Jazz is a music genre that originated in the African-American communities of New Orleans, United States, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, developed from roots in blues and ragtime. Jazz is seen by many as "America's classical music". Since the 1920s Jazz Age, jazz has become recognized as a major form of musical expression, it emerged in the form of independent traditional and popular musical styles, all linked by the common bonds of African-American and European-American musical parentage with a performance orientation. Jazz is characterized by swing and blue notes and response vocals and improvisation. Jazz has roots in West African cultural and musical expression, in African-American music traditions including blues and ragtime, as well as European military band music. Intellectuals around the world have hailed jazz as "one of America's original art forms"; as jazz spread around the world, it drew on national and local musical cultures, which gave rise to different styles. New Orleans jazz began in the early 1910s, combining earlier brass-band marches, French quadrilles, biguine and blues with collective polyphonic improvisation.
In the 1930s arranged dance-oriented swing big bands, Kansas City jazz, a hard-swinging, improvisational style and Gypsy jazz were the prominent styles. Bebop emerged in the 1940s, shifting jazz from danceable popular music toward a more challenging "musician's music", played at faster tempos and used more chord-based improvisation. Cool jazz developed near the end of the 1940s, introducing calmer, smoother sounds and long, linear melodic lines; the 1950s saw the emergence of free jazz, which explored playing without regular meter and formal structures, in the mid-1950s, hard bop emerged, which introduced influences from rhythm and blues and blues in the saxophone and piano playing. Modal jazz developed in the late 1950s, using the mode, or musical scale, as the basis of musical structure and improvisation. Jazz-rock fusion appeared in the late 1960s and early 1970s, combining jazz improvisation with rock music's rhythms, electric instruments, amplified stage sound. In the early 1980s, a commercial form of jazz fusion called smooth jazz became successful, garnering significant radio airplay.
Other styles and genres abound in the 2000s, such as Afro-Cuban jazz. The origin of the word "jazz" has resulted in considerable research, its history is well documented, it is believed to be related to "jasm", a slang term dating back to 1860 meaning "pep, energy". The earliest written record of the word is in a 1912 article in the Los Angeles Times in which a minor league baseball pitcher described a pitch which he called a "jazz ball" "because it wobbles and you can't do anything with it"; the use of the word in a musical context was documented as early as 1915 in the Chicago Daily Tribune. Its first documented use in a musical context in New Orleans was in a November 14, 1916 Times-Picayune article about "jas bands". In an interview with NPR, musician Eubie Blake offered his recollections of the slang connotations of the term, saying, "When Broadway picked it up, they called it'J-A-Z-Z', it wasn't called that. It was spelled'J-A-S-S'; that was dirty, if you knew what it was, you wouldn't say it in front of ladies."
The American Dialect Society named it the Word of the Twentieth Century. Jazz is difficult to define because it encompasses a wide range of music spanning a period of over 100 years, from ragtime to the rock-infused fusion. Attempts have been made to define jazz from the perspective of other musical traditions, such as European music history or African music, but critic Joachim-Ernst Berendt argues that its terms of reference and its definition should be broader, defining jazz as a "form of art music which originated in the United States through the confrontation of the Negro with European music" and arguing that it differs from European music in that jazz has a "special relationship to time defined as'swing'". Jazz involves "a spontaneity and vitality of musical production in which improvisation plays a role" and contains a "sonority and manner of phrasing which mirror the individuality of the performing jazz musician". In the opinion of Robert Christgau, "most of us would say that inventing meaning while letting loose is the essence and promise of jazz".
A broader definition that encompasses different eras of jazz has been proposed by Travis Jackson: "it is music that includes qualities such as swing, group interaction, developing an'individual voice', being open to different musical possibilities". Krin Gibbard argued that "jazz is a construct" which designates "a number of musics with enough in common to be understood as part of a coherent tradition". In contrast to commentators who have argued for excluding types of jazz, musicians are sometimes reluctant to define the music they play. Duke Ellington, one of jazz's most famous figures, said, "It's all music." Although jazz is considered difficult to define, in part because it contains many subgenres, improvisation is one of its defining elements. The centrality of improvisation is attributed to the influence of earlier forms of music such as blues, a form of folk music which arose in part from the work songs and field hollers of African-American slaves on plantations; these work songs were structured around a repetitive call-and-response pattern, but early blues was improvisational.
