A dovecote or dovecot or doocot is a structure intended to house pigeons or doves. Dovecotes may be free-standing structures in a variety of shapes, or built into the end of a house or barn, they contain pigeonholes for the birds to nest. Pigeons and doves were an important food source in the Middle East and Europe and were kept for their eggs and dung; the oldest dovecotes are thought to have been the fortified dovecotes of Upper Egypt, the domed dovecotes of Iran. In these regions, the droppings were used by farmers for fertilizing. Pigeon droppings were used for leather tanning and making gunpowder. In some cultures Medieval Europe, the possession of a dovecote was a symbol of status and power and was regulated by law. Only nobles had this special privilege known as droit de colombier. Many ancient manors in France and the United Kingdom have a dovecote in one section of the manorial enclosure or in nearby fields. Examples include Château de Kerjean in Brittany, Houchin, Bodysgallen Hall in Wales, Muchalls Castle and Newark Castle in Scotland.
The presence of dovecotes is not noted in France before the Roman invasion of Gaul by Caesar. The pigeon farm was a passion in Rome: the Roman round, columbarium had its interior covered with a white coating of marble powder. Varro and Pliny the Elder wrote about pigeon farms and dovecote construction. In the city of Rome in the time of the Republic and the Empire the internal design of the banks of pigeonholes was adapted for the purpose of disposing of cremated ashes after death: these columbaria were constructed underground; the French word for dovecote is colombier. In some French provinces Normandy, the dovecotes were built of wood in a stylized way. Stone was the other popular building material for these old dovecotes; these stone structures were built in circular and octagonal form. Some of the medieval French abbeys had large stone dovecotes on their grounds. In Brittany, the dovecote was sometimes built directly into the upper walls of the farmhouse or manor-house. In rare cases, it was built into the upper gallery of the lookout tower.
Dovecotes of this type are called tour-fuie in French. Some of the larger château-forts, such as the Château de Suscinio in Morbihan, still have a complete dovecote standing on the grounds, outside the moat and walls of the castle. In France, it was called a colombier or fuie from the 13th century onwards and pigeonnier until the 19th century; the dovecote interior, the space granted to the pigeons, is divided into a number of boulins. Each boulin is the lodging of a pair of pigeons; these boulins can be in rock, brick or cob and installed at the time of the construction of the dovecote or be in pottery, in braided wicker in the form of a basket or of a nest. It is the number of boulins; the one at the chateau d'Aulnay with its 2,000 boulins and the one at Port-d'Envaux with its 2,400 boulins of baked earth are among the largest ones in France. In the Middle Ages in France, the possession of a colombier à pied, constructed separately from the corps de logis of the manor-house, was a privilege of the seigneurial lord.
He was granted permission by his overlord to build two on his estate lands. For the other constructions, the dovecote rights varied according to the provinces, they had to be in proportion to the importance of the property, placed in a floor above a henhouse, a kennel, a bread oven a wine cellar. The aviaries were integrated into a stable, a barn or a shed, were permitted to use no more than 1 hectares of arable land. Although they produced an excellent fertilizer, the lord's pigeons were seen as a nuisance by the nearby peasant farmers, in particular when sowing new crops. In numerous regions where the right to possess a dovecote was reserved for the nobility, the complaint rolls frequently recorded formal requests for the suppression of this privilege and a law for its abolition, ratified on 4 August 1789 in France. Dovecotes in Greece are known as Peristeriones; such structures are popular in the Cycladic islands and in particular Tinos, which has more than 1000 dovecotes. The systematic breeding of doves and pigeons as sources of meat and fertilizer was introduced by the Venetians in the 15th century.
Dovecotes are built in slopes protected by the prevailing north wind and oriented so that their facade is towards an open space. In Tinos, the facades of dovecotes are decorated with folklore motifs constructed with local schist rocks that give them an exquisite appearance. Dovecotes were included in several of the villa designs of Andrea Palladio; as an integral part of the World Heritage Site "Vicenza and the Palladian Villas of the Veneto", dovecotes such as those at Villa Barbaro enjoy a high level of protection. Dovecotes in Belgium are associated with pigeon racing, they have special features, such as trap doors that allow pigeons to fly in, but not out. The Flemish word for dovecote is "duivenkot"; the Dutch word for dovecote "duiventil" for a smaller dovecot. Dovecotes in Spain are known as a Palomares; these structures are popular in the Tierra de Campos region and has a scale model of this type of building at a Theme Park located in the Mudéjar de O
General Cigar Company–Ansco Camera Factory Building known as Agfa-Ansco, General Aniline and Film, Anitec, is a historic factory complex located at Binghamton, Broome County, New York. It was built in 1927-1928 for the General Cigar Company; the factory building is a four-story brick building with basement, 20 bays long. It has an intersecting four-story wing and two-story addition constructed in 1950; the building measures 62 feet wide and 402 feet long. The powerhouse is a one-story, steel frame and brick building measuring 36 feet wide and 52 feet long; the buildings housed manufacturing operations of Ansco for photographic equipment. The factory closed in 1977, it was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2012
The Majorca Building is a neo-Romanesque, eight-storey tall building in Melbourne, Australia and constructed between 1928-30. Located at 258-260 Flinders Lane, it was designed by Harry Norris, one of the most prolific architects in the city during the 1920s and'30s. Norris's designs incorporated both emerging Australian and American architectural styles and the Majorca Building has been described as his best work incorporating faience; the Majorca Building was built on a site at the end of the intersection of Flinders Lane and Degraves Street. Flinders Lane acted as a beacon for the area. During the 1920s, property values rose as ground floors were given over to tailoring/clothing stores and upper floors to soft-goods merchants; the Majorca Building was designed as office space. Architect Harry Norris incorporated many American styles into his work, he was inspired by the popular Spanish Colonial Revival style after visits to the United States. The building is laden with Spanish/Moorish features, including blue faience tiles.
