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Double star

In observational astronomy, a double star or visual double is a pair of stars that appear close to each other as viewed from Earth with the aid of optical telescopes. This occurs because the pair either forms a binary star or is an optical double, a chance line-of-sight alignment of two stars at different distances from the observer. Binary stars are important to stellar astronomers as knowledge of their motions allows direct calculation of stellar mass and other stellar parameters; the only case of "binary star" whose two components are separately visible to the naked eye is the case of Mizar and Alcor, but it is not known for sure whether Mizar and Alcor are gravitationally bound. Since the beginning of the 1780s, both professional and amateur double star observers have telescopically measured the distances and angles between double stars to determine the relative motions of the pairs. If the relative motion of a pair determines a curved arc of an orbit, or if the relative motion is small compared to the common proper motion of both stars, it may be concluded that the pair is in mutual orbit as a binary star.

Otherwise, the pair is optical. Multiple stars are studied in this way, although the dynamics of multiple stellar systems are more complex than those of binary stars; the following are three types of paired stars: Optical doubles are unrelated stars that appear close together through chance alignment with Earth. Visual binaries are gravitationally-bound stars. Non-visual binaries are stars whose binary status was deduced through more esoteric means, such as occultation, spectroscopy, or anomalies in proper motion. Improvements in telescopes can shift non-visual binaries into visual binaries, as happened with Polaris A in 2006, it is only the inability to telescopically observe two separate stars that distinguish non-visual and visual binaries. Mizar, in Ursa Major, was observed to be double by Benedetto Galileo; the identification of other doubles soon followed: Robert Hooke discovered one of the first double-star systems, Gamma Arietis, in 1664, while the bright southern star Acrux, in the Southern Cross, was discovered to be double by Fontenay in 1685.

Since that time, the search has been carried out and the entire sky has been examined for double stars down to a limiting apparent magnitude of about 9.0. At least 1 in 18 stars brighter than 9.0 magnitude in the northern half of the sky are known to be double stars visible with a 36-inch telescope. The unrelated categories of optical doubles and true binaries are lumped together for historical and practical reasons; when Mizar was found to be a binary, it was quite difficult to determine whether a double star was a binary system or only an optical double. Improved telescopes and photography are the basic tools used to make the distinction. After it was determined to be a visual binary, Mizar's components were found to be spectroscopic binaries themselves. Observation of visual double stars by visual measurement will yield the separation, or angular distance, between the two component stars in the sky and the position angle; the position angle specifies the direction in which the stars are separated and is defined as the bearing from the brighter component to the fainter, where north is 0°.

These measurements are called measures. In the measures of a visual binary, the position angle will change progressively and the separation between the two stars will oscillate between maximum and minimum values. Plotting the measures in the plane will produce an ellipse; this is the projection of the orbit of the two stars onto the celestial sphere. Although it is expected that the majority of catalogued visual doubles are visual binaries, orbits have been computed for only a few thousand of the over 100,000 known visual double stars. Confirmation of a visual double star as a binary star can be achieved by observing the relative motion of the components. If the motion is part of an orbit, or if the stars have similar radial velocities or the difference in their proper motions is small compared to their common proper motion, the pair is physical; when observed over a short period of time, the components of both optical doubles and long-period visual binaries will appear to be moving in straight lines.

Some bright visual double stars have a Bayer designation. In this case, the components may be denoted by superscripts. An example of this is α Crucis, whose components are α2 Crucis. Since α1 Crucis is a spectroscopic binary, this is a multiple star. Superscripts are used to distinguish more distant, physically unrelated, pairs of stars with the same Bayer designation, such as α1,2 Capricorni, ξ1,2 Centauri, ξ1,2 Sagittarii; these optical pairs are resolvable by the naked eye. Apart from these pairs, the components of a double star are denoted by the letters A and B appended to the designation, of whatever sort, of the double star. For example, the components of α Canis Majoris are α Canis Majoris A and α Canis Majoris B; the letters AB may be used together to designate the pair. In the case of multiple stars, the letters C, D, so on may be used to denote additional components in order of i

