Doubs is a commune in the Doubs department in the Bourgogne-Franche-Comté region in eastern France. Communes of the Doubs department INSEE
Montbéliard is a city in the Doubs department in the Bourgogne-Franche-Comté region in eastern France, about 13 km from the border with Switzerland. It is one of the two subprefectures of the department. Montbéliard is mentioned as early as 983 as Mons Beliardae; the County of Montbéliard or Mömpelgard was a feudal county of the Holy Roman Empire from 1033 to 1796. In 1283, it was granted rights under charter by Count Reginald, its charter guaranteed the county perpetual liberties and franchises which lasted until the French Revolution in 1789. Montbéliard's original municipal institutions included the Magistracy of the Nine Bourgeois, the Corp of the Eighteen and the Notables, a Mayor, Procurator, appointed "Chazes", all who participated in the administration of the county as provided by the charter. Under the 1283 charter, the Count and the people of Montbéliard were required by law to defend Montbéliard, while citizens of Montbéliard were not required to fight in any wars outside of the county.
Altogether, the charter lent to Montbéliard a democratic air remarkable for its time. In 1397 the county passed by marriage of Henriette, heiress of the county to Eberhard IV, Count of Württemberg, to the House of Württemberg. In 1520, Duke Ulrich of Württemberg was ousted from the duchy by the Swabian League; as a result, he retreated to the only territory he still possessed. From there on, Ulrich used Montbéliard as a base of operations to raise troops to retake Württemberg, but in dire need of funds, he decided to lease Montbéliard to his half-brother, George. In 1534, still in need of funds, Ulrich sold Montbéliard to Francis I of France, though with right to repurchase, which Ulrich exercised after his restoration to Württemberg in 1536. Still governing Montbéliard as its count, George attempted to strengthen Lutheranism in the county succeeding in suppressing the other confessions fully. From 1598 to 1608, the architect Heinrich Schickhardt built several landmarks of the city, like St. Martin, a castle, a bridge, a college and several hotels.
After the French Revolution, Montbéliard was incorporated into the Rauracian Republic. In 1793 the town was annexed to France, confirmed in 1796 and by the German Mediatisation of 1806, when Württemberg was compensated with other areas, became a kingdom; as a consequence of the former rule under the dukes of Württemberg, it has been for centuries one of the few Protestant enclaves in France. The Württemberg coat of arms from 1495 represents Montbéliard as two jumping fishes on a red field. For details of the local events of the Second World War, see Sochaux; the metropolitan area has a population of 302,000. Montbéliard and the surrounding region constitute an important manufacturing center based upon metallurgy and car industry; the main manufacturing plant of the Peugeot automobile company is located in Montbéliard and has around 20,000 employees. In the area the automotive industry accounts for 34,000 employees in more than 100 companies; the Peugeot company's museum is located in the adjacent commune of Sochaux.
Montbéliard is the center of a metropolitan area of 132,000 inhabitants. The Château de Montbéliard, the castle of the Dukes of Württemberg; as the residence of the Counts of Montbéliard, the history of the castle is linked with the story of the families that reigned over the County for more than eight centuries. Built on a rocky promontory at the confluence of the Lizaine and Allan valleys, this stronghold, which existed in the 10th century, was transformed during the course of the centuries. Today, on the northern side of the edifice, one can admire the Henriette Tower, the Frédéric Tower and the main building dating back to the 18th century; the castle has become the Museum of the Castle of the Dukes of Württemberg, which includes a historical tour, an important archaeological department whose collections come from excavations of local Gallo-Roman sites, the Cuvier natural history gallery and exhibits of paintings and sculptures of international renown. On the esplanade of the Castle, the Clock pavilion or Hôtel du Bailli, built according to plans of the architect Schickhardt at the beginning of the 17th century, houses today the Academy of Music.
