Crown (British coin)
The British crown, the successor to the English crown and the Scottish dollar, came into being with the Union of the kingdoms of England and Scotland in 1707. As with the English coin, its value was five shillings, in that format it has continued to be minted, even following decimalisation of the British currency in 1971. However, as the result of inflation the value of the coin was revised upwards in 1990 to five pounds, the kingdom of England minted gold Crowns in the 16th and 17th centuries. The dies for all gold and silver coins of Queen Anne and King George I were engraved by John Croker, the British crown was always a large coin, and from the 19th century it did not circulate well. However, crowns were struck in a new monarchs coronation year, true of each monarch since King George IV up until the present monarch in 1953. The Queen Victoria Gothic crown of 1847 and produced to celebrate the Gothic revival) is considered by many to be the most beautiful British coin ever minted. The King George V wreath crowns struck from 1927 through 1936 depict a wreath on the reverse of the coin and were struck in very low numbers.
Generally struck late in the year and intended to be purchased as Christmas gifts, they did not circulate well, with the rarest of all dates,1934, the 1927 wreath crowns were struck as proofs only. With its large size, many of the coins were primarily commemoratives. The 1951 issue was for the Festival of Britain, and was struck in proof condition. The 1965 issue carried the image of Winston Churchill on the reverse, the first time a non-monarch or commoner was ever placed on a British coin, production of the Churchill Crown began on 11 October 1965, and stopped in the summer of 1966. The crown was worth five shillings until decimalisation in February 1971, the last five shilling piece was minted in 1965. The crown coin was nicknamed the dollar, but is not to be confused with the British trade dollar that circulated in the Orient, in 2014, a new world record price was achieved for a milled silver crown. The coin was issued as a pattern by engraver Thomas Simon in 1663 and this was presented to Charles II as the new crown piece but was ultimately rejected in favour of the Roettiers Brothers design.
Auctioneers Spink & Son of London sold the coin on 27 March 2014 for £396,000 including commission, after decimalisation on 15 February 1971, a new coin known as a 25p piece was introduced. All of these issues were struck in large mintages, in cases, and in cupro-nickel. The legal tender value of the crown remained as five shillings from 1544 to 1965, for most of this period there was no denominational designation or face value mark of value displayed on the coin. From 1927 to 1939, the word CROWN appears, and from 1951 to 1960 this was changed to FIVE SHILLINGS
One pound (British coin)
The British one pound coin is a denomination of the pound sterling. Its obverse bears the Latin engraving D G REG “Dei Gratia Regina” meaning, “By the grace of God, Queen” and it has featured the profile of Queen Elizabeth II since the coins introduction on 21 April 1983. Four different portraits of the Queen have been used, with the latest design by Jody Clark being introduced in 2015. One-pound notes continue to be issued in Jersey and the Isle of Man, and by the Royal Bank of Scotland, since 28 March 2017, two versions of the one pound coin have been in circulation - the original round design and a new 12-sided design. As of March 2014 there were an estimated 1,553 million round £1 coins in circulation, of which the Royal Mint estimated in 2014 that 3. 04% were counterfeit. In an effort to counter this, the Royal Mint introduced the new 12-sided coin, which is bimetallic like the current £2 coin, the round pound will remain in circulation until October 2017. To date, five different obverses have been used, for the first three of these, the inscription was ELIZABETH II D. G. REG. F. D.
2013, where 2013 is replaced by the year of minting, the fourth design, unveiled in March 2015, expanded the inscription slightly to ELIZABETH II DEI. GRA. REG. FID. DEF. The fifth design, introduced in March 2017, reverted to D. G. REG. F. D. In summary, In 1983 and 1984 the portrait of Queen Elizabeth II by Arnold Machin appeared on the obverse, in which the Queen wears the Girls of Great Britain and Ireland Tiara. Between 1985 and 1997 the portrait by Raphael Maklouf was used, between 1998 and 2015 the portrait by Ian Rank-Broadley was used, again featuring the tiara, with a signature-mark IRB below the portrait. In 2015 the portrait by Jody Clark was introduced, in which the Queen wears the George IV State Diadem, in August 2005 the Royal Mint launched a competition to find new reverse designs for all circulating coins apart from the £2 coin. The winner, announced in April 2008, was Matthew Dent, the designs for the 1p, 2p, 5p, 10p, 20p and 50p coins depict sections of the Royal Shield that form the whole shield when placed together.
