The Douglas A-4 Skyhawk is a single-seat subsonic carrier-capable attack aircraft developed for the United States Navy and United States Marine Corps in the early 1950s. The delta-winged, single turbojet engined Skyhawk was designed and produced by Douglas Aircraft Company, by McDonnell Douglas, it was designated A4D under the U. S. Navy's pre-1962 designation system; the Skyhawk is a lightweight aircraft with a maximum takeoff weight of 24,500 pounds and has a top speed of more than 670 miles per hour. The aircraft's five hardpoints support a variety of missiles and other munitions, it is capable of carrying a bomb load equivalent to that of a World War II–era Boeing B-17 bomber, can deliver nuclear weapons using a low-altitude bombing system and a "loft" delivery technique. The A-4 was powered by the Wright J65 turbojet engine. Skyhawks played key roles in the Vietnam War, the Yom Kippur War, the Falklands War. Sixty years after the aircraft's first flight in 1954, some of the 2,960 produced remain in service with the Argentine Air Force and the Brazilian Naval Aviation.
The Skyhawk was designed by Douglas Aircraft's Ed Heinemann in response to a U. S. Navy call for a jet-powered attack aircraft to replace the older Douglas AD Skyraider. Heinemann opted for a design that would minimize its size and complexity; the result was an aircraft. It had a wing so compact; the first 500 production examples cost an average of $860,000 each, less than the Navy's one million dollar maximum. The diminutive Skyhawk soon received the nicknames "Scooter", "Kiddiecar", "Bantam Bomber", "Tinker Toy Bomber", and, on account of its speed and nimble performance, "Heinemann's Hot-Rod"; the XA4D-1 prototype set a world speed record of 695.163 mph on 15 October 1955. The aircraft is of conventional post-World War II design, with a low-mounted delta wing, tricycle undercarriage, a single turbojet engine in the rear fuselage, with two air intakes on the fuselage sides; the tail is with the horizontal stabilizer mounted above the fuselage. Armament consisted of two 20 mm Colt Mk 12 cannons, one in each wing root, with 100 rounds per gun, plus a large variety of bombs and missiles carried on a hardpoint under the fuselage centerline and hardpoints under each wing.
The short-span delta wing did not require the complexity of wingtip folding, saving an estimated 200 pounds. Its spars were machined from a single forging; the leading edge slats were designed to drop automatically at the appropriate speed by gravity and air pressure, saving weight and space by omitting actuation motors and switches. The main undercarriage did not penetrate the main wing spar, designed so that when retracted only the wheel itself was inside the wing and the undercarriage struts were housed in a fairing below the wing, thus the wing structure was lighter with the same overall strength. The rudder was constructed of a single panel reinforced with external ribs; the turbojet engine was accessed for service or replacement by removing the aft section of the fuselage and sliding out the engine. This obviated the need for access doors with their hinges and latches further reducing weight and complexity; this is the opposite of what can happen in aircraft design where a small weight increase in one area leads to a compounding increase in weight in other areas to compensate, creating a demand for more powerful, heavier engines, larger wing and empennage area, so on in a vicious circle.
The A-4 pioneered the concept of "buddy" air-to-air refueling. This allows the aircraft to supply others of the same type, reducing the need for dedicated tanker aircraft—a particular advantage for small air arms or when operating in remote locations; this allows for improved operational flexibility and reassurance against the loss or malfunction of tanker aircraft, though this procedure reduces the effective combat force on board the carrier. A designated supply A-4 would mount a center-mounted "buddy store", a large external fuel tank with a hose reel in the aft section and an extensible drogue refueling bucket; this aircraft was launched first. Attack aircraft would be armed to the maximum and given as much fuel as was allowable by maximum takeoff weight limits, far less than a full tank. Once airborne, they would proceed to top off their fuel tanks from the tanker using the A-4's fixed refueling probe on the starboard side of the aircraft nose, they could sortie with both full armament and fuel loads.
The A-4 was used for refueling in U. S. service after the KA-3 Skywarrior tanker became available aboard the larger carriers. The versatility of the capability and the retirement of the Skywarrior meant that the Boeing F/A-18E/F Super Hornet now includes this capability; the A-4 was designed to be able to make an emergency landing, in the event of a hydraulic failure, on the two drop tanks nearly always carried by these aircraft. Such landings resulted in only minor damage to the nose of the aircraft which could be repaired in less than an hour; the Navy issued a contract for the type on 12 June 1952, the first prototype first flew from Edwards Air Force Base, California on 22 June 1954. Deliveries to Navy and Marine Corps squadrons commenced in late 1956; the Skyhawk remained in production until 1979, with 2,960 aircraft built
Luis A. Berdiel Rivera is a Puerto Rican politician and was member of the Senate of Puerto Rico in 2009, he is affiliated with the pro-statehood New Progressive Party and had served as a Municipal Legislator in Adjuntas. Berdiel Rivera was born in Adjuntas, Puerto Rico on October 8, 1962, his parents were Paulina Rivera. He graduated from high school in 1981, with a certificate in vocational education in automobile repair and painting, he received a Bachelor's degree from the Interamerican University of Puerto Rico in Elementary Education, an associate degree in Special Education. He opened his own auto body shop while studying in college. Berdiel started his political career in 1986 when he was elected to the Municipal Legislative Assembly of Adjuntas. In January, 1987, he started serving at the Finance Office of the Municipality of Adjuntas and in 1993 started working as Aide to the Mayor, he worked at the Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority office in Bonacillo since February 1995. He was again elected to the Municipal Assembly at the 2000 elections.