The Museum of Art and History Beurnier Rossel. The Beurnier-Rossel mansion, located opposite St. Martin's church, near the Town Hall, stands as a witness to the life-style of the urban bourgeoisie during the 18h and 19th centuries. Today it houses the Museum of History; the restored 18th century reception rooms on the first floor contain furniture, paintings and draperies which recreate the ambiance of a private residence. On the second floor, there is an exhibit of objects relating to the history of the town and local life and the collection of music boxes made by L'Épée is exhibited in the attic. Saint-Martin Protestant Church. Saint Martin Protestant Church was built between 1601 and 1607 and is the work of Heinrich Schickhardt, the architect of Frederic 1st Prince of Montbéliard, in its purest form, it is the oldest church in France dedicated to the Reformation form of worship. Saint Maimboeuf Church. Built between 1850 and 1875 on the Cardinal Mathieu's request to assert the Catholic reconquest over Lutheranism, Saint Maimboeuf Church dominates the town.
It includes a polychrome altarpiece. Montbeliard's most popular sports club is FCSM. Founded in 1928, FC Sochaux-
Besançon is the capital of the department of Doubs in the region of Bourgogne-Franche-Comté. The city is located in the border with Switzerland. Capital of the historic and cultural region of Franche-Comté, Besançon is home to the Bourgogne-Franche-Comté regional council headquarters, is an important administrative centre in the region, it is the seat of one of the fifteen French ecclesiastical provinces and one of the two divisions of the French Army. In 2016 the city had a population of 116,466, in a metropolitan area of 251,293, the second in the region in terms of population. Established in a meander of the Doubs river, the city was important during the Gallo-Roman era under the name of Vesontio, capital of the Sequani, its geography and specific history turned it into a military stronghold, a garrison city, a political center, a religious capital. Besançon is the historical capital of watchmaking in France; this has led it to become a center for innovative companies in the fields of microtechnology and biomedical engineering.
The University of Franche-Comté, founded in 1423, every year enrolls more than 20,000 students. The greenest city in France, it enjoys a quality of life recognized in Europe. Thanks to its rich historical and cultural heritage and its unique architecture, Besançon has been labeled a "Town of Art and History" since 1986 and its fortifications due to Vauban has been listed as a UNESCO World Heritage site since 2008; the city is first recorded in 58 BC as Vesontio in the Book I of Julius Caesar's Commentarii de Bello Gallico. The etymology of Vesontio is uncertain; the most common explanation is that the name is of Celtic origin, derived from wes, meaning'mountain'. During the 4th century, the letter B took the place of the V, the city name changed to Besontio or Bisontion and underwent several transformations to become Besançon in 1243; the city sits within an oxbow of the Doubs River. During the Bronze Age, c.1500 BCE, tribes of Gauls settled the oxbow. From the 1st century BC through the modern era, the town had a significant military importance because the Alps rise abruptly to its immediate south, presenting a significant natural barrier.
The Arar River formed part of the border between the Haedui and their hereditary rivals, the Sequani. According to Strabo, the cause of the conflict was commercial; each tribe claimed the tolls on trade along it. The Sequani controlled access to the Rhine River and had built an oppidum at Vesontio to protect their interests; the Sequani defeated and massacred the Haedui at the Battle of Magetobriga, with the help of the Arverni tribe and the Germanic Suebi tribe under the Germanic king Ariovistus. Julius Caesar, in his commentaries detailing his conquest of Gaul, describes Vesontio, as the largest town of the Sequani, a smaller Gaulic tribe, mentions that a wooden palisade surrounded it. Over the centuries, the name permutated to become Besantio, Bisanz in Middle High German, arrived at the modern French Besançon; the locals retain their ancient heritage referring to themselves as Bisontins. It has been an archbishopric since the 4th century. In 843, the Treaty of Verdun divided up Charlemagne's empire.
Besançon became part of Lotharingia, under the Duke of Burgundy. As part of the Holy Roman Empire since 1034, the city became an archbishopric, was designated the Free Imperial City of Besançon in 1184. In 1157, Emperor Frederick Barbarossa held the Diet of Besançon. There, Cardinal Orlando Bandinelli asserted before the Emperor that the imperial dignity was a papal beneficium, which incurred the wrath of the German princes, he would have fallen on the spot under the battle-axe of his lifelong foe, Otto of Wittelsbach, had Frederick not intervened. The Imperial Chancellor Rainald of Dassel inaugurated a German policy that insisted upon the rights and the power of the German kings, the strengthening of the Church in the German Empire, the lordship of Italy and the humiliation of the Papacy; the Archbishops were elevated to Princes of the Holy Roman Empire in 1288. The close connection to the Empire is reflected in the city's coat of arms. In 1290, after a century of fighting against the power of the archbishops, the Emperor granted Besançon its independence.
