Royal Opera House
The Royal Opera House is an opera house and major performing arts venue in Covent Garden, central London. The large building is referred to as "Covent Garden", after a previous use of the site of the opera house's original construction in 1732, it is the home of The Royal Opera, The Royal Ballet, the Orchestra of the Royal Opera House. Called the Theatre Royal, it served as a playhouse for the first hundred years of its history. In 1734, the first ballet was presented. A year Handel's first season of operas began. Many of his operas and oratorios were written for Covent Garden and had their premieres there; the current building is the third theatre on the site following disastrous fires in 1808 and 1856. The façade and auditorium date from 1858, but every other element of the present complex dates from an extensive reconstruction in the 1990s; the main auditorium seats 2,256 people, making it the third largest in London, consists of four tiers of boxes and balconies and the amphitheatre gallery.
The proscenium is 14.80 m high. The main auditorium is a Grade I listed building; the foundation of the Theatre Royal, Covent Garden lies in the letters patent awarded by Charles II to Sir William Davenant in 1662, allowing Davenant to operate one of only two patent theatre companies in London. The letters patent remained in the possession of the patentees' heirs until the 19th century. In 1728, John Rich, actor-manager of the Duke's Company at Lincoln's Inn Fields Theatre, commissioned The Beggar's Opera from John Gay; the success of this venture provided him with the capital to build the Theatre Royal at the site of an ancient convent garden, part of, developed by Inigo Jones in the 1630s with a piazza and church. In addition, a Royal Charter had created a fruit and vegetable market in the area, a market which survived in that location until 1974. At its opening on 7 December 1732, Rich was carried by his actors in processional triumph into the theatre for its opening production of William Congreve's The Way of the World.
During the first hundred years or so of its history, the theatre was a playhouse, with the Letters Patent granted by Charles II giving Covent Garden and Theatre Royal, Drury Lane exclusive rights to present spoken drama in London. Despite the frequent interchangeability between the Covent Garden and Drury Lane companies, competition was intense presenting the same plays at the same time. Rich introduced pantomime to the repertoire, himself performing and a tradition of seasonal pantomime continued at the modern theatre, until 1939. In 1734, Covent Garden presented Pygmalion. Marie Sallé danced in diaphanous robes. George Frideric Handel was named musical director of the company, at Lincoln's Inn Fields, in 1719, but his first season of opera, at Covent Garden, was not presented until 1734, his first opera was Il pastor fido followed by Ariodante, the première of Alcina, Atalanta the following year. There was a royal performance of Messiah in 1743, a success and began a tradition of Lenten oratorio performances.
From 1735 until his death in 1759 he gave regular seasons there, many of his operas and oratorios were written for Covent Garden or had their first London performances there. He bequeathed his organ to John Rich, it was placed in a prominent position on the stage, but was among many valuable items lost in a fire that destroyed the theatre on 20 September 1808. In 1792 the architect Henry Holland rebuilt the auditorium, within the existing shell of the building but deeper and wider than the old auditorium, thus increasing capacity. Rebuilding began in December 1808, the second Theatre Royal, Covent Garden opened on 18 September 1809 with a performance of Macbeth followed by a musical entertainment called The Quaker; the actor-manager John Philip Kemble, raised seat prices to help recoup the cost of rebuilding and the cost of an increased ground rent introduced by the landowner, the Duke of Bedford, but the move was so unpopular that audiences disrupted performances by beating sticks, hissing and dancing.