Classical music performance is evaluated more by its fidelity to the musical score, with less attention given to interpretation and accompaniment. The classical performer's goal is to play the composition. In contrast, jazz is characterized by the product of i
Express Yourself (N.W.A song)
"Express Yourself" is a song recorded by American hip hop group N. W. A, performed solo by Dr. Dre; the song, off their 1988 album Straight Outta Compton, samples Charles Wright & the Watts 103rd Street Rhythm Band's song of the same name. Unlike most songs on the album and by N. W. A, the song is devoid of profanity. "Express Yourself" was released in 1989 as the album's last single, the album version of the track features rap vocals from Dr. Dre only whereas the 2002 reissue, single edition and video version features small verses from MC Ren and Ice Cube, the writer of the song; the song reached number 26 in the UK in September 1989. The song's vocals are handled by Dr. Dre though an extended version features interludes from Ice Cube and MC Ren; the song samples Charles Wright & the Watts 103 Street Rhythm Band's hit titled "Express Yourself". The song's lyrics focus on the concept of free expression and the constraints placed on rappers by radio censorship; the song is notable for including lines criticising other rappers for not swearing in order to get radio airplay despite the song itself containing no profanity, being based on a pop music sample with a clearly'radio friendly' tone.
In May 1990, the Australian Broadcasting Corporation's music radio station Triple J notably stunted by playing "Express Yourself" on a loop. The station's staff had gone on strike over the suspension of Triple J's news director, Nick Franklin, after he had played a portion of fellow N. W. A. Song "Fuck tha Police" in a segment discussing the song's subject matter; the station had, been playing the song without incident for several months, but ABC's radio head had requested that the song be given a "rest". The song was played 82 times in a row. Triple J paid tribute to the event in April 2014, when the launch of its new service Double J was preceded with another loop of "Express Yourself", including the original recording and covers performed by Australian musicians, such as Darren Hanlon and The Audreys; the music video starts with a white video of slaves working on a plantation. The video moves to the ghetto, as the band members walk through it and dance with the local residents. A "No Rapping" sign is shown.
A mounted officer enforces the law on the crowd. Band members are depicted rapping in a prison environment. On Dr. Dre plays the role of the US president. At one point he is talking on the phone with Mikhail Gorbachev, a photo of Martin Luther King can be seen in the background. A parody of John F. Kennedy's assassination follows; the video ends with Dr. Dre being executed in an electric chair. In the version appearing on the EMI YouTube channel numerous parts are blurred out including logos and faces. Silkk the Shocker recorded a version of the song on the N. W. A tribute album, Straight Outta Compton: N. W. A 10th Anniversary Tribute, released as a single and had a promotional music video. Between the Rancid releases of... And Out Come the Wolves and Life Won't Wait from 1995 to 1998, Tim Armstrong recorded a version of "Express Yourself" with the band The Silencers on the Life Won't Wait Demos; the first half of the demo consists of Rancid demos and the second half consists of The Silencers demos.
Stretch Arm Strong recorded a version of "Express Yourself" for "Engage." Labrinth released his own rendition of the song in 2012. German metal band Rammstein sampled the intro to "Express Yourself", albeit slower, in their song "Klavier" off their sophomore album Sehnsucht; the Basque band Negu Gorriak released his cover version in their ultimate album Salam, Agur in 1996. This last album was only made of covers, "Express Yourself" is the last one, named "Adieraz zaitez" in Euskara "Express Yourself" – 4:42 "Bonus Beats" – 3:03 "Straight Outta Compton" – 4:54 "A Bitch Iz a Bitch" – 3:10 Music video on YouTube
Pop music is a genre of popular music that originated in its modern form in the United States and United Kingdom during the mid-1950s. The terms "popular music" and "pop music" are used interchangeably, although the former describes all music, popular and includes many diverse styles. "Pop" and "rock" were synonymous terms until the late 1960s, when they became differentiated from each other. Although much of the music that appears on record charts is seen as pop music, the genre is distinguished from chart music. Pop music is eclectic, borrows elements from other styles such as urban, rock and country. Identifying factors include short to medium-length songs written in a basic format, as well as common use of repeated choruses, melodic tunes, hooks. David Hatch and Stephen Millward define pop music as "a body of music, distinguishable from popular and folk musics". According to Pete Seeger, pop music is "professional music which draws upon both folk music and fine arts music". Although pop music is seen as just the singles charts, it is not the sum of all chart music.