In the 15th century, Besançon came under the influence of the dukes of Burgundy. After the marriage of Mary of Burgundy to Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor, the city was in effect a Habsburg fief. In 1519 Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, King of Spain, became the Holy Roman Emperor; this made him a francophone imperial city. In 1526 the city obtained the right to mint coins, which it continued to strike until 1673. All coins bore the name of Charles V; when Charles V abdicated in 1555, he gave the Franche-Comté to Philip II, King of Spain. Besançon remained a free imperial city under the protection of the King of Spain. In 1598, Philip II gave the province to his daughter on her marriage to an Austrian archduke, it remained formally a portion of the Empire until its cession at the peace of Westphalia in 1648. Spain regained control of Franche-Comté and the city lost its status as a free city. In 1667, Louis XIV claimed the pr
Honoré Gabriel Riqueti, comte de Mirabeau
Honoré Gabriel Riqueti, Count of Mirabeau was a leader of the early stages of the French Revolution. A noble, he was involved in numerous scandals before the start of the Revolution in 1789 that had left his reputation in ruins. Nonetheless, he rose to the top of the French political hierarchy in the years 1789–1791 and acquired the reputation of a voice of the people. A successful orator, he was the leader of the moderate position among revolutionaries by favoring a constitutional monarchy built on the model of Great Britain; when he died he was a great national hero though support for his moderate position was slipping away. The discovery that he was in the pay of King Louis XVI and the Austrian enemies of France beginning in 1790 caused his posthumous disgrace. Historians are split on whether he was a great leader who saved the nation from the Terror, a venal demagogue lacking political or moral values, or a traitor in the pay of the enemy; the family of Riqueti, with distant origins in Italy, became wealthy through merchant trading in Marseilles.
In 1570, Jean Riqueti bought the château and seigniory of Mirabeau, which had belonged to the great Provençal family of Barras. In 1685, Honoré Riqueti obtained the title "marquis de Mirabeau", his son, Jean Antoine, grandfather of Honoré Gabriel Riqueti, served with distinction through all the campaigns of the reign of Louis XIV. At the Battle of Cassano, he suffered a neck wound so severe that he had to wear a silver stock after; because he tended to be blunt and tactless, he never rose above the rank of colonel. On retiring from the service, he married Françoise de Castellane with whom he had three sons: Victor, Jean Antoine and Louis Alexandre. Honoré Gabriel Riqueti, comte de Mirabeau, was the son of Victor. Honoré Mirabeau was born at Le Bignon, near Nemours, the eldest surviving son of the economist Victor de Riqueti, marquis de Mirabeau, his wife Marie-Geneviève de Vassan, he was the fifth child and second son of the couple. When he was three years old, a virulent attack of smallpox left.
This, combined with Mirabeau's resemblance to his maternal ancestors and his fondness for his mother, contributed to his father's dislike of him. At the age of five, he was sent by his father to a boarding school by the name of "Abbé Choquard." Destined for the army, at age eighteen, he entered the military school in Paris in the regiment of Berri-Cavaleria at Saints. Of this school, which had Joseph-Louis Lagrange for its professor of mathematics, there is an amusing account in the life of Gilbert Elliot, who met Mirabeau there. On leaving school in 1767, he received a commission in a cavalry regiment that his grandfather had commanded years before. Mirabeau's love affairs are well-known, owing to the celebrity of the letters to Marie Thérèse de Monnier, his "Sophie". In spite of his disfigurement, he won the heart of the lady to. On being released, the young nobleman obtained leave to accompany the French expedition to Corsica as a volunteer. During the Corsican expedition, Mirabeau contracted several more gambling debts and engaged in another scandalous love affair.