Suvigya Sharma

Suvigya Sharma is an Indian artist, fashion designer, who does miniature paintings, Tanjore painting, fresco work and portraits. He has worked in restoring fresco painting at City Palace at Jaipur, Jama Masjid and Singapore Art Museum, his works fall under miniature art work in India. In February, 2016, Suvigya Sharma his art work Timeless Miniature Art was showcased at Make in India event, with a live demonstration of Miniature-painting technologies in Mumbai, he is Asia Book of Records and India Book of Records holder for creating World's first life-size Siddhi Vinayak painting with 4D effect. Suvigya Sharma was born on 28 July 1983 in Jaipur of Indian state Rajasthan to R. K. Sharma, an artist, he did his schooling from Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan's Vidyashram. He graduated from Bhawanipur Education Society College, Kolkata, he studied Foreign Trade & Export Management from Symbiosis International University, Pune. He started painting at the age of seven, he used to teach dance way back when he was a teenager, said in an interview with DNA.

Suvigya has worked on fresco in Jaipur and other places like Havelis in Udaipur and Kishangarh, Jama Masjid's gold leafing, a few section of Jaipur City Palace, Dargah, heritage properties in different part of India. Some of his clients for whom he painted, includes L. N. Mittal, Sachin Tendulkar, Narendra Modi, Priyanka Chopra, Aditya Chopra, Rani Mukherji Sanjay Dutt, Manyata Dutt, Kangana Ranaut and business families such as the Ambanis, the Birlas, the Burmans, the Singhanias, the Piramal, the Bajaj. Suvigya has painted for PM Narendra Modi, Barack Obama, Hillary Clinton and Dalai Lama, his art works have been unveiled by Kangana Ranaut, Rani Mukherji Vikas Khanna and Sachin Tendulkar at various events organised by himself which some of his artworks used 24 carat gold as material. He has been exhibited in galleries and museums such as Academy of Fine Arts, Cymroza Art Gallery, Kamalnayan Bajaj Art Gallery, Chitrakoot Art Gallery, India Habitat Centre and Artisans Art gallery, he designed the cover page of chef Vikas Khanna's cookbook Utsav.

On October 4, 2016, Suvigya gifted Sachin Tendulkar with a handmade memento -a custom-made gold-leaved and gold-embossed bat with a 24 carat gold handle at the opening of his show The Art of Royals by Times of India. On May 10, 2017, during The Purpose Tour concert in India, Suvigya Sharma commissioned a life-size oil on canvas portrait for Justin Bieber and presented it to him at St. Regis in Lower Parel, Mumbai. In May, 2017, he commissioned a lifelike portrait for prime minister Narendra Modi. In February 2016, was invited to showcase his work for Government of India's initiative Make in India, followed by a live demonstration of Miniature-painting technologies by him. In June 2016, Suvigya Sharma participated along with artists Uddhav Thackeray, Ajay De, Sudharak Olwe, Brinda Miller, Rajiv Menon in fund raiser art-exhibition for Nargis Dutt Cancer Foundation in Mumbai, organized by Priya Dutt. Suvigya's wife name is Charu, the couple has a son named Abhigya. In August 2016, Sharma entered in Asia Book of Records and India Book of Records for creating World's first life-size Siddhi Vinayak with 4D effect, a technique that has not been attempted by another artist.

In January, 2017, he was appointed as the Goodwill Ambassador of Rajasthan by Smile Foundation. List of Indian artists List of people from Rajasthan

Alfred Faust

Alfred Faust was a German advertising executive, journalist and left-wing politician. Born in Alsace in 1883, Faust was the son of a master winemaker, he had a business education, an apprenticeship in printing, as well as attending a Catholic seminar in Belgium. In his youth he did military service, graduating as a Grenadier in Berlin, going on to teach French from 1905 on. From 1909 to 1914 Faust was a journalist working with advertisement for the company Café HAG, working in Bremen. Between 1914 and 1918, Faust was called into the Imperial German Army, fought in the First World War. In 1917, before the war's end, he joined the Independent Social Democratic Party of Germany, a left-wing split from the Social Democratic Party of Germany; when the war ended in 1918, he became involved in radical politics, joining the December Imperial Council Congress in Berlin. Returning to Bremen, he joined the government of the brief Bremen Soviet Republic, he was selected by the city's workers' and soldiers' council to serve as People's Commissar of press and propaganda, together with Curt Stoermer.