The Old Price Riots lasted over two months, the management was forced to accede to the audience's demands. During this time, entertainments were varied. Kemble engaged a variety of acts, including the child performer Master Betty. Many famous actors of the day appeared at the theatre, including the tragediennes Sarah Siddons and Eliza O'Neill, the Shakespearean actors William Charles Macready, Edmund Kean and his son Charles. On 25 March 1833 Edmund Kean collapsed on stage while playing Othello, died two months later. In 1806, the pantomime clown Joseph Grimaldi had performed his greatest success in Harlequin and Mother Goose. Grimaldi was an innovator: his performance as Joey introduced the clown to the world, building on the existing role of Harlequin derived from the Commedia dell'arte, his father had been ballet-master at Drury Lane, his physical comedy, his ability to invent visual tricks and buffoonery, his ability to poke fun at the audience were extraordinary. Early pantomimes were performed as mimes accompanied by music, but as Music hall became popular, Grimaldi introduced the pantomime dame to the theatre and was responsible for the tradition of audience singing.
By 1821 dance and clowning had taken such a physical toll on
Hester Santlow was a noted British dancer and actress, called "England's first ballerina". She was influential in many spheres of theatrical life. Hester Santlow was born circa 1690, by about 1705 had produced an illegitimate daughter named Harriot. Harriot married firstly in 1726 Richard Eliot, having 9 children, including Edward Craggs-Eliot, 1st Baron Eliot, secondly in 1749 to John Hamilton, by whom she had a son, John Hamilton, 1st Marquess of Abercorn. In 1706, Santlow made her first appearance as a dancer at Drury Lane, three years as an actress on the London stage; some of her earliest roles included Harlequin, for which she earned a considerable boost in her reputation. John Essex, in the preface of The Dancing Master, his translation of Pierre Rameau's Le Maître à danser, writes: WE have had a great many Women attempt to be Theatrical Dancers, but none arrived to that Height and Pitch of Applause as the incomparable Mrs. Booth, in whom Art and Nature are so beautifully wove together, that the whole Web is of a Piece so exquisitely formed to Length and Breadth, that the Produce of the many different Characters she represents is the Wonder and Admiration of the present Age, will scarce be credited by the Succeeding.
I shall beg leave to mention the Chaconne, Menuet, in all which she appears with that Grace and Address none can look on but with Attention and Surprise. She far excels all that went before her, must be the just Subject of Imitation to all that dare attempt to copy after her. Besides all these, the Harlequin is beyond Description, the Hussar another opposite Character in which she has no Rival. All which shew how many extensive as well as extraordinary Qualifications must concentre in one Person to form so bright a Genius: A Subject becoming the most elevated Wit to describe, the politest Taste to contemplate. Around 1717, a notable incident occurred, reported by Colley Cibber and which appeared in Apology for the Life of Colley Cibber and The Palmy Days of Nance Oldfield. "About the year 1717," writes Cibber, ", a young actress of a desirable person, sitting in an upper box at the Opera, a military gentleman thought this a proper opportunity to secure a little conversation with her, the particulars of which were no more worth repeating than it seems the Damoiselle thought them worth listening to.
This indifference was so offensive to his high heart, that he began to change the Tender into the Terrible, and, in short, proceeded at last to treat her in a style too grossly insulting for the meanest female ear to endur unresented. Upon which, being beaten too far out of her discretion, she turn'd hastily upon him with an angry look and a reply which seem'd to set his merit in so low a regard, that he thought himself oblig'd in honour to take his time to resent it."This was the full extent of her crime, which his glory delay'd no longer to punish than'till the next time she was to appear upon the stage. There, in one of her best parts, wherein she drew a favourable regard and approbation from the audience, he, dispensing with the respect which some people think due to a polite assembly, began to interrupt her performance with such loud and various notes of mockery, as other young men of honour in the same place had sometimes made themselves undauntedly merry with. Thus, deaf to all murmurs or entreaties of those about him, he pursued his point to throwing near her such trash as no person can be suppos'd to carry about him unless to use on so particular an occasion.