However, he proved his military genius in the Corsican expedition, conducted a thorough study of the island during his stay. The study was most factually incorrect, but his desire to learn of a country, unstudied emphasizes Mirabeau's endless curiosity and inquisitiveness into the traditions and customs of society. Mirabeau learned the value of hard work in the French army; this aspect of Mirabeau's personality contributed to his popular success in years, during the Revolution. After his return, he tried to keep on good terms with his father, in 1772 he married a rich heiress, Marie–Marquerite–Emilie de Covet, daughter of the marquis de Marignane. Emilie, 18 years old, was engaged to a much older nobleman, the Comte de Valbelle. Nonetheless, Mirabeau pursued her for several months, expecting that their marriage would benefit from the money that the couple would receive from their parents. After several months of failed attempts at being introduced to the heiress, Mirabeau bribed one of the young lady's maids to let him into her residence, where he pretended to have had a sexual encounter with Emilie.
To avoid losing face, her father saw. Mirabeau received a small allowance of 6,000 livres from his father, but never received the expected dowry from the marquis. Mirabeau, still facing financial trouble and increasing debt, could not keep up with the expensive lifestyle to which his wife was accustomed, their extravagances forced his father to send him into semi-exile in the country, where he wrote his earliest extant work, the Essai sur le despotisme; the couple had a son who died early due to the poor living conditions they were experiencing at that time. His wife asked for judicial separation in 1782, she was defended by Jean-Étienne-Marie Portalis, who became one of the editors of the Civil Code. Mirabeau lost, holding resentment against Portalis forever. Mirabeau's violent disposition led him to quarrel with a country gentleman who had insulted his sister, his exile was changed by lettre de cachet into imprisonment in the Château d'If in 1774. In 1775 he was transferred to the castle of Joux, where he was not confined, having full leave to enter the town of Pontarlier.
In a house of a friend he met Marie Thérès
Switzerland the Swiss Confederation, is a country situated in western and southern Europe. It consists of 26 cantons, the city of Bern is the seat of the federal authorities; the sovereign state is a federal republic bordered by Italy to the south, France to the west, Germany to the north, Austria and Liechtenstein to the east. Switzerland is a landlocked country geographically divided between the Alps, the Swiss Plateau and the Jura, spanning a total area of 41,285 km2. While the Alps occupy the greater part of the territory, the Swiss population of 8.5 million people is concentrated on the plateau, where the largest cities are to be found: among them are the two global cities and economic centres Zürich and Geneva. The establishment of the Old Swiss Confederacy dates to the late medieval period, resulting from a series of military successes against Austria and Burgundy. Swiss independence from the Holy Roman Empire was formally recognized in the Peace of Westphalia in 1648; the country has a history of armed neutrality going back to the Reformation.
It pursues an active foreign policy and is involved in peace-building processes around the world. In addition to being the birthplace of the Red Cross, Switzerland is home to numerous international organisations, including the second largest UN office. On the European level, it is a founding member of the European Free Trade Association, but notably not part of the European Union, the European Economic Area or the Eurozone. However, it participates in the Schengen Area and the European Single Market through bilateral treaties. Spanning the intersection of Germanic and Romance Europe, Switzerland comprises four main linguistic and cultural regions: German, French and Romansh. Although the majority of the population are German-speaking, Swiss national identity is rooted in a common historical background, shared values such as federalism and direct democracy, Alpine symbolism. Due to its linguistic diversity, Switzerland is known by a variety of native names: Schweiz. On coins and stamps, the Latin name – shortened to "Helvetia" – is used instead of the four national languages.
Switzerland is one of the most developed countries in the world, with the highest nominal wealth per adult and the eighth-highest per capita gross domestic product according to the IMF. Switzerland ranks at or near the top globally in several metrics of national performance, including government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic competitiveness and human development. Zürich and Basel have all three been ranked among the top ten cities in the world in terms of quality of life, with the first ranked second globally, according to Mercer in 2018; the English name Switzerland is a compound containing Switzer, an obsolete term for the Swiss, in use during the 16th to 19th centuries. The English adjective Swiss is a loan from French Suisse in use since the 16th century; the name Switzer is from the Alemannic Schwiizer, in origin an inhabitant of Schwyz and its associated territory, one of the Waldstätten cantons which formed the nucleus of the Old Swiss Confederacy. The Swiss began to adopt the name for themselves after the Swabian War of 1499, used alongside the term for "Confederates", used since the 14th century.
