Dover is a town and major ferry port in Kent, South East England. It faces France across the Strait of Dover, the narrowest part of the English Channel, lies south-east of Canterbury and east of Maidstone; the town is home of the Port of Dover. The surrounding chalk cliffs are known as the White Cliffs of Dover. Archaeological finds have revealed that the area has always been a focus for peoples entering and leaving Britain; the name derives from the River Dour. The Port of Dover provides much of the town's employment. First recorded in its Latinised form of Portus Dubris, the name derives from the Brythonic word for water; the same element is present in the town's French name Douvres and the name of the river, evident in other English towns such as Wendover. However, the modern Modern Welsh name Dofr is an adaptation of the English name Dover; the current name was in use at least by the time of Shakespeare's King Lear, in which the town and its cliffs play a prominent role. Archaeological finds have shown that there were Stone Age people in the area, that some Iron Age finds exist.
During the Roman period, the area became part of the Roman communications network. It was connected by road to Canterbury and Watling Street and it became Portus Dubris, a fortified port. Dover has a preserved Roman lighthouse and the remains of a villa with preserved Roman wall paintings. Dover figured in the Domesday Book. Forts were built above the port and lighthouses were constructed to guide passing ships, it is one of the Cinque Ports. and has served as a bastion against various attackers: notably the French during the Napoleonic Wars and Germany during the Second World War. Dover is in the south-east corner of Britain. From South Foreland, the nearest point to the European mainland, Cap Gris Nez is 34 kilometres away across the Strait of Dover; the site of its original settlement lies in the valley of the River Dour, sheltering from the prevailing south-westerly winds. This has led to the silting up of the river mouth by the action of longshore drift; the town has been forced into making artificial breakwaters to keep the port in being.
These breakwaters have been extended and adapted so that the port lies entirely on reclaimed land. The higher land on either side of the valley – the Western Heights and the eastern high point on which Dover Castle stands – has been adapted to perform the function of protection against invaders; the town has extended up the river valley, encompassing several villages in doing so. Little growth is possible along the coast; the railway, being tunnelled and embanked, skirts the foot of the cliffs. Dover has an oceanic climate similar to the rest of the United Kingdom with mild temperatures year-round and a light amount of rainfall each month; the warmest recorded temperature was 35.9 °C, recorded on 25 July 2019. The temperature is between 3 °C and 21.1 °C. There is evidence. In 1800, the year before Britain's first national census, Edward Hasted reported that the town had a population of 10,000 people. At the 2001 census, the town of Dover had 28,156 inhabitants, while the population of the whole urban area of Dover, as calculated by the Office for National Statistics, was 39,078 inhabitants.
With the expansion of Dover, many of the outlying ancient villages have been incorporated into the town. The parishes of Dover St. Mary's and Dover St. James, since 1836 Buckland and Charlton have become part Dover, Maxton, Kearsney, Temple Ewell, Whitfield, all to the north of the town centre, are within its conurbation; the Dover Harbour Board is the responsible authority for the running of the Port of Dover. The English Channel, here at its narrowest point in the Straits of Dover, is the busiest shipping lane in the world. Ferries crossing between here and the Continent have to negotiate their way through the constant stream of shipping crossing their path; the Dover Strait Traffic Separation Scheme allots ships separate lanes when passing through the Strait. The Scheme is controlled by the Channel Navigation Information Service based at Maritime Rescue Co-ordination Centre Dover. MRCC Dover is charged with co-ordination of civil maritime search and rescue within these waters; the Port of Dover is used by cruise ships.
The old Dover Marine railway station building houses one passenger terminal, together with a car park. A second, purpose-built, terminal is located further out along the pier; the ferry lines using the port are: to Calais: P&O Ferries, DFDS Seaways. to Dunkirk: DFDS Seaways. These services have been cut in recent years: P&O Ferries sailings to Boulogne were withdrawn in 1993 and Zeebrugge in 2002. SNCF withdrew their three train ferry sailings on the opening of the Channel Tunnel. Regie voor Maritiem Transport moved their Ostend service of three sailings daily to Ramsgate in 1994. Stena Line merged their 20 Calais sailings into the current P&O operation in 1998. Hoverspeed withdrew their 8 daily sailings. SpeedFerries withdrew their 5 daily sailings. LD Lines ceased the Dover-Dieppe service on 29 June 2009 and Dover-Boulogne 5 September 2010. SeaFrance ceased
Joseph Francis Charles Rock was an Austrian-American explorer, geographer and botanist. He was born in Vienna, went to Egypt at the age of 10 with his father, wandered about in Europe, but on an impulse, he emigrated to the United States in 1905 and moved to Honolulu, Hawaii in 1907, where he became an authority on the flora there. He first taught full-time at Mills College, was placed on leave in Sept. 1908 for health reasons. As the Territory of Hawaii's first official botanist, he joined the faculty of the College of Hawaii. During the Ngolok rebellions Rock witnessed repeated battles by the Ma Clique's Chinese Muslim army against the Ngolok Tibetans in Xiahe County and Labrang Monastery; the Ma Muslim army left Tibetan skeletons scattered over a wide area, the Labrang monastery was decorated with decapitated Tibetan heads. After the 1929 battle of Xiahe near Labrang, decapitated Tibetan heads were used as ornaments by Chinese Muslim troops in their camp, 154 in total. Rock described "young children"'s heads staked around the military encampment.