"A gentlemen behind the scenes, being shock'd at his unmanly behaviour, was warm enough to say, that no man but a fool or a bully could be capable of insulting an audience or a woman in so monstrous a manner. The former valiant gentleman, to whose ear the words were soon brought by his spies, whom he had plac'd behind the scenes to observe how the action was taken there, came from the pit in a heat, demanded to know of the author of those words if he was the person that spoke them? to which he calmly reply'd, that though he had never seen him before, yet since he seem'd so earnest to be satisfy'd, he would do him the favour to own, that indeed the words were his, that they would be the last words he should chuse to deny whoever they might fall upon. "To conclude, their dispute was ended the next morning in Hyde Park, where the determin'd combatant who first ask'd for satisfaction was obliged afterwards to ask his life too. In 1719, at Chipping Ongar, she married an actor-manager. Booth died in 1733.
She died in old age around 1773. Booth, Hester in Oxford Dictionary of National biography – Portrait and a few biographical details
Hudson Shakespeare Company
The Hudson Shakespeare Company is a regional Shakespeare touring festival based in Jersey City in Hudson County, New Jersey that produces an annual summer Shakespeare in the Park festival and features lesser done Shakespeare works such as The Two Noble Kinsmen and Timon of Athens. The company produces several modern day productions in non theatrical venues such as their courtroom shows of Inherit the Wind and A Few Good Men in the Hoboken Municipal Courtroom, it produce a yearly educational program that ranges from student workshops to full length Shakespeare productions. In 1992, Jersey City native L. Robert "Luther" Johnson decided to mount a staged reading of "A Midsummer Night's Dream" in Hamilton Park in Jersey City. Having worked as a technical consultant for such companies as Riverside Shakespeare and New York Gilbert and Sullivan Players in New York, Johnson remarked "I noticed that when you were on one side of the Hudson you couldn't walk five feet without finding a company of actors doing Shakespeare, but on this side of the river there was nothing."
He partnered with several theatrical friends who he had worked with in such community theaters as the Park Players of Union City and Civic Theater of Hudson County in Jersey City for this first production under the banner of "Hudson Shakespeare Company", named after Hudson County. While this first production featured "13 people on stage and 5 in the audience, he was undeterred and continued to produce Shakespeare under "Hudson Shakespeare Company" and modern works such as Driving Miss Daisy and Waiting for Godot under "Patchwork Theater Company". In 1996, Johnson met fellow actor and director Jon Ciccarelli and the two reorganized all of the classical and modern productions under "Hudson Shakespeare Company". For the next few years, the company produced Shakespeare and modern programs in Jersey City and Hoboken and became the first theatrical company to produce a live theater showing at Hoboken's Frank Sinatra Park with another production of A Midsummer Night's Dream in 1998. In 2002, the company began touring to Hackensack, South Orange, as far away as Stratford, Connecticut.
Main stay venues such as Fort Lee followed in 2004 and 2007 respectively. Hudson Shakespeare Company has become known for tackling lesser known works and questionable works of the Bard. According to Artistic Director, Jon Ciccarelli, "“Each season we try to produce at least one play that you’ve either never heard of or we put a different spin on known works of Shakespeare.” Lesser known plays tackled by the company: Edward III, Arden of Faversham, Henry VIII, Timon of Athens and Cressida, King John, The Two Noble Kinsmen, Cymbeline, Titus Andronicus. The following is a list of active venues where the company performs during an average run for a summer production. Hamilton Park - Located at 9th Street and Jersey Avenue, this is the company's original performance space. HSC partners with the Hamilton Park Neighborhood Association and performs in front of the park's gazebo. In case of inclement weather, performances are held under the gazebo. Van Vorst Park - Located in the downtown section of Jersey City at Montgomery Street and Jersey Avenue, next to the main branch of the Jersey City library.