The data code for Switzerland, CH, is derived from Latin Confoederatio Helvetica. The toponym Schwyz itself was first attested in 972, as Old High German Suittes perhaps related to swedan ‘to burn’, referring to the area of forest, burned and cleared to build; the name was extended to the area dominated by the canton, after the Swabian War of 1499 came to be used for the entire Confederation. The Swiss German name of the country, Schwiiz, is homophonous to that of the canton and the settlement, but distinguished by the use of the definite article; the Latin name Confoederatio Helvetica was neologized and introduced after the formation of the federal state in 1848, harking back to the Napoleonic Helvetic Republic, appearing on coins from 1879, inscribed on the Federal Palace in 1902 and after 1948 used in the official seal.. Helvetica is derived from the Helvetii, a Gaulish tribe living on the Swiss plateau before the Roman era. Helvetia appears as a national personification of the Swiss confederacy in the 17th century with a 1672 play by Johann Caspar Weissenbach.
Switzerland has existed as a state in its present form since the adoption of the Swiss Federal Constitution in 1848. The precursors of Switzerland established a protective alliance at the end of the 13th century, forming a loose confederation of states which persisted for centuries; the oldest traces of hominid existence in Switzerland date back about 150,000 years. The oldest known farming settlements in Switzerland, which were found at Gächlingen, have been dated to around 5300 BC; the earliest known cultural tribes of the area were members of the Hallstatt and La Tène cultures, named after the archaeological site of La Tène on the north side of Lake Neuchâtel. La Tène culture developed and flourished during the late Iron Age from around 450 BC under some influence from the Gree
Fort de Joux
The Fort de Joux or Château de Joux is a castle, transformed into a fort, located in La Cluse-et-Mijoux in the Doubs department in the Jura mountains of France. It commands the mountain pass Cluse de Pontarlier. During its long history, the Château de Joux has gone through successive transformations; the first structure, in the 11th century, was made of wood. In the next century, the lords of Joux the external fortifications in stone. Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy, bought it in 1454 to transform it as a border fort, he barracks. The château passed to Charles the Bold, Mary of Burgundy, Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor, Margaret of Austria, Charles Quint; each successive owner made improvements. It was annexed by France in 1678 by Louis XIV. While others have improved, or at least repaired, the castle during the course of its history, the château's most famous remodeler was Vauban, who modernized it between 1678 and 1693; the Austrians captured it in 1814. The construction of the forts at Larmont during the 19th century provided reinforcement.
In 1879, Captain Joffre a military engineering officer, modernised it and transformed it into a fort included in the Maginot line to prevent German invasion from Swiss territory. It served as a prison for successive French governments between the 19th centuries. In this capacity, the château is best known as the site of imprisonment for Toussaint Louverture, who died there on 7 April 1803, Heinrich von Kleist. In addition to being used as a prison, the château has played a part in the defence of the region until the First World War; the fortress houses a museum of arms that exhibits more than 600 rare weapons dating from the early 18th to the 20th centuries, including a rare 1717 rifle. The castle has a well which, at 147 metres, was once the deepest in France. Cut with a horizontal gallery and filled, it is now the third deepest at about 101 metres. Since 1949, the French Ministry of Culture has listed the château as a monument historique. List of castles in France Caroit, Jean-Michel, "L’INDEPENDENCE DE LA PREMIERE REPUBLIQUE NOIRE - 1er JANVIER 1804", Le Monde, January 2, 1904.