The music charts contain songs from a variety of sources, including classical, jazz and novelty songs. As a genre, pop music is seen to develop separately. Therefore, the term "pop music" may be used to describe a distinct genre, designed to appeal to all characterized as "instant singles-based music aimed at teenagers" in contrast to rock music as "album-based music for adults". Pop music continuously evolves along with the term's definition. According to music writer Bill Lamb, popular music is defined as "the music since industrialization in the 1800s, most in line with the tastes and interests of the urban middle class." The term "pop song" was first used in 1926, in the sense of a piece of music "having popular appeal". Hatch and Millward indicate that many events in the history of recording in the 1920s can be seen as the birth of the modern pop music industry, including in country and hillbilly music. According to the website of The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, the term "pop music" "originated in Britain in the mid-1950s as a description for rock and roll and the new youth music styles that it influenced".
The Oxford Dictionary of Music states that while pop's "earlier meaning meant concerts appealing to a wide audience since the late 1950s, pop has had the special meaning of non-classical mus in the form of songs, performed by such artists as the Beatles, the Rolling Stones, ABBA, etc." Grove Music Online states that " in the early 1960s,'pop music' competed terminologically with beat music, while in the US its coverage overlapped with that of'rock and roll'". From about 1967, the term “pop music” was used in opposition to the term rock music, a division that gave generic significance to both terms. While rock aspired to authenticity and an expansion of the possibilities of popular music, pop was more commercial and accessible. According to British musicologist Simon Frith, pop music is produced "as a matter of enterprise not art", is "designed to appeal to everyone" but "doesn't come from any particular place or mark off any particular taste". Frith adds that it is "not driven by any significant ambition except profit and commercial reward and, in musical terms, it is conservative".
It is, "provided from on high rather than being made from below... Pop is not a do-it-yourself music but is professionally produced and packaged". According to Frith, characteristics of pop music include an aim of appealing to a general audience, rather than to a particular sub-culture or ideology, an emphasis on craftsmanship rather than formal "artistic" qualities. Music scholar Timothy Warner said it has an emphasis on recording and technology, rather than live performance; the main medium of pop music is the song between two and a half and three and a half minutes in length marked by a consistent and noticeable rhythmic element, a mainstream style and a simple traditional structure. Common variants include the verse-chorus form and the thirty-two-bar form, with a focus on melodies and catchy hooks, a chorus that contrasts melodically and harmonically with the verse; the beat and the melodies tend to be simple, with limited harmonic accompaniment. The lyrics of modern pop songs focus on simple themes – love and romantic relationships – although there are notable exceptions.
Harmony and chord progressions in pop music are "that of classical European tonality, only more simple-minded." Clichés include the barbershop quartet-style blues scale-influenced harmony. There was a lessening of the influence of traditional views of the circle of fifths between the mid-1950s and the late 1970s, including less predominance for the dominant function. Throughout its development, pop music has absorbed influences from other genres of popular music. Early pop music drew on the sentimental ballad for its form, gained its use of vocal harmonies from gospel and soul music, instrumentation from jazz and rock music, orchestration from classical music, tempo from dance music, backing from electronic music, rhythmic elements from hip-hop music, spoken passages from rap. In the 1960s, the majority of mainstream pop music fell in two categories: guitar and bass groups or singers
Live at the Wireless
Live at the Wireless is a radio show, now a long-standing tradition, of Triple J, an Australian radio station. Live music is one of the central philosophies of the station; the live broadcasts take a number of forms. Some broadcasts are from smaller pub gigs around the country. Many are bands that have been invited into the Triple J studios to play a live set of tracks acoustic. Triple J will give away tickets to listeners, to allow them to be a part of a special live performance in a secret location. All of the live broadcasts are recorded, the station has released several double-CD compilations of live tracks. Many complete live sets are traded by music fans worldwide over the internet. Live music is not exclusive to the Live at the Wireless segment - many other shows, including the specialty music shows have bands playing acoustic in the studio. Ash have released their Live at the Wireless set from 1996 as an album - see Live at the Wireless. Recorded by the Triple team and released in 1983 was Triple J - Live At The Wireless 1 Private Lives - "Pleas" The Particles - Wood" Samurai Trash - "Samurai Stomp" The Go-Betweens - "Hammer the Hammer" The Triffids - "My Baby Thinks She's a Train" Second Language - "Random Men" Do-Re-Mi - "Bring the Hammer Down" Dropbears - "Lay Him Down" Soggy Porridge - "You've Changed" Hoodoo Gurus - "Dig It Up" Idiom Flesh - "Ritual" Recorded by the Triple team and released in 1991 was Triple J - Live At The Wireless 2 Killing Time- Holy Juice Ratcat - Skin Violent Femmes - Kiss Off Louis Tillett- Long Walk Home Concrete Blonde - Make Me Cry Faith No More - Falling to Pieces Nick Barker & The Reptiles- Miles To Go Pop Will Eat Itself- Def.