The shield in its entirety is featured on the £1 coin and this edge inscription may frequently be upside-down. Since 2008, national-based designs have still been minted, but alongside the new standard version, the inscription ONE POUND appears on all reverse designs. The reverse of the new 12-sided bimetallic pound coin, introduced on 28 March 2017, was chosen by a design competition. The competition to design the reverse of coin was opened in September 2014. It was won in March 2015 by 15-year-old David Pearce from Walsall, the design features a rose, leek and shamrock bound by a crown
Half crown (British coin)
The half crown was a denomination of British money, equivalent to two shillings and sixpence, or one-eighth of a pound. The half crown was first issued in 1549, in the reign of Edward VI. No half crowns were issued in the reign of Mary, but from the reign of Elizabeth I half crowns were issued in every reign except Edward VIII, the half crown was demonetised on 1 January 1970, the year before the United Kingdom adopted decimal currency on Decimal Day. During the English Interregnum of 1649–1660, a half crown was issued, bearing the arms of the Commonwealth of England. When Oliver Cromwell made himself Lord Protector of England, half crowns were issued bearing his semi-royal portrait, the half crown did not display its value on the reverse until 1893. King Henry VIII1526, the first English half crown was struck in gold, king Edward VI1551, issued the first half crown in silver. The coin was dated and showed the king riding a horse, Queen Mary I, the half crown was struck on Marys marriage to Philip II of Spain in 1554 but was never issued for circulation.
Http, //www. petitioncrown. com/spare15_LK47. html Queen Elizabeth I, at the end of the reign silver half crowns were issued. King James I, gold crowns were issued again. During the reign silver half crowns were issued, king Charles I, silver half crowns were issued, including those struck as obsidional money, money of necessity during the Civil War period. Commonwealth of England, Oliver Cromwell silver half crowns were issued, during the years 1656 and 1658 milled half crowns were issued of Oliver Cromwell. King Charles II 1663–1685, silver half crowns were issued, king James II 1685–1688, silver half crown. King William III & Queen Mary II 1689–1694, silver half crown, William III of England 1694–1702, silver half crown. Queen Anne 1702–1714, silver half crown, king George I 1714–1727, silver half crown. King George II 1727–1760, silver half crown, king George III 1760–1820, silver half crown. King George IV 1820–1830, silver half crown, king William IV 1830–1837, silver half crown. Queen Victoria 1837–1901, silver half crown, king Edward VII 1902–1910, silver half crown.
King George V 1910–1936, silver half crown, sterling silver until 1919, king Edward VIII1936, 50% silver half crown
Penny (British pre-decimal coin)
The pre-decimal penny was a coin worth 1/240th of a pound sterling. Its symbol was d, from the Roman denarius and it was a continuation of the earlier English penny, and in Scotland it had the same monetary value as one pre-1707 Scottish shilling. The penny was minted in silver, but from the late 18th century it was minted in copper. The plural of penny is pence when referring to a quantity of money, thus 8d is eight pence, but eight pennies means specifically eight individual penny coins. Before Decimal Day in 1971 twelve pence made a shilling, and twenty shillings made a pound, values less than a pound were usually written in terms of shillings and pence, e. g.42 pence would be three shillings and sixpence, pronounced three and six. Values of less than a shilling were simply written in terms of pence and this version of the penny was made obsolete in 1971 by decimalisation, and was replaced by the decimal penny which had a value 140% more. The kingdoms of England and Scotland were merged by the 1707 Act of Union to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the penny replaced the shilling of the pound scots.
The design and specifications of the English penny were unchanged by the Union, Queen Annes reign saw pennies minted in 1708,1709,1710, and 1713. These issues, were not for circulation, instead being minted as Maundy money. The prohibitive cost of minting silver coins had meant the size of pennies had been reduced over the years, the practice of minting pennies only for Maundy money continued through the reigns of George I and George II, and into that of George III. In 1797, the government authorised Matthew Boulton to strike copper pennies and twopences at his Soho Mint in Birmingham. At the time it was believed that the value of a coin should correspond to the value of the material it was made from. This requirement meant that the coins would be larger than the silver pennies minted previously. The large size of the coins, combined with the rim where the inscription was incuse i. e. punched into the metal rather than standing proud of it. These pennies were minted over the course of years. By 1802, the production of privately issued provincial tokens had ceased, however, in the next ten years the intrinsic value of copper rose.