(Archived from the original, June 7, 2004. Website contains translation and the original. Francerama Ministry of Culture database entry for Fort de Joux Ministry of Culture photos Le Château de Joux' website The Louverture Project: Fort de Joux
Franche-Comté is a cultural and historical region of eastern France. It is composed of the modern departments of Doubs, Haute-Saône and the Territoire de Belfort. In 2016, its population was 1,180,397. From 1956 to 2015, the Franche-Comté was a French administrative region. Since 1 January 2016, it is part of the new region Bourgogne-Franche-Comté; the region is named after the Franche Comté de Bourgogne, definitively separated from the region of Burgundy proper in the fifteenth century. In 2016, these two halves of the historic Kingdom of Burgundy were reunited, as the region of Bourgogne-Franche-Comté, it is the 6th biggest region in France. The name "Franche-Comté" is feminine because the word "comté" in the past was feminine, although today it is masculine; the principal cities are the capital Belfort and Montbéliard. Other important cities are Dole, Vesoul and Lons-le-Saunier; the region was occupied by the Gauls. Little touched by the Germanic migrations, it was part of the territory of the Alemanni in the fifth century the Kingdom of Burgundy from 457 to 534.
It was Christianized through the influence of St. Columbanus. In 534, it became part of the Frankish kingdom. In 561 it was included in the Merovingian Kingdom of Burgundy under Guntram, the third son of Clotaire I. In 613, Clotaire II reunited the Frankish Kingdom under his rule, the region remained a part of the Kingdom of Burgundy under the Merovingians and Carolingians; the name Franche Comté de Bourgogne did not appear until 1366. It had been a territory of the County of Burgundy from 888, the province becoming subject to the Holy Roman Empire in 1034, it was definitively separated from the neighboring Duchy of Burgundy upon the latter's incorporation into the Kingdom of France in 1477. That year at the Battle of Nancy during the Burgundian Wars, the last duke, Charles the Bold, was killed in battle. Although the County, along with the Duchy, was seized by King Louis XI of France, in 1492 his son Charles VIII ceded it to Philip of Austria, the grandson and heir of Charles the Bold; when Philip's son, Emperor Charles V, inherited the Spanish throne in 1516, the Franche-Comté, along with the rest of the Burgundian lands, passed to the Spanish.
The Franche-Comté was captured by France in 1668, but returned to Spain under the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle. It was conquered a second time in 1674, was ceded to France in the Treaty of Nijmegen. Enclaves such as Montbéliard remained outside French control; the Franche-Comté was one of the last parts of France to have serfdom. In 1784, half of the population consisted of serfs, accounting for 400,000 out of the 1 million French serfs. Landowners took one-twelfth of the sales price. Serfs were not forced to stay on the land, but the lord could claim droit de suite, whereby a peasant who died away from his holding left it to the lord if he had heirs. A runaway serf's land was forfeit after ten years. Louis XVI issued a decree banning these practices on 8 August 1779, but the Parlement of Besançon blocked this until 1787; the population of the region fell by a fifth from 1851 to 1946, reflecting low French natural growth and migration to more urbanized parts of the country. Most of the decline occurred in Haute-Saône and Jura, which remain among the country's more agriculture-dependent areas.
This region borders Switzerland and shares much of its architecture and culture with its neighbour. Between the Vosges range of mountains to the north and the Jura range to the south, the landscape consists of rolling cultivated fields, dense pine forest, rampart-like mountains. Not so majestic as the Alps, the Jura mountains are more accessible and are France's first cross-country skiing area, it is a superb place to hike, there are some fine nature trails on the more gentle slopes. The Doubs and Loue valleys, with their timbered houses perched on stilts in the river, the high valley of Ain, are popular visitor areas; the Région des Lacs is a land of gorges and waterfalls dotted with tiny villages, each with a domed belfry decorated with mosaic of tiles or slates or beaten from metal. The lakes are perfect for swimming in the warmer months; the summits of Haut Jura have wonderful views toward the Alps. Forty percent of the region's GDP is dependent on manufacturing activities, most of its production is exported.
Construction of automobiles and their parts is one of the most buoyant industries there. Forestry exploitation is growing, 38% of the agriculture is dairy and 17% cattle farming; the region has a large and lucrative cheese-making industry, with 40 million tonnes of cheese produced here each year, much of, made by fruitières. Vosges and Jura coal mining basins Among the regional languages of France, the term Franc-comtois refers to two dialects of two different languages. Franc-comtois is the name of the dialect of Langue d'Oïl spoken by people in the northern part of the region; the dialect of Arpitan has been spoken in its southern part since as early as the thirteenth century (the southern two-thirds of Jura and the southern third o