Con. One Beasts Of Bourbon- Bad Revisited Falling Joys- Puppy Drink Andy Prieboy- Tomorrow, Wendy Not Drowning, Waving- Albert Namatjira Archie Roach - Charcoal Lane The Welcome Mat- Cake Mudhoney- Touch Me I'm Sick Straitjacket Fits - Such A Daze The Blackeyed Susans- Glory Glory Melanie Oxley & Chris Abrahams - Benchtop Henry Rollins- I Know You Recorded by the Triple team and released in 1993 was Triple J - Live At The Wireless 3 DEF Rhyme - Sex Be High Underground Lovers - Promenade Matthew Sweet - Devil With the Green Eyes The Truth- My Heavy Friend Lucinda Williams- Changed The Locks Throwing Muses - Firepile Things of Stone and Wood - Share This Wine Skunkhour - Bootyfull Tumbleweed- Sundial Headless Chickens - Juice Belly - Dusted DIG- Reinvent Yourself Badloves - I Remember The Sharp- Train Of Thought Screaming Jets - Here I Go The Plums - Ride Chris Wilson- The Big One Faith No More - Midlife Crisis Live at the Wireless
ABC Local Radio
ABC Local Radio is a network of publicly owned radio stations in Australia, operated by the Australian Broadcasting Corporation. ABC Local Radio stations broadcast across the continent using terrestrial transmitters and satellites, its programming consists of news, current affairs, entertainment, sport and local affairs. They are reckoned as the flagship ABC radio stations in their areas. Depending on the time of day and the day of the week, programming can either be purely local, broadcast from the state or territory capital city ABC station, or simulcast across all ABC Local Radio services across the country. Local Radio was known internally as ABC Radio 1 in metropolitan regions and ABC Radio 3 in regional areas. Radio 1 was a local format while Radio 3 was more networked and included content from the national programme, Radio 2. In the 1980s, Radio National emerged from Radio 2 and Radio 3 dropped its Radio 2 content with Radio 1 becoming ABC Metro Radio and Radio 3 becoming ABC Regional Radio.
The Regional Radio stations provided local programming in breakfast and drive but networked common content for most of their broadcasting hours. Some different, local market formats emerged, including the Darwin Metro 8DDD, FM105.7 and Gold Coast Regional, ABC Coast FM, 91.7. Up until the mid-1990s, the majority of the local radio stations identified on-air as. In the 1990s, a different convention was used as ABC Radio or FM. In 2000, these two identical networks merged as ABC Local Radio. From this point all ABC Local Radio stations ceased to identify themselves according to their callsigns or other existing names, instead use the format ABC, or ABC where there are multiple frequencies broadcasting the same service. However, as the callsigns were used continuously for up to seventy years and are much shorter than the new names, many long-term listeners still use these callsigns to refer to ABC Local Radio stations. In January 2017, ABC Local Radio rebranded with a new logo; the new round logo reflects the dropping of the call numbers of each local radio station as part of the network's multiplatform philosophy.
All stations now use the format ABC Radio with the region. There are sixty ABC Local Radio stations, including 51 regional stations and 9 metropolitan stations; the metropolitan stations are: ABC Radio Sydney ABC Radio Melbourne ABC Radio Brisbane ABC Radio Adelaide ABC Radio Perth ABC Radio Hobart ABC Radio Canberra ABC Radio Darwin The regional stations are: 999 ABC Broken Hill 92.5 ABC Central Coast ABC Central West ABC Coffs Coast 97.3 ABC Illawarra ABC Mid North Coast ABC New England North West 1233 ABC Newcastle ABC North Coast ABC Riverina ABC South East NSW ABC Upper Hunter ABC Western Plains 107.9 ABC Ballarat ABC Central Victoria ABC Gippsland ABC Goulburn Murray ABC Mildura Swan Hill 97.7 ABC Shepparton ABC South West Victoria ABC Western Victoria ABC Northern Tasmania ABC Capricornia 91.7 ABC Gold Coast ABC Far North ABC North Queensland ABC North West Queensland ABC Southern Queensland 90.3 ABC Sunshine Coast ABC Tropical North ABC Western Queensland ABC Wide Bay ABC North and West SA ABC Riverland ABC South East SA ABC West Coast SA ABC Goldfields-Esperance ABC Great Southern ABC Kimberley ABC Midwest & Wheatbelt ABC North West WA ABC South Coast ABC South West WA 783 ABC Alice Springs 106.1 ABC Katherine The metropolitan and regional stations originate most of their own programming.