A Heritage Victoria database entry for Majorca House, says: "The Moorish influence in its terracotta façade places it within the Melbourne tradition of exotic architecture in the late 1920s."The Majorca Building is a natural progression from Norris’s other celebrated building in this style, the Kellow Houses at St Kilda, South Yarra, a car showroom completed in 1928. A retail store is located on the ground floor; the remainder of the building is owned residential apartments. Alkira House Architecture of Melbourne
An L-ribonucleic acid aptamer is an RNA-like molecule built from L-ribose units. It is an artificial oligonucleotide named for being a mirror image of natural oligonucleotides. L-RNA aptamers are a form of aptamers. Due to their L-nucleotides, they are resistant to degradation by nucleases. L-RNA aptamers are considered potential drugs and are being tested in clinical trials. L-RNA aptamers, built using L-ribose, are the enantiomers of natural oligonucleotides, which are made with D-ribose. Nucleic acid aptamers, including L-RNA aptamers, contain adenosine monophosphate, guanosine monophosphate, cytidine monophosphate, uridine monophosphate, a phosphate group, a nucleobase and a ribose sugar. Like other aptamers, L-RNA aptamers are able to bind molecules such as peptides and substances of low molecular weight; the affinity of L-RNA aptamers to their target molecules lies in the pico to nanomolar range and is thus comparable to antibodies. L-RNA aptamers. In contrast to other aptamers, L-RNA aptamers have high stability in blood serum, since they are less susceptible to be cleaved hydrolytically by enzymes.
They are excreted by the kidneys in a short time due to their low molar mass. L-RNA aptamers modified with a higher molar mass, such as PEGylated L-RNA aptamers, show a prolonged plasma half-life. Unlike other aptamers, L-RNA aptamers are not directly made using systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment, as L-nucleic acids are not amenable to enzymatic methods, such as polymerase chain reaction, used in SELEX. Therefore, the selection is done with mirrored target molecules; the first step is the production of the target's enantiomer. In the case of peptides and small proteins that are produced synthetically, an enantiomer is made using synthetic D-amino acids. If the target is a larger protein molecule, beyond synthetic abilities, the enantiomer of an epitope is produced. Conventional existing molecule library serves as a starting point for the subsequent SELEX process. Selection and amplification using the mirror image of the target molecule is performed; the sequence of the oligonucleotide selected using SELEX is determined with the help of DNA sequencing.
This information is used for the synthesis of the oligonucleotide's enantiomer, the L-RNA aptamer, using L-nucleotides. L-RNA aptamers have been obtained for the chemokines CCL2 and CXCL12, the complement components C5a and ghrelin, they are in preclinical or clinical development. Proof-of-concept for an anti-CCL2/MCP-1 L-RNA aptamers has been demonstrated in diabetic nephropathy patients, they can be used as diagnostic agents
The 1984 Indian general election polls in Tamil Nadu were held for 39 seats in the state. The result was a landslide victory for Indian National Congress and its ally Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam, winning 37 out of 39 seats; the other 2 seats were won by Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam. This marks the start of the dominance of INC-ADMK, for the next decade winning 38 seats in 1989 election and all 39 seats in 1991 election; the allocation of seats were done what was dubbed, "The MGR formula". Where the regional party would contest 70% of the assembly seats and the national party would be given 70% of the Lok Sabha seats; the seats from 1980 election, represents the seats of the coalition in this election, the seats represented from Congress is from the Indira faction. Elections in Tamil Nadu Volume I, 1984 Indian general election, 8th Lok Sabha Website of Election Commission of India CNN-IBN Lok Sabha Election History
Nochistlán is one of the 58 municipalities in the Mexican state of Zacatecas. Founded by the Caxcanes, it was the first site of Guadalajara in Mexico. In the 2005 census, the Municipality of Nochistlán reported a population of 26,195. Of these, 16,562 lived in the municipal seat, Nochistlán, the remainder lived in surrounding rural communities; the first news that we have regarding the natives of these lands points to the Tecuexes. These people settled in the region around 1000 A. D. Later, in the 12th century, a new group of people called the Caxcanes moved in, they were from the valley in Tuitlán, now found in the Municipality of Villanueva, Zacatecas; the Caxcanes established Nochistlán by driving out the Tecuexes by force. On December 3, 1531, Nuño Beltrán de Guzmán hired Cristobal de Oñate to establish a village in Nochistlán, the village would be named Guadalajara in honor of Guzmán for his birth in Guadalajara. Guadalajara was founded in Nochistlán on January 5, having as officials Oñate, Sancho Ortiz de Zuñiga and Miguel de Ibarra.
They created the first layout of Guadalajara. Latitude - 21°48'03" N Longitude - 102°45'57" W Population 26,195 Nochistlán Government Site Nochistlán official MySpace