He served as editor of the Bremer Bürger-Zeitung, occupied by the workers. After the defeat of the Bremen Soviet Republic at the hands of the Army and Freikorps Caspari, he became chief editor of the Bremer Arbeiterzeitung. In March 1919 he became a member of the Bremen National Assembly, serving as a deputy of the Bürgerschaft of Bremen from 1920 to 1933. In 1922 he joined the SDP. Faust became an editor of the Bremer Volkszeitung, led by Wilhelm Kaisen, becoming its chief editor in 1928. Elected to the Reichstag after the November 1932 federal election, it wasn't until March 1933 that his seat was confirmed; the same month, after the rise of the Nazi Party and Adolf Hitler, he helped the fellow SDP politician Rudolf Breitscheid escape to Switzerland, but returned to Bremen himself. A month on 28 April, he was put in "protective custody" by the Sturmabteilung, held in KZ Mißler, an early concentration camp in Bremen that also held his fellow Bremen Soviet Republic politician Hermann Böse. Placed in other detention centers, Faust was physically abused by his captors in KZ Mißler.

He spent time in prison until 1934, when he was released from jail and expelled from Bremen, settling in Berlin. He worked for Ludwig Roselius, pro-Nazi founder of his previous employer Café HAG, at the Angelsachsenverlag. Barbara Goette corresponded extensively with Faust in Berlin; when the publisher was closed in 1944, he fled to his native Alsace, working as an editor in Mulhouse until 1949. In August 1949 Faust returned rejoining the Angelsachsenverlag. From 11 July 1950 on until his death he was head of the press office of the Senate of Bremen. After his death in 1961, the a street was named for him in the Obervieland district of Bremen: Alfred-Faust-Straße. Der Freiheit verpflichtet. Gedenkbuch der deutschen Sozialdemokratie im 20. Jahrhundert. Marburg: Social Democratic Party of Germany. 2000. P. 92. Kloos, Werner. Bremer Lexikon. Bremen: Hauschild. Pp. 143–144. Roselius, Kurt. Bremische Biographie 1912–1962. Bremen: Hauschild. Schwarzwälder, Herbert. Das Große Bremen-Lexikon. Bremen: Edition Temmen.

ISBN 3-86108-693-X

Robert Dieudonné

Robert Dieudonné was a French playwright and journalist of the first half of the 20th century. He authored letters, lyrics and caricatures July 1904: he created the characters of countess Riguidi and her daughter Emma in the newspaper L'Œuvre by Gustave Téry, a column that he continued in Le Canard enchaîné. 1918: Le cochon qui sommeille ou le coq d'Inde, operetta by Rip, by Robert Dieudonné, music by Claude Terrasse, directed by Georgé, Concert Mayol. January 1920: Gigoletto, operetta in 2 acts, libretto by Rip and Robert Dieudonné, music by Albert Chantrier, La Cigale. May 1923: Les Linottes operetta in 3 acts after Georges Courteline adapted by Robert Dieudonné and Carpentier, Théâtre des Nouveautés. September 1924: La Guitare et le jazz-band by Henri Duvernois and Robert Dieudonné, Théâtre des Nouveautés, 22 September. January 1931: Brummell operetta in 3 acts, libretto by Rip and Robert Dieudonné, music by Reynaldo Hahn, Folies-Wagram, he took part to more than 70 plays 1940: Until 1940, he was responsible for the fashion column in Le Canard enchaîné.