Until 2015, the regional stations simulcast one of the metropolitan stations when they weren't airing local programming. They simulcast their state's capital city station. In 2015, the ABC formed a Regional Division to again split its regional stations from the metropolitan counterparts. 1233 ABC Newcastle was transferred from the metropolitan network to the new regional division and 14 of the regional network's member stations began streaming. It was announced from 2016 that the regional Local Radio stations would broadcast live each weekday and Saturday morning in a restructure of services, as well as a local Country Hour program at midday and afternoon drive time. During the mid-afternoon and evening, the regional stations will act as satellites of the nearest metropolitan station the capital city station. Despite the loss of 100 websites from the ABC, the Regional network introduced local news websites for its 48 stations containing a mix of news and lifestyle content for regional audiences.
Radio National Radio Australia Timeline of Australian radio ABC Local Radio Australian Broadcasting Corporation
Mikel Mason "Mikey" Robins is an Australian media personality and writer. He is best known for the satirical game show Good News Week, which ran on the ABC and Network Ten between 1996 and 2000, returned again when the series was resurrected in February 2008. Robins was born in New South Wales, he attended the University of Newcastle, where he obtained a Bachelor of Arts degree with a double major in English and Drama. He was a member of The Castanet Club with Steve Maynard. Robins was a breakfast radio presenter for the Australian FM radio station Triple J for seven years, ending in 1999, his co-presenters included Paul McDermott, Jen Oldershaw and The Sandman. He formally co-hosted the breakfast program on Sydney radio station Triple M with Amanda Keller in 2001 and Vega 95.3 alongside Tony Squires and Rebecca Wilson. The recognition he gained through Triple J launched Robins' career in television comedy, he remained with Good News Week throughout its initial run between 1996 and 2000, when Network Ten renewed the series in 2008 he returned in his original role.
Robins' other television projects have included several documentaries on Australian pubs such as Mikey and Beer Nuts, as well as appearances on the ABC series The Fat, the Seven Network's breakfast program, Sunrise. In 2005, he was a contestant on the TV show Australian's Brainiest Comedian. In the final round, he beat Bob Downe, he won A$20,000, which he donated to the NSW Autism Association. Robins is a published author, having co-written two books, Three Beers and a Chinese Meal, a bestseller, Big Man's World. In 1999, Robins married his long-time partner Laura Williams. Robins is a supporter of the rugby league club South Sydney Rabbitohs. Robins's father, sold hair-care products and worked for a time as an announcer at weekend surf lifesaving carnivals, which Robins says was his "introduction to talking into a microphone"; when he was eight, Robins's father died two years later. Robins claims he reacted to his father's death by eating more and giving up sports, pointing to this as the beginning of his battle with obesity.
His obesity was a frequent source of comedy in his performances, but held serious health implications. In 2003, he was diagnosed with extreme sleep apnoea which caused him to stop breathing around 70 times an hour while he slept, due in large part to his weight. In addition, he suffered from high cholesterol, borderline type 2 diabetes, abnormal liver function and poor mobility. In 2006, he underwent lapband bariatric surgery to combat his obesity. At the time, Robins weighed close to 150 kg. Razer, Helen. 3 Beers and a Chinese Meal. Milsons Point, NSW: Random House Australia. ISBN 0091830729. Squires, Tony. Big Man's World. Milsons Point, NSW: Random House Australia. ISBN 0091833817. Robins, Mikey. Seven Deadly Sins and One Very Naughty Fruit. Sydney, NSW: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-1925750164. Mikey Robins and nephew Markus Williams. "Contributor". Laugh Even Louder!. By Camp Quality. Gosford, New South Wales: Scholastic Australia Pty Limited. ISBN 978-1-74169-022-4. Mikey Robins on IMDb
Blues is a music genre and musical form, originated in the Deep South of the United States around the 1870s by African Americans from roots in African musical traditions, African-American work songs and the folk music of white Americans of European heritage. Blues incorporated spirituals, work songs, field hollers, shouts and rhymed simple narrative ballads; the blues form, ubiquitous in jazz and blues and rock and roll, is characterized by the call-and-response pattern, the blues scale and specific chord progressions, of which the twelve-bar blues is the most common. Blue notes thirds or fifths flattened in pitch, are an essential part of the sound. Blues shuffles or walking bass reinforce the trance-like rhythm and form a repetitive effect known as the groove. Blues as a genre is characterized by its lyrics, bass lines, instrumentation. Early traditional blues verses consisted of a single line repeated four times, it was only in the first decades of the 20th century that the most common current structure became standard: the AAB pattern, consisting of a line sung over the four first bars, its repetition over the next four, a longer concluding line over the last bars.