HSC partners with the Friends of Van Vorst Park Association. Jersey City and Harsimus Cemetery - At 435 Newark Avenue, the cemetery is the oldest in the city and contains remains dating back to before the revolutionary war. HSC partners with the all volunteer group to raise funds for the cemetery's upkeep. Frank Sinatra Park - Located at 400 Frank Sinatra Drive, the venue is Hoboken's main venue for live music and theater acts. All HSC theater programs are produced with the Hoboken Division of Cultural Affairs which schedules, films and a semi-annual arts and music festival taking place in May and September. Staib Park - Located between Coles and Davis Avenue in Hackensack, NJ. HSC programs are produced in association with the Hackensack Recreation Department Hackensack Cultural Arts Center - Located at 39 Broadway in Hackensack, this converted church serves as the rain location for HSC shows and as a year-round theater for other Hackensack companies. Stratford Library - Located at 2203 Main Street, Stratford, CT, the library not only hosts HSC but offers speakers on Shakespeare subjects and staged readings by resident theater company -Square One Theatre Kenilworth Library - Located at 548 Boulevard in Kenilworth, NJ.
HSC produces the "Bard on the Boulevard" program in association with the Friends of Kenilworth Library. Westfield Memorial Library - Located at 550 E. Broad Street in Westfield, NJ Monument Park at Palisade Avenue adjacent to the Fort Lee Museum. HSC produces programs in association with the Fort Lee Film Commission. Long Pond Iron Works State Park - Located at 1334 Greenwood Lake Turnpike in Hewitt, NJ, HSC produces programs in association with the Friends of Long Pond Iron Works in their historic village. Richard II By William Shakespeare, Directed by Noelle Fair - June 8-25 Edward III By William Shakespeare and Thomas Kyd, Directed by Jon Ciccarelli - July 12-30 Henry IV, Part 1 and Henry IV, Part 2, Directed by Jon Ciccarelli - August 12-27 The Winter's Tale By William Shakespeare, Directed by Jon Ciccarelli - March 20-April 12 Love's Labours Lost By William Shakespeare, Directed by Jon Ciccarelli - June 11–27 Arden of Faversham attributed to William Shakespeare, Christopher Marlowe and Thomas Kyd, Directed by Jon Ciccarelli - July 9–25 The Two Gentlemen of Verona by William Shakespeare, directed by Jon Ciccarelli - August 5 to 22 Twelfth Night - By William Shakespeare, Directed by James Masciovecchio - June 12–28 Cymb
The Christian Science Monitor
The Christian Science Monitor is a nonprofit news organization that publishes daily articles in electronic format as well as a weekly print edition. It was founded in 1908 as a daily newspaper by Mary Baker Eddy, the founder of the Church of Christ, Scientist; as of 2011, the print circulation was 75,052. According to the organization's website, "the Monitor's global approach is reflected in how Mary Baker Eddy described its object as'To injure no man, but to bless all mankind.' The aim is to embrace the human family, shedding light with the conviction that understanding the world's problems and possibilities moves us towards solutions." The Christian Science Monitor has won seven Pulitzer Prizes and more than a dozen Overseas Press Club awards." Despite its name, the Monitor is not a religious-themed paper, does not promote the doctrine of its patron church. However, at its founder Eddy's request, a daily religious article has appeared in every issue of the Monitor; the paper has been known for avoiding sensationalism, producing a "distinctive brand of nonhysterical journalism".
In 1997, the Washington Report on Middle East Affairs, a publication critical of United States policy in the Middle East, praised the Monitor for its objective and informative coverage of Islam and the Middle East. In 2006, Jill Carroll, a freelance reporter for the Monitor, was kidnapped in Baghdad, released safely after 82 days. Although Carroll was a freelancer, the paper worked tirelessly for her release hiring her as a staff writer shortly after her abduction to ensure that she had financial benefits, according to Bergenheim. Beginning in August 2006, the Monitor published an account of Carroll's kidnapping and subsequent release, with first-person reporting from Carroll and others involved; the paper's overall circulation has ranged from a peak of over 223,000 in 1970, to just under 56,000 shortly before the suspension of the daily print edition in 2009. In response to declining circulation and the struggle to earn a profit, the church's directors and the manager of the Christian Science Publishing Society were purportedly forced to plan cutbacks and closures, which led in 1989 to the mass protest resignations by its chief editor Kay Fanning, managing editor David Anable, associate editor David Winder, several other newsroom staff.