The return of privately minted token coinage was evident by 1811 and endemic by 1812, the Royal Mint undertook a massive recoinage programme in 1816, with large quantities of gold and silver coin being minted. To thwart the further issuance of private token coinage, in 1817 an Act of Parliament was passed which forbade the manufacture of private token coinage under very severe penalties
Coins of the pound sterling
The standard circulating coinage of the United Kingdom is denominated in pounds sterling, since the introduction of the two-pound coin in 1994, ranges in value from one penny to two pounds. Since decimalisation, on 15 February 1971, the pound has been divided into 100 pence, from the 16th century until decimalisation, the pound was divided into 20 shillings, each of 12 pence. British coins are minted by the Royal Mint in Llantrisant, the Royal Mint commissions the coins designs. As of 30 March 2010, there were an estimated 28 billion coins circulating in the United Kingdom, the first decimal coins were circulated in 1968. These were the five pence and ten pence, and had values of one shilling, the decimal coins are minted in copper-plated steel, nickel-plated steel, cupro-nickel and nickel-brass. The two-pound coins, and, as of the 28th March 2017, all the circulating coins have an effigy of Queen Elizabeth II on the obverse, and various national and regional designs, and the denomination, on the reverse.
The exception, the 2008 one-pound coin, depicts the shield of arms on the reverse. All current coins carry a Latin inscription whose full form is ELIZABETH II DEI GRATIA REGINA FIDEI DEFENSATRIX, meaning Elizabeth II, by the grace of God, Queen, in addition to the circulating coinage, the UK mints commemorative decimal coins in the denomination of five pounds. Prior to decimalisation, the denomination was five shillings, that is. Crowns, had a value of 25p from decimalisation until 1981. Ceremonial Maundy money and bullion coinage of gold sovereigns, half sovereigns, some territories outside the United Kingdom, that use the pound sterling, produce their own coinage, with the same denominations and specifications as the UK coinage but local designs. In the years just prior to decimalisation, the circulating British coins were the half crown, the farthing had been withdrawn in 1960. There was the Crown, which was legal tender but only minted on special occasions, all modern coins feature a profile of the current monarchs head.
The direction in which they face changes with each successive monarch, for the Tudors and pre-Restoration Stuarts, both left and right-facing portrait images were minted within the reign of a single monarch. In the Middle Ages, portrait images tended to be full face, the English silver penny was derived from another silver coin, the sceat, of 20 troy grains weight, which was in general circulation in Europe during the Middle Ages. In the 12th century, Henry II established the silver standard for English coinage, of 92. 5% silver and 7. 5% copper. The coinage reform of 1816 set up a ratio and physical sizes for silver coins. Silver was eliminated from coins, except Maundy coins, in 1947, the history of the Royal Mint stretches back to AD886
Five pounds (British gold coin)
However, the £5 coin tends to have a more modern feel and so is normally considered separately. The normal weight of the denomination was 40 grams, the first appearance of the denomination was in the reign of George III, when it was produced in 1820 as a pattern. The obverse shows the right-facing bust of the king with the legend GEORGIUS III D. G. BRITANNIAR, REX F. D. date, while the reverse shows Benedetto Pistruccis now famous St. George and dragon design with no legend. The edge is inscribed on the version, but plain on the proof version. The next appearance of the denomination was in the reign of George IV, the obverse shows the left-facing bust of the king with the legend GEORGIUS IV DEI GRATIA date, while the reverse shows a crowned shield within a mantle cape with the legend BRITANNIARUM REX FID DEF. The 1826 coin has the edge inscription DECUS ET TUTAMEN ANNO REGNI SEPTIMO, the edge may either have the inscription DECUS ET TUTAMEN ANNO REGNI TERTIO or be plain. This issue is the lightest of all the £5 coins, weighing only 38. 7–39.3 grams, the edge of this coin is milled, and it weighs 40 grams.