Early blues took the form of a loose narrative relating the racial discrimination and other challenges experienced by African-Americans. Many elements, such as the call-and-response format and the use of blue notes, can be traced back to the music of Africa; the origins of the blues are closely related to the religious music of the Afro-American community, the spirituals. The first appearance of the blues is dated to after the ending of slavery and the development of juke joints, it is associated with the newly acquired freedom of the former slaves. Chroniclers began to report about blues music at the dawn of the 20th century; the first publication of blues sheet music was in 1908. Blues has since evolved from unaccompanied vocal music and oral traditions of slaves into a wide variety of styles and subgenres. Blues subgenres include country blues, such as Delta blues and Piedmont blues, as well as urban blues styles such as Chicago blues and West Coast blues. World War II marked the transition from acoustic to electric blues and the progressive opening of blues music to a wider audience white listeners.
In the 1960s and 1970s, a hybrid form called blues rock developed, which blended blues styles with rock music. The term Blues may have come from "blue devils", meaning sadness; the phrase blue devils may have been derived from Britain in the 1600s, when the term referred to the "intense visual hallucinations that can accompany severe alcohol withdrawal". As time went on, the phrase lost the reference to devils, "it came to mean a state of agitation or depression." By the 1800s in the United States, the term blues was associated with drinking alcohol, a meaning which survives in the phrase blue law, which prohibits the sale of alcohol on Sunday. Though the use of the phrase in African-American music may be older, it has been attested to in print since 1912, when Hart Wand's "Dallas Blues" became the first copyrighted blues composition. In lyrics the phrase is used to describe a depressed mood, it is in this sense of a sad state of mind that one of the earliest recorded references to "the blues" was written by Charlotte Forten aged 25, in her diary on December 14, 1862.
She was a free-born black from Pennsylvania, working as a schoolteacher in South Carolina, instructing both slaves and freedmen, wrote that she "came home with the blues" because she felt lonesome and pitied herself. She overcame her depression and noted a number of songs, such as Poor Rosy, that were popular among the slaves. Although she admitted being unable to describe the manner of singing she heard, Forten wrote that the songs "can't be sung without a full heart and a troubled spirit", conditions that have inspired countless blues songs; the lyrics of early traditional blues verses often consisted of a single line repeated four times. It was only in the first decades of the 20th century that the most common current structure became standard: the so-called "AAB" pattern, consisting of a line sung over the four first bars, its repetition over the next four, a longer concluding line over the last bars. Two of the first published blues songs, "Dallas Blues" and "Saint Louis Blues", were 12-bar blues with the AAB lyric structure.
W. C. Handy wrote; the lines are sung following a pattern closer to rhythmic talk than to a melody. Early blues took the form of a loose narrative. African-American singers voiced his or her "personal woes in a world of harsh reality: a lost love, the cruelty of police officers, oppression at the hands of white folk, hard times"; this melancholy has led to the suggestion of an Igbo origin for blues because of the reputation the Igbo had throughout plantations in the Americas for their melancholic music and outlook on life when they were enslaved. The lyrics relate troubles experienced within African American society. For instance Blind Lemon Jefferson's "Rising High Water Blues" tells of the Great Mississippi Flood of 1927: "Backwater rising, Southern peoples can't make no time I said, backwater rising, Southern peoples can't make no time And I can't get no hearing from that Memphis girl of mine."Although the blues gained an association with misery and oppression, the lyrics could be humorous and raunchy: "Rebecca, get your big legs off of me, Rebecca, get your big legs off of m