These developments presaged administrative moves to scale back the print newspaper in favor of expansions into radio, a magazine, shortwave broadcasting, television. Expenses, however outpaced revenues, contradicting predictions by church directors. On the brink of bankruptcy, the board was forced to close the broadcast programs in 1992; the Monitor's inception was, in part, a response by its founder Mary Baker Eddy to the journalism of her day, which relentlessly covered the sensations and scandals surrounding her new religion with varying degrees of accuracy. In addition, Joseph Pulitzer's New York World was critical of Eddy, this, along with a derogatory article in McClure's, furthered Eddy's decision to found her own media outlet. Eddy required the inclusion of "Christian Science" in the paper's name, over initial opposition by some of her advisors who thought the religious reference might repel a secular audience. Eddy saw a vital need to counteract the fear spread by media reporting: Looking over the newspapers of the day, one reflects that it is dangerous to live, so loaded with disease seems the air.
These descriptions carry fears to many minds. A periodical of our own will counteract to some extent this public nuisance. Eddy declared that the Monitor's mission should be "to injure no man, but to bless all mankind". MonitoRadio was a radio service produced by the Church of Christ, Scientist between 1984 and 1997, it featured several one-hour news broadcasts a day, as well as top of the hour news bulletins. The service was heard on public radio stations throughout the United States; the Monitor launched an international broadcast over shortwave radio, called the World Service of the Christian Science Monitor. Weekdays were news-led, but weekend schedules were dedicated to religious programming; that service ceased operations on June 28, 1997. In 1986, the Monitor started producing a current affairs television series, The Christian Science Monitor Reports, distributed via syndication to television stations across the United States. In 1988, the Christian Science Monitor Reports won a Peabody Award for a series of reports on Islamic fundamentalism.
That same year, the program was canceled and the Monitor created a daily television program, World Monitor, anchored by former NBC correspondent John Hart, shown on the Discovery Channel. In 1991, World Monitor moved to a 24-hour news and information channel; the channel launched on May 1991 with programming from its Boston TV station. The only religious programming on the channel was a five-minute Christian Science program early each morning. In 1992, after eleven months on the air, the service was shut down amid huge financial losses. Programming from the Monitor Channel was carried nationally via the WWOR EMI Service; the print edition continued to struggle for readership, and, in 2004, faced a renewed mandate from the church to earn a profit. Subsequently, the Monitor began relying more on the Internet as an integral part of its busines
LibriVox is a group of worldwide volunteers who read and record public domain texts creating free public domain audiobooks for download from their website and other digital library hosting sites on the internet. It was founded in 2005 by Hugh McGuire to provide "Acoustical liberation of books in the public domain" and the LibriVox objective is "To make all books in the public domain available, for free, in audio format on the internet". On 6 August 2016, the project completed project number 10,000. and from 2009–2017 was producing about 1,000 items per year. Most releases are in the English language, but many non-English works are available. There are multiple affiliated projects. LibriVox is affiliated with Project Gutenberg from where the project gets some of its texts, the Internet Archive that hosts their offerings. LibriVox was started in August 2005 by Montreal-based writer Hugh McGuire, who set up a blog, posed the question; the first recorded book was The Secret Agent by Joseph Conrad.
The main features of the way LibriVox works have changed little since its inception, although the technology that supports it has been improved by the efforts of its volunteers with web-development skills. LibriVox is an invented word inspired by Latin words liber in its genitive form libri and vox, giving the meaning BookVoice; the word was coined because of other connotations: liber means child and free, unrestricted. As the LibriVox forum says: "We like to think LibriVox might be interpreted as'child of the voice', and'free voice'; the other link we like is'library' so you could imagine it to mean Library of Voice."There has been no decision or consensus by LibriVox founders or the community of volunteers for a single pronunciation of LibriVox. It is accepted. LibriVox is a volunteer-run, free content, Public Domain project, it has legal personality. The development of projects is managed through an Internet forum, supported by an admin team, who maintain a searchable catalogue database of completed works.