This coin was produced in the mint at Sydney, Australia. In the reigns of Kings Edward VII, George V, and George VI, all these reigns used the Pistrucci George and Dragon obverse, with the 1902 and 1911 coins having milled edges, though at least some of the 1937 coins have plain edges. The 1902 Edward VII coin was minted at Sydney, being identified by an S above the centre of the date. The reign of Queen Elizabeth II saw a departure from the practice in issuing gold coinage. No further £5 gold pieces were struck until 1980, nine years after decimalisation, coins from 1980 to 1984 use the Arnold Machin effigy of the Queen, while the 1985–1990 coins use the Raphael Maklouf effigy. All these years use the Pistrucci reverse, the £5 coins are 36.02 mm in diameter in contrast to the commemorative crowns that are 38. 6mm diam. Since 1990 £5 coins have been produced in cupronickel, but premium versions in silver and these modern five pound coins are a continuation of the crown which was issued from 1544 as a five shilling coin.
The modern five-pound issues are not issued for circulation, but to mark events or commemorations of national or Royal significance
Florin (British coin)
The British two shilling coin, known as the florin or two bob bit, was issued from 1849 until 1967. It was worth one tenth of a pound, or twenty-four old pence and it should not be confused with the medieval gold florin, which was nominally worth six shillings. In 1968, in the run-up to decimalisation, the two shilling coin was superseded by the ten pence coin, which had the same value and initially the same size. It continued in circulation, alongside the ten pence coin, until 1992, in 1847 a motion was introduced in Parliament calling for the introduction of a decimal currency and the striking of coins of one-tenth and one-hundredth of a pound. The motion was withdrawn on the understanding that a one-tenth pound coin would be produced to test public opinion. The first florins were struck in 1849 as silver coins weighing 11.3 grams and these first coins would have come as rather a shock to the public, as for the first time in nearly 200 years a British coin featured a portrait of the monarch wearing a crown.
Even more of a shock, including to Queen Victoria herself, was the omission of D G – Dei Gratia – from the coins inscription, the inscription around the obverse read VICTORIA REGINA1849. The godless florin may have been minted in 1850 and 1851 with the date 1849, in 1851, the florin was redesigned in a most unusual way. The diameter was increased to 30 millimetres, and all the lettering on the coin was in Gothic script, the date was rendered in Roman numerals. The inscription on the obverse read victoria d g britt reg f d mdcccli, the Gothic Florin was produced each year until 1887. The diameter was reduced to 29.5 millimetres, all the inscriptions were in Latin letters and Arabic numerals. The inscription on the obverse read VICTORIA DEI GRATIA, while the reverse read FID DEF BRITT REG date, the Jubilee Head issue was released each year between 1887 and 1892. The diameter was reduced again, to 28.5 millimetres and this issue was released each year between 1893 and 1901. Following British custom, when Queen Victoria died and her son ascended to the throne, the florin of King Edward VII was minted each year from 1902 to 1910.
It remained at 11.3 grams weight and 28.5 millimetres diameter, Florins bearing his left-facing effigy were minted in each year of the reign of King George V except 1910 and 1934. The design of the reverse was similar to Queen Victorias Jubilee florin, after the end of George Vs reign, the word florin no longer appears on British coins. Throughout 1936, coins of all denominations continued to be using the designs of George V. King George VIs florins, produced each year between 1937 and 1951, look much like the one planned for his brother Edward VIII
Sovereign (English coin)
The English gold sovereign was a gold coin of the Kingdom of England first issued in 1489 under King Henry VII. While the coin typically had a value of one pound sterling, or twenty shillings. The first sovereigns were of 23-carat gold and weighed 240 grains, King Henry VIII lessened the gold content to 22 carats, or 91. 67%, and under the name of crown gold this became the gold coin standard in both the British Isles and the United States. The coins weight was reduced several times until it was last minted in 1604, Laurels and guineas took its place. The inscription reads A DNO FACTU EST ISTUD ET EST MIRAB IN OCULIS NRS - abbreviation for A DOMINO FACTUM EST ISTUD ET EST MIRABILE IN OCULIS NOSTRIS
Sovereign (British coin)
The sovereign is a gold coin of the United Kingdom, with a nominal value of one pound sterling. Prior to 1932 it was a circulating coin within Britains Gold Standard currency. Today it is used as a coin and is sometimes mounted in jewellery. Named after the English gold sovereign, last minted in 1604, minting these new sovereigns began in 1817. The gold content was fixed by the act of 1816 at 1320/5607 troy ounces. This weight has remained almost constant — rounding at 10−6 g took place on its legal redefinition in the rather than fractional system of coin weights. Sovereigns have been minted in the United Kingdom from 1817 to 1917, in 1925, in the past Australia and South Africa all occasionally minted the coins. Today, they are minted at the Royal Mint in Llantrisant, Wales, in addition to the sovereign, the Royal Mint struck ten-shilling half sovereigns, two-pound double sovereigns, and five-pound quintuple sovereign coins. Only the sovereign and the sovereign were commonly struck for circulation.