Ten to fifteen heads were fastened to the saddle of every Muslim cavalryman. The heads were "strung about the walls of the Moslem garrison like a garland of flowers."In March 2009, the University of Hawaii at Manoa named its herbarium after him. Works and collections by and from Rock are held in the Library of Congress; the Hawaiian endemic species Lobelia rockii of Molokai, Peperonia Rockii. In 1916, Rock wrote the principal scientific description of Palmyra Atoll in the central Pacific Ocean. In his expeditions and studies in China and the eastern Himalayas, he produced a 1,094-page dictionary, numerous scholarly papers, two histories of the Nakhi people and language of northwestern Yunnan, which have been used for the study of Nakhi culture and religion; these books are out-of-print and command high prices in the rare book markets. The most important of his written works are Palmyra Island with a Description of its Flora, Honolulu, 1916; the Ancient Nakhi Kingdom of Southwest China. 2 vols. illustrated.
Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard Univ. Press, 1948. A Nakhi-English encyclopedic dictionary. Rome: I. M. E. O. 1963. His National Geographic magazine articles: "Hunting the Chaulmoogra tree" 3:242-276. "Banishing the Devil of Disease Among the Nashi: Weird Ceremonies Performed by an Aboriginal Tribe in the Heart of Yunnan Province" 46:473-499 "Land of the Yellow Lama: National Geographic Society Explorer Visits the Strange Kingdom of Muli, Beyond the Likiang Snow Range of Yunnan, China" 47: 447-491 "Experiences of a Lone Geographer: An American Agricultural Explorer Makes His Way through Brigand-Infested Central China En Route to the Amne Machin Range, Tibet" 48: 331-347 "Through the Great River Trenches of Asia: National Geographic Society Explorer Follows the Yangtze and Salwin Through Mighty Gorges" 50: 133-186 "Life among the Lamas of Choni: Describing the Mystery Plays and Butter Festival in the Monastery of an Almost Unknown Tibetan Principality in Kansu Province, China": 569-619 "Seeking the Mountains of Mystery: An Expedition on the China-Tibet Frontier to the Unexplored Amnyi Machen range, One of Whole Peaks Rivals Everest" 57:131-185 "Glories of the Minya Konka: Magnificent Snow Peaks of the China-Tibetan Border are Photographed at Close Range by a National Geographic Society Expedition" 58:385-437 "Konka Risumgongba, Holy Mountain of the Outlaws" 60:1-65 "Sungmas, the Living Oracles of the Tibetan Church" 68:475-486.
Gongga Shan, a mountain in Sichuan which Rock erroneously thought for a time to be the highest in the world. Chock, Alvin K. 1963. "J. F. Rock, 1894-1962." Taxon 12:89-102. Michael Aris "Lamas and Brigands. Joseph Rock's Photographs of the Tibetan Borderlands of China", China Institute in America, New York City Sutton, S. B. "In China's Border Provinces: The Turbulent Career of Joseph Rock, Botanist Explorer", New York Gore, R. "Joseph Rock: Our Man in China" National Geographic Magazine 191: 62-81 Goodman, Jim "Joseph F. Rock and His Shangri-La" Frain, Irène "Au Royaume des Femmes", ISBN 978-2213622590, notice bnf 40999356 Frain, Irène "A la recherche du Royaume", ISBN 978-2-35004-070-7, notice bnf 41008902 Film: "A King in China" - A People and Places Production © 2003, Paul Harris In the footsteps of Joseph Rock: a photoblog Joseph Rock's photos Joseph Rock's photographs of China Book review Joseph Francis Rock Collection at the Smithsonian Institution Archives International Plant Names index
Advanced Energy Materials is a peer reviewed scientific journal covering energy-related research, including photovoltaics, supercapacitors, fuel cells, hydrogen technologies, photocatalysis, solar power technologies, magnetic refrigeration, piezoelectric materials. It publishes invited reviews and progress reports, full papers, rapid communications. Established in 2011, Adv. Energy Mater. began as a monthly journal in 2012 and switched to 18/year in 2014, biweekly in 2016, 36/year in 2018, weekly in 2019. The journal is abstracted and indexed in: Chemistry Citation Index Current Contents/Engineering, Computing & Technology Current Contents/Physical, Chemical & Earth Sciences ENERGY Inspec Materials Science Citation Index Science Citation Index Expanded Official website