In early 2010, LibriVox ran a fundraising drive to raise $20,000 to cover hosting costs for the website of about $5,000/year and improve front- and backend usability. The target was reached in 13 days, so the fundraising ended and LibriVox suggested that supporters consider making donations to its affiliates and partners, Project Gutenberg and the Internet Archive. Volunteers can choose new projects to start, either recording on their own or inviting others to join them, or they can contribute to projects that have been started by others. Once a volunteer has recorded his or her contribution, it is uploaded to the site, proof-listened by members of the LibriVox community. Finished audiobooks are available from the LibriVox website, MP3 and Ogg Vorbis files are hosted separately by the Internet Archive. Recordings are available through other means, such as iTunes, being free of copyright, they are distributed independently of LibriVox on the Internet and otherwise. LibriVox only records material, in the public domain in the United States, all LibriVox books are released with a public domain dedication.
Because of copyright restrictions, LibriVox produces recordings of only a limited number of contemporary books. These have included, for example, the 9/11 Commission Report, a work of the US Federal Government therefore in the Public Domain; the LibriVox catalogue is varied. It contains much popular classic fiction, but includes less predictable texts, such as Immanuel Kant's Critique of Pure Reason and a recording of the first 500 digits of pi; the collection features poetry, religious texts and non-fiction of various kinds. In January 2009, the catalogue contained 55 percent fiction and drama, 25 percent non-fiction and 20 percent poetry. By the end of 2018, the most viewed item was The Adventures of Tom Sawyer in a 2006 solo recording by John Greenman. Around 90 percent of the catalogue is recorded in English, but recordings exist in 31 languages altogether. Chinese and German are the most popular languages other than English amongst volunteers, but recordings have been made in languages including Urdu and Tagalog.
LibriVox has garnered significant interest, in particular from those interested in the promotion of volunteer-led content and alternative approaches to copyright ownership on the Internet. It has received support from the Internet Project Gutenberg. Intellectual freedom and commons proponent Mike Linksvayer described it in 2008 as "perhaps the most interesting collaborative culture project this side of Wikipedia"; the project has been featured in press around the world and has been recommended by the BBC's Click, MSNBC's The Today Show, Wired, the US PC Magazine and the UK Metro and Sunday Times newspapers. A frequent concern of listeners is the site's policy of allowing any recording to be published as long as it is understandable and faithful to the source text; this means. While some listeners may object to those books with chapters read by multiple readers, others find this to be a non-issue or a feature, though many books are narrated by a single reader. Virtual volunteering Voice acting LibriVox siteLibriVox home page and LibriVox Catalogue of Audio BooksArticlesXeni Tech story from NPR's Day to Day, "Amateur Audio Books Cat
Southwark is a district of Central London and is the north-west of the London Borough of Southwark. Centred 1 1⁄2 miles east of Charing Cross, it fronts the River Thames and the City of London to the north, it was at the lowest bridging point of the Thames in Roman Britain, providing a crossing from Londinium, for centuries had the only Thames bridge in the area, until a bridge was built upstream more than 10 miles to the west. It was a 1295-enfranchised Borough in the county of Surrey created a burh in 886, containing various parishes by the high medieval period succombing to City attempts to constrain its free trade and entertainment, its entertainment district, in its heyday at the time of Shakespare's Globe Theatre has revived in the form of the Southbank which overspills imperceptibly into the ancient boundaries of Lambeth and commences at the post-1997 reinvention of the original theatre, Shakespeare's Globe, incorporating other smaller theatre spaces, an exhibition about Shakespeare's life and work and which neighbours Vinopolis and the London Dungeon.