In 2009, The Royal Mint released a new coin in the sovereign series and this was succeeded by a portrayal of Saint George killing a dragon, engraved by Benedetto Pistrucci. In Victorian times it was the practice of the Bank of England to remove worn sovereigns and half sovereigns from circulation, although a billion sovereigns have been minted in total, that figure includes gold that has been coined and recoined a number of times. When gold coins were withdrawn from circulation in 1933 in the US. It was actually the half-sovereign that had the most circulation in Victorian Britain, many sovereigns languished in bank vaults for most of their lives. In 1889 and 1890 Orders in Council were made permitting members of the public to hand in any gold coins that were underweight and have them replaced by full-weight coins. A proclamation was issued in November 1890 that any gold coin struck before 1837 would cease to be legal tender with effect from 28 February 1891. This recycled gold was subsequently reminted into 13,680,486 half sovereigns in 1892 and 10,846,741 sovereigns in 1900, Sovereign obverse dies were used in the nineteenth century to create farthings once they had become worn.
Sovereigns were produced in large quantities until World War I, at time the UK came off the gold standard. From until 1932, sovereigns were produced only at branch mints at Melbourne, Perth, Ottawa, the last regular issue was in 1932
It is subdivided into 100 pence. A number of nations that do not use sterling have called the pound. At various times, the sterling was commodity money or bank notes backed by silver or gold. The pound sterling is the worlds oldest currency still in use, the British Crown dependencies of Guernsey and Jersey produce their own local issues of sterling, the Guernsey pound and the Jersey pound. The pound sterling is used in the Isle of Man, the Bank of England is the central bank for the pound sterling, issuing its own coins and banknotes, and regulating issuance of banknotes by private banks in Scotland and Northern Ireland. Sterling is the fourth most-traded currency in the exchange market, after the United States dollar, the euro. Together with those three currencies it forms the basket of currencies which calculate the value of IMF special drawing rights, Sterling is the third most-held reserve currency in global reserves. The full, official name, pound sterling, is used mainly in formal contexts, otherwise the term pound is normally used.
The abbreviations ster. or stg. are sometimes used, the term British pound is commonly used in less formal contexts, although it is not an official name of the currency. The pound sterling is referred to as cable amongst forex traders, the origins of this term are attributed to the fact that in the 1800s, the dollar/pound sterling exchange rate was transmitted via transatlantic cable. Forex brokers are sometimes referred to as cable dealers, as another established source notes, the compound expression was derived, silver coins known as sterlings were issued in the Saxon kingdoms,240 of them being minted from a pound of silver. Hence, large payments came to be reckoned in pounds of sterlings, in 1260, Henry III granted them a charter of protection. And because the Leagues money was not frequently debased like that of England, English traders stipulated to be paid in pounds of the Easterlings, and land for their Kontor, the Steelyard of London, which by the 1340s was called Easterlings Hall, or Esterlingeshalle.
For further discussion of the etymology of sterling, see sterling silver, the currency sign for the pound sign is £, which is usually written with a single cross-bar, though a version with a double cross-bar is sometimes seen. The ISO4217 currency code is GBP, the abbreviation UKP is used but this is non-standard because the ISO3166 country code for the United Kingdom is GB. The Crown dependencies use their own codes, GGP, JEP, stocks are often traded in pence, so traders may refer to pence sterling, GBX, when listing stock prices. A common slang term for the pound sterling or pound is quid, since decimalisation in 1971, the pound has been divided into 100 pence. The symbol for the penny is p, hence an amount such as 50p properly pronounced fifty pence is more colloquially, quite often, pronounced fifty pee /fɪfti, pi and this helped to distinguish between new and old pence amounts during the changeover to the decimal system
Saint George and the Dragon
The legend gradually became part of the Christian traditions relating to Saint George and was used in many festivals thereafter. In the tenth-century Georgian narrative, the place is the city of Lasia. The town had a lake with a plague-bearing dragon living in it. To appease the dragon, the people of Silene fed it two sheep every day, when they ran out of sheep they started feeding it their children, chosen by lottery. One time the lot fell on the kings daughter, the king, in his grief, told the people they could have all his gold and silver and half of his kingdom if his daughter were spared, the people refused. The daughter was sent out to the lake, dressed as a bride, Saint George by chance rode past the lake. The princess tried to send him away, but he vowed to remain, the dragon emerged from the lake while they were conversing. Saint George made the Sign of the Cross and charged it on horseback and he called to the princess to throw him her girdle, and he put it around the dragons neck. When she did so, the dragon followed the girl like a meek beast on a leash, the princess and Saint George led the dragon back to the city of Silene, where it terrified the populace.