Officer of the Legion of Honour Robert Dieudonné Robert Dieudonné on the base Léonore

Me Gustas Tanto

"Me Gustas Tanto" is a song by Mexican singer Paulina Rubio. The song was recorded for her tenth studio album, Brava!, due out in November 15, 2011. The song made its debut online as the lead single on September 2, 2011 and was made available for purchase on and iTunes starting on September 6, 2011, about a week before it was released as a digital single worldwide and sent to radio station globally. The track was nominated for Pop Song of the Year at the Premio Lo Nuestro 2013. "Me Gustas Tanto" was written by Rubio herself along with Nacho, from the Venezuelan due Chino & Nacho and Andrés Recio, it was produced by RedOne, the man responsible for huge hits of Lady Gaga, Enrique Iglesias, Jennifer Lopez, Usher, Kelly Rowland and others. The single has been described as a fresh song with a catchy beat, it is a pop dance song with a Latin rhythm touch and it uses an electronic sound with a pulsating repeat of “OE OE EO!” chorus. Paulina confirmed the release of the single via Twitter saying “I want to be the first one to let you know my NEW single hits radio Sept 13th.”

While she didn't indicate the genre of the new song, her statement suggested the song might be a dance track. “Are you ready to dance?” Rubio, did not indicate if the single will be released in both English and Spanish. But her statement to news announcing the track was given in both languages. According to LALATE, a celebrity news site narrowing on Rubio's career, the single, "Me Gustas Tanto" made its debut September 2, 2011 on the same site; the single is available for purchase on and ITunes starting on September 6, 2011, about a week before it was released as a digital single worldwide and sent to radio station globally. Paulina stated on a radio interview that she'll be working on the official music video for the single soon. On September, 27, Paulina started shooting the video in Miami, she invited fans to join the shooting of the video. The first 20 fans who send her their photos with their data will to be chosen; the director's name is yet to be announced. On September 28, she described the first day of shooting the video as "a looong productive, exciting, happy and well worth day!"

Paulina stated on her second Twitcam that the music video was directed by Gustavo Lopez Mana and herself. The video for the song premiered on October 27 on YouTube. Me Gustas Tanto Me Gustas Tanto featuring Gocho The song debuted at #15 on the Spanish Promusicae Top 50 Songs as the major entry to the list; the song peaked at #4 on the Spanish Promusicae Top 50 Songs. It peaked #1 on the Spanish Airplay Chart. In the US the song has picked up some steam with local radio stations playing the song more, now it has become Rubio's fifth number-one song on the Billboard Hot Latin Songs component chart and her last #1 to date; the song moved up from #6 to #2 on the Latin Pop Songs. In Mexico the song peaked at #4; the song made a huge jump to #1 in Puerto Rico. Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics

2012 South Carolina Gamecocks baseball team

The 2012 South Carolina Gamecocks baseball team represented the University of South Carolina in the 2012 NCAA Division I baseball season. The Gamecocks played their home games in Carolina Stadium; the team was coached by Ray Tanner, in his sixteenth season at Carolina. 2012 South Carolina Gamecocks Baseball Roster & Bios 2012 South Carolina Gamecocks Baseball Coaches & Bios 2012 South Carolina Gamecocks Baseball Schedule Michael Roth was named 2011-12 SEC H. Boyd McWhorter Male Scholar-Athlete Of The Year. Jordan Montgomery was named SEC Freshman of the Week on April 9. Grayson Greiner was named SEC Freshman of the Week on April 16. Michael Roth was named First-Team Capital One Academic All-American. Michael Roth was named SEC Baseball Scholar-Athlete of the Year.

Christian Walker was named First Team All-SEC, Matt Price was named Second Team All-SEC, Tanner English, Grayson Greiner and Joey Pankake were named Freshman All-SEC, Michael Roth and Evan Marzilli were named Defensive All-SEC. Adam Matthews was named MVP of the NCAA Columbia Regional. LB Dantzler, Colby Holmes, Jordan Montgomery, Joey Pankake and Chase Vergason were named to the All-Tournament team. ^ Collegiate Baseball ranks 40 teams in their preseason poll, but only ranks 30 teams weekly during the season. † NCBWA only ranks 30 teams weekly during the season. * New poll was not released for this week so for comparison purposes the previous week's ranking is inserted in this week's slot. The following members of the South Carolina Gamecocks baseball program were drafted in the 2012 Major League Baseball Draft