After the 18th century decline of Southwark's small wharves, the borough grew in population and saw the growth of great docks, printing/paper, goods yards, small artesan and other low-wage industries and Southwark was among many such inner districts to see slum clearance and replacement with social housing during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. It is now at an advanced stage of regeneration and has the City Hall offices of the Greater London Authority. At its heart is the area known as Borough, which has an eclectic covered and semi-covered market and numerous food and drink venues as well as the skyscraper The Shard. Another landmark is Southwark Cathedral, a priory parish church created a cathedral in 1905, noted for its Merbecke Choir; the area has three main tube stations: Borough, Southwark nearby and one close to the river, combined with a major railway station above, London Bridge. The name Suthriganaweorc or Suthringa geweorche is recorded for the area in the 10th-century Anglo-Saxon document known as the Burghal Hidage and means "fort of the men of Surrey" or "the defensive work of the men of Surrey".
Southwark is recorded in the 1086 Domesday Book as Sudweca. The name is formed from the Old English sūþ and weorc; the southern location is in reference to the City of London to the north, Southwark being at the southern end of London Bridge. Until 1889, the county of Surrey included the present-day London Borough of Southwark, yet the name has been used for various areas of civil administration, including the ancient Borough of Southwark, the Metropolitan Borough of Southwark and the current London Borough of Southwark; the ancient borough of Southwark was known as The Borough—or Borough—and this name, in distinction from'The City', has persisted as an alternative name for the area. The medieval heart of Southwark was referred to as the ward of Bridge Without when administered by the City and as an aldermanry until 1978. For the toponymy of the area's street names see Street names of Southwark Southwark is sited on a once marshy area south of the River Thames. Recent excavation has revealed prehistoric activity including evidence of early ploughing, burial mounds and ritual activity.
Much was in pre-Roman years a series of tidal islands in the Thames, formalised into ditches such as the so-called River Neckinger. This formed the best place to bridge the Thames and the area became an important part of Londinium, owing its importance to its position as the endpoint of the Roman London Bridge. Two Roman roads, Stane Street and Watling Street, met at Southwark in what is now Borough High Street. Archaeological work at Tabard Street in 2004 discovered a plaque with the earliest reference to'Londoners' from the Roman period on it. Londinium was abandoned at the end of the Roman occupation in the early 5th century and both the city and its bridge collapsed in decay. Archaeologically, evidence of settlement is replaced by a featureless soil called the Dark Earth which represents an urban area abandoned. Southwark appears to recover only during the time of his successors. Sometime about 886, the burh of Southwark was created and the Roman city area reoccupied, it was fortified to defend the bridge and hence the reemerging City of London to the north.
This defensive role is highlighted by the use of the bridge in 1016 as a defence against King Sweyn and his son King Cnut by Ethelred the Unready and again, in 1066, against Duke William the Conqueror. He failed to force the bridge during the Norman conquest of England. Southwark appears in the Domesday Book of 1086 within the hundred of Brixton as held by several Surrey manors, its assets were: Bishop Odo of Bayeux held the monastery and the tideway – which still exists as St Mary Overie dock. Southwark's value to the King was £16. Much of Southwark was owned by the church – the greatest reminder of monastic London is Southwark Cathedral the priory of St Mary Overie. During the early Middle Ages, Southwark developed and was one of the four Surrey towns which returned Members of Parliament for the first commons assembly in 1295. An important market occupied the High Street from some
The Spectator is a weekly British magazine on politics and current affairs. It was first published in July 1828, it is owned by David and Frederick Barclay who own The Daily Telegraph newspaper, via Press Holdings. Its principal subject areas are politics and culture, its editorial outlook is supportive of the Conservative Party, although regular contributors include some outside that fold, such as Frank Field, Rod Liddle and Martin Bright. The magazine contains arts pages on books, music and film and TV reviews. Editorship of The Spectator has been a step on the ladder to high office in the Conservative Party in the United Kingdom. Past editors include Boris Johnson and other former cabinet members Iain Macleod, Ian Gilmour, Nigel Lawson. In late 2008, Spectator Australia was launched; this offers 12 pages of "Unique Australian Content" in addition to the full UK contents. Readership of The Spectator Australia was revealed through a court case as being 3,000; the Spectator's founding editor, the Dundonian reformer Robert Stephen Rintoul, launched the paper in July 1828 with a first issue for the "week ending Saturday July 5, 1828".