Saint George offered to kill the dragon if they consented to become Christians, fifteen thousand men including the king of Silene converted to Christianity. George killed the dragon, and the body was carted out of the city on four ox-carts. The king built a church to the Blessed Virgin Mary and Saint George on the site where the dragon died, eastern The oldest icons depicting the saint as a horseman killing the dragon date to the 12th century. Older icons from Georgia show George as a horseman slaying an enemy rather than a dragon. The motif becomes popular especially in Georgian and Russian tradition, the saint is depicted in the style of a Roman cavalryman in the tradition of the Thracian Heros. In Russian tradition, the icon is known as Чудо Георгия о змие, i. e. the miracle of George, the saint is mostly shown on a white horse, facing right, but sometimes on a black horse, or facing left. The princess is not included. Some icons show George killing the dragon on foot, another motif shows George on horseback with the youth of Mytilene sitting behind him.
Icons of Saint George killing the dragon on foot, Western The motif of Saint George as a knight on horseback slaying the dragon first appears in art in the second half of the 13th century
Royal Maundy /ˈmɔːndi/ is a religious service in the Church of England held on Maundy Thursday, the day before Good Friday. At the service, the British monarch or a royal official ceremonially distributes small silver coins known as Maundy money as alms to elderly recipients. The coins are legal tender but do not circulate because of their silver content, a small sum of ordinary money is given in lieu of gifts of clothing and food that the sovereign once bestowed on Maundy recipients. The name Maundy and the ceremony itself derive from an instruction, or mandatum, in the Middle Ages, English monarchs washed the feet of beggars in imitation of Jesus, and presented gifts and money to the poor. Over time, additional money was substituted for the clothing and other items that had once been distributed, beginning in 1699 the monarch did not attend the service, sending an official in his place. The custom of washing the feet did not survive the 18th century, in 1931 Princess Marie Louise was at Royal Maundy, and afterwards suggested that her cousin, King George V, make the distributions the following year, which he did, beginning a new royal custom.
Traditionally, the service was held in or near London, in most years in the early 20th century at Westminster Abbey, Queen Elizabeth II almost always attends, and the service is held in a different church every year. Generally, recipients live in the diocese where the service is held, Maundy money is struck in denominations of one penny, two pence, three pence, and four pence. Until the 18th century the coins given were from the circulating coinage, the obverse design of the coins features the reigning monarch. The reverse, with a crowned numeral enclosed by a wreath, derives from a design first used during the reign of William and Mary, in most years there are fewer than 2,000 complete sets of Maundy money, they are highly sought after by collectors. The word Maundy derives from the command or mandatum by Christ at the Last Supper, the Gospels relate that on the eve of his Crucifixion, Jesus Christ ate a meal with his disciples. For I have given you an example, that ye should do as I have done unto you, mandatum is the derivation of the word Maundy, and the Royal Maundy service evolved from Jesus command to his disciples.
By the fourth or fifth century a ceremony had been developed following Holy Communion on Maundy Thursday, the ceremony, known as the pedilavium, was performed daily in some monasteries, in 992, Bishop Oswald of Worcester died during its performance. Few details of the 13th century Maundy survive, they are known to have existed from records which show the necessary for the gifts to the poor. The monarch was not alone in performing the rituals of the Maundy service, Henry IIIs children assisted him as part of their political and religious training. Henrys son, Edward I, was the first monarch to keep the Maundy only on or about Maundy Thursday, before Edward, attendance at a Maundy service became an obligation for all major European ruling houses. By 1363 the British monarch performed the pedilavium and gave gifts, the ceremony was not always performed on Maundy Thursday, it could be postponed a day to Good Friday by royal command, as it was in 1510. With as manny Penys in every purse to as many men as his Lordshipe is Yeres of Aige