 1919, Trento is an educational, scientific and political centre in Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol, in Tyrol and Northern Italy in general. The city contains a picturesque Medieval and Renaissance historic centre, with ancient buildings such as Trento Cathedral, together with other Alpine towns Trento engages in the Alpine Town of the Year Association for the implementation of the Alpine Convention to achieve sustainable development in the Alpine Arc. Trento was awarded the title of Alpine Town of the Year 2004, modern-day Trento is a cosmopolitan city, with highly developed and organized modern social services. The city often ranks extremely highly out of all 103 Italian cities for quality of life, standard of living, the township of Trento encompasses the city center as well as many suburbs of extremely varied geographical and population conditions.
Various distinctive suburbs still retain their identity of rural or mountain villages. Trento lies in a glacial valley known as the Adige valley, just south of the Dolomite Mountains. River Adige is one of the three primary south-flowing Alpine rivers, its broadly curving course alongside Trento was straightened in 1850, the valley is surrounded by mountains, including Vigolana, Monte Bondone, Paganella and Monte Calisio. Nearby lakes include Lake Caldonazzo, Lake Levico, Lake Garda, the origins of this city on the river track to Bolzano and the low Alpine passes of Brenner and the Reschen Pass over the Alps are disputed. Some scholars maintain it was a Rhaetian settlement, the Adige area was influenced by neighbouring populations, including the Veneti, the Etruscans. According to other theories, the latter did instead found the city during the 4th century BC, Trento was conquered by the Romans in the late 1st century BC, after several clashes with the Rhaetian tribes. Before the Romans, Trento was a Celtic village, in reality, the name derives from Trent, which is a tribute to the Celtic god of the waters.
The Romans gave their settlement the name Tridentum and is a tribute to the Roman god Neptune, the Latin name is the source of the adjective Tridentine. On the old city hall, a Latin inscription is visible, Montes argentum mihi dant nomenque Tridentum. Tridentum became an important stop on the Roman road that led from Verona to Innsbruck, after the fall of the Western Roman Empire, the independent bishopric of Trento was conquered by Ostrogoths, Byzantines and Franks, finally becoming part of the Holy Roman Empire. In 1027, Emperor Conrad II created the Prince-Bishops of Trento, in the following centuries, the sovereignty was divided between the Bishopric of Trent and the County of Tyrol. In the 14th century, the region of Trento was part of Austria, the dukes of Austria were the counts of Tyrol and dominated the region for six centuries