Berdiel was elected to the Senate of Puerto Rico in 2008, along with Larry Seilhamer, being the first time the New Progressive Party had won that district in 16 years. In this term, he presided the Commission of Agriculture, was vice president of the Special Commission oh the Port of Las Américas. In 2016, Berdiel was elected once more for the Senate. Berdiel Rivera is presiding the Commission of Agriculture, he is the vice president for the Committee on Environmental Health and National Resources, the Committee on Development of the South Central Region and the Committee on Ethics and Public Integrity. Moreover, he is the Secretary in the Committee on Appointments and the Committee on Public Safety. In the year 2017 he opposed a senate project that would have prohibited the use of glyphosate in the public areas of Puerto Rico; because of this decision glyphosate is contaminating Puerto Rico's natural resources and the general health of the population. Berdiel has been married to Jannette Rivera since December 1989.
They have two children together: Janeliz Berdiel. Luis Miguel is married with two children: Paulina and Alejandra. Janeliz still in High School and her dream is to be a doctor. Hon. Luis Berdiel on SenadoPR
IRB Infrastructure Developers Limited IRB Infrastructure Developers Private Limited is an Indian highway construction company headed by Virendra Dattatraya Mhaiskar, incorporated in 1998, with its headquarter in Mumbai. It is part of the IRB Group. IRB Infrastructure, which executed the country's first build-operate-transfer road project, is one of the largest operators of such ventures, it has about 3,404 lane Km operational and about 2,330 lane Km under development. Among its notable projects are the Mumbai Pune Expressway and the Ahmedabad Vadodara Expressway In 2012, IRB acquired Tamil Nadu based BOT Road builder MVR Infrastructure and Tollways for ₹ 1.30 billion. IRB Infrastructures executed India's first BOT project, i.e. the Thane-Bhivandi Bypass. Over the years, BOT became their strength, turned into one of the largest BOT portfolios in the country with a total length of around 12,000-lane km. In its kitty, IRB has difficult projects like 4-lanning of Goa-Karnataka border, Kundapur section of NH17, Agra-Etawah Bypass project, Udaipur-Rajasthan NH8 project, Kaithal to Rajasthan NH152 project, etc.
Mumbai-Pune Expressway IRB Infrastructure acquired the Mumbai-Pune Expressway and the Mumbai-Pune National Highway, concluded under the supervision of Maharashtra State Road Development Corporation. Chittorgarh And Gulabpura IRB achieved financial closure for its BOT project from Chittorgarh and Gulabpura; the project is an expansion of the 124.87-km section on NH79, converting from a four-lane to six-lane expressway. The concession period of this project is 20 years from the appointed date, including 910 days of construction, creating smoother transit; the total funding for the project by company will be 6.9 billion and by SPV tied banks will be 14 billion. Kaithal Rajasthan Project IRB Infrastructure developed the Kaithal-Rajasthan project; the 166.26 km-long highway became operational in 2017, has 20.90 km service road, 18 pedestrian underpass, 5 vehicular underpass, 5 flyovers, 13 small bridges, 71 intersections, 241 culverts and railway over bridge. The cost of production for project was 22.9 billion, including a viability gap funding of Rs2.34 billion.
On July 2011, IRB Infrastructure signed an agreement to develop a 102.3 km section in the Ahmedabad-Vadodara NH8 into 6 lanes from the existing 2 lanes. The project included improvement of 93.302 km section of existing Ahmedabad – Vadodara Expressway, on a Design Building Finance Operate and Transfer basis. In March 2018, IRB Infrastructure won two hybrid annuity projects under NHDP phase IV in the state of Tamil Nadu, which included four laning of NH-45A Puducherry to Poondiyankuppam and Poondiyankuppam to Sattanathapuram at a cost of Rs 2169 crore at a cost of Rs 1296 crore; the construction period is 730 days and the operation period is 15 years for the said projects. The company had received a letter of award on from National Highways Authority of India for a hybrid annuity project worth Rs1,640cr under the National Highways Development Project phase VI in Gujarat; the order came after the company had emerged as the preferred bidder for the construction of the eight-lane Vadodara Kim expressway from Padra to Vadodara section of the Vadodara-Mumbai Expressway in Gujarat.
In 2009, IRB Infra won the bid to develop the greenfield Sindhudurg Airport in the Sindhudurg district of Maharashtra on a build-operate-transfer basis. IRB Infrastructure Developers Ltd. has been well acknowledged for its overall excellence and proficiency in the form of various awards and accolades. Virendra D. Mhaiskar and Managing Director of IRB, was conferred with the “Young Turk of the Year” at the 6th Edition of CNBC TV 18 India Business Leader Awards on 11 December 2010 at Mumbai; the company was conferred with the CNBC TV 18 Essar Steel Infrastructure Excellence Award for second time for its high quality work implemented on the Bharuch to Surat section of NH- 8 under Highways and Bridges Category. The company bagged the CNBC TV 18 Essar Steel Infrastructure Excellence Award in the Highways & Flyovers category for Mumbai-Pune section of NH-4 in the year 2009. IRB Infrastructure Developers Ltd. bagged a contract worth Rs 2,100 crore from NHAI for a six-lane project in Rajasthan and Gujarat.
The project is to be developed on design, finance and transfer under the National Highways Development Programme phase V. IRB Infrastructure Ltd won the Construction Times 2017 Award under the Best Executed Highway Project of the Year category for building the Ahmedabad–Vadodara Expressway Project. In April 2018, Virendra Mhaiskar, the chairman and managing director of IRB Infrastructure and all others officials got a clean chit from CBI with regards to any sort of involvement in the murder of RTI activist Satish Shetty, they were summoned in May 2012 by CBI. During the investigation, CBI had asked Virendra Mhaiskar and other suspects to undergo a polygraph test. Mhaiskar along with the company officials had to undergo the polygraph test