He revived the title from the 1711 publication by Addison & Steele. As he had long been determined "to edit a perfect newspaper", Rintoul insisted on "absolute power" over content, commencing a long-lasting tradition of the paper's editor and proprietor being one and the same person; the Spectator’s political outlook in its first thirty years reflected Rintoul’s liberal-radical agenda. Despite its political stance it was regarded and respected for its non-partisanship. Under Rintoul The Spectator came out for the Great Reform Act of 1832, coining the well-known phrase, "The Bill, the whole Bill and nothing but the Bill", in its support, it objected to the appointment of the Duke of Wellington as Prime Minister, condemning him as "a Field Marshal whose political career proves him to be utterly destitute of political principle – whose military career affords ample evidence of his stern and remorseless temperament."The magazine was vocal in its opposition to the First Opium War, commenting: "all the alleged aims of the expedition against China are vague and incapable of explanation, save only that of making the Chinese pay the opium-smugglers." and "There does not appear to be much glory gained in a contest so unequal that hundreds are killed on one side and none on the other.
What honour is there in going to shoot men, certain that they cannot hurt you? The cause of the war, be it remembered, is as disreputable as the strength of the parties is unequal; the war is undertaken in support of a co-partnery of opium-smugglers, in which the Anglo-Indian Government may be considered as the principal partner."In 1853 it published an anonymous and unfavourable review of Charles Dickens’ Bleak House revealed to be by George Brimley, typical of the paper's enduring contempt for him as a "popular" writer "amusing the idle hours of the greatest number of readers. Thereafter, it went into an accelerated period of decline. Records are scarce but it appears that it was owned by a Mr Scott and bought for £4200 in December 1858 by two London-based Americans, James McHenry and Benjamin Moran. McHenry was a businessman and Moran was an Assistant Secretary to the ambassador, George M. Dallas; the editor was Thornton Hunt, a friend of Moran who had worked for Rintoul. Hunt was nominally the purchaser, having been given the necessary monies in an attempt by McHenry and Moran to disguise the American ownership.
Circulation declined with this loss of independence and inspirational leadership, the views of James Buchanan, the president of the US, came to the fore. Within weeks, the editorial line followed Buchanan's pronouncements in being "...neither pro-slavery nor pro-abolitionist. To unsympathetic observers Buchanan's policy seemed to apportion blame for the impasse on the slavery question on pro-slavery and abolitionist factions – and rather than work out a solution to argue that a solution would take time; the Spectator now would publicly support that'policy.'". This set it at odds with most of the British press but gained it the sympathy of ex-patriate Americans in the country. Richard Fulton notes that from until 1861, "... the Spectator's commentary on American affairs read like a Buchanan administration propaganda sheet." And that this represented a volte-face. On 19 January 1861, The Spectator was bought by a journalist, Meredith Townsend, for £2000; the need to promote the Buchanan position in Britain had been reduced as British papers such as The Times and The Saturday Review turned in his favour, fearing the potential effects of a split in the Union.
Abraham Lincoln had replaced the vacillating Buchanan and Moran's position in London was in doubt now that Dallas had been removed as ambassador. In addition, the owners had been pumping money into a loss-making publication and were reluctant to continue the practice. From the outset, Townsend took up an anti-Buchanan, anti-slavery position, arguing that his unwillingness to act decisively had been a weakness and a contributor to the problems apparent in the US, he soon went into partnership with Richard Holt Hutton, a theologian whose friend William Gladstone called him "the first critic of the nineteenth century". Townsend's wri