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Dover, Delaware

Dover is the capital and second-largest city in the U. S. state of Delaware. It is the county seat of Kent County, the principal city of the Dover, DE Metropolitan Statistical Area, which encompasses all of Kent County and is part of the Philadelphia-Wilmington-Camden, PA-NJ-DE-MD Combined Statistical Area, it is located on the St. Jones River in the Delaware River coastal plain, it was named by William Penn for Dover in England. As of 2010, the city had a population of 36,047. First recorded in its Latinised form of Portus Dubris, the name derives from the Brythonic word for waters; the same element is present in the town's Modern Welsh forms. The city is named after Kent in England. Dover was founded as the court town for newly established Kent County in 1683 by William Penn, the proprietor of the territory known as the "Lower Counties on the Delaware." In 1717, the city was laid out by a special commission of the Delaware General Assembly. The capital of the state of Delaware was moved here from New Castle in 1777 because of its central location and relative safety from British raiders on the Delaware River.

Because of an act passed in October 1779, the assembly elected to meet at any place in the state they saw fit, meeting successively in Wilmington, Dover, New Castle, Lewes again, until it settled down permanently in Dover in October 1781. The city's central square, known as The Green, was the location of many rallies, troop reviews, other patriotic events. To this day, The Green remains the heart of Dover's historic district and is the location of the Delaware Supreme Court and the Kent County Courthouse. Dover was most famously the home of Caesar Rodney, the popular wartime leader of Delaware during the American Revolution, he is known to have been buried outside Dover. A cenotaph in his honor is erected in the cemetery of the Christ Episcopal Church near The Green in Dover. Dover and Kent County were divided over the issue of slavery, the city was a "stop" on the Underground Railroad because of its proximity to slave-holding Maryland and free Pennsylvania and New Jersey, it was home to a large Quaker community that encouraged a sustained emancipation effort in the early 19th century.

There were few slaves in the area, but the institution was supported, if not practiced, by a small majority, who saw to its continuation. The Bradford-Loockerman House, Building 1301, Dover Air Force Base, John Bullen House, Carey Farm Site, Christ Church, Delaware State Museum Buildings, John Dickinson House, Dover Green Historic District, Eden Hill, Delaware Governor's Mansion, Hughes-Willis Site, Loockerman Hall, Macomb Farm, Mifflin-Marim Agricultural Complex, Old Statehouse, Palmer Home, Town Point, Tyn Head Court, Victorian Dover Historic District are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Dover is located at 39°09′29″N 75°31′28″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 22.7 square miles, of which 22.4 square miles is land and 0.3 square miles, or 1.32%, is water. Dover has humid subtropical climate. Summers are hot and humid, with 23 days per year reaching or surpassing 90 °F. Brief, but heavy summer thunderstorms are common. Winters are moderated by the Delaware Bay and the partial shielding of the Appalachians, though there are 8−9 days when the daily high remains below freezing and 15 nights with lows below 20 °F. Snow is light and sporadic, averaging only 15.7 inches per season, does not remain on the ground for long.

Spring and autumn provide transitions of reasonable length and are similar, though spring is more wet. The monthly mean temperature ranges from 35.2 °F in January to 77.7 °F in July. The annual total precipitation of around 46 inches is spread rather evenly year-round. Dover averages 2300 hours of sunshine annually. In 2010, Dover had a population of 36,047 people; the racial makeup of the city was 48.3% White, 42.2% African American, 0.5% Native American, 2.7% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 2.1% from other races, 4.1% from two or more races. 6.6% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. As of the census of 2000, there were 32,135 people, 12,340 households, 7,502 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,435.0 people per square mile. There were 13,195 housing units at an average density of 589.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 54.94% White, 37.22% African American, 0.45% Native American, 3.16% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 1.57% from other races, 2.62% from two or more races.

4.13 % of the population were Latino of any race. There were 12,340 households out of which 30.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 40.4% were married couples living together, 16.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 39.2% were non-families. 31.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.35 and the average family size was 2.98. In the city of Dover the age distribution of the population shows 23.5% under the age of 18, 15.7% from 18 to 24, 27.9% from 25 to 44, 19.5% from 45 to 64, 13.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33 years. For every 100 females, there were 88.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 85.1 males. The median income for a household in the city was $38,669, the median income for a family was $48,338. Males had a median income of $34,824 versus $26,061 for females; the pe

Police impersonation

Police impersonation is an act of falsely portraying oneself as a member of the police, for the purpose of deception. In the vast majority of countries, the practice carries a custodial sentence. Impersonating a police officer is sometimes committed in order to assert police-like authority in order to commit a crime. Posing as a police officer enables the offender to legitimize the appearance of an illegal act, such as: burglary, making a traffic stop, or detaining a citizen without resistance. Dressing up as a police officer in costume, or pretending to be a police officer for the entertainment purposes or a harmless prank toward an acquaintance is not considered a crime, provided that those involved recognize the imposter is not a real police officer, the imposter is not trying to deceive those involved into thinking they are. Replica police uniforms sold in the UK must not be identical to the uniforms used by the police, traders have been jailed in the past for selling on genuine uniformsThe following impersonations class as the offence: Verbal identification: The imposter announces to the unsuspecting victim that they are a police officer or other law enforcement agent.

Fake Badge or Warrant card: The imposter, though not in any special clothes, displays a police-like badge or identification card to the victim. Sometimes a real police officer will not be able to differentiate between the real and fake badge, as some duplicates are similar to a real badge, if not identical to one; this is much more of a problem in the USA than in the UK, as in the UK, police identification includes photographic ID as well as the police shield, whereas in the US, a police shield alone counts as ID, making it easier for people to pretend to be police officers. Fake uniform: The imposter wears a uniform that looks much like that of a police officer. Fake vehicle: The imposter places police lights, siren, or other equipment on a personal vehicle to disguise it as a police car and enable the offender to pass through red traffic lights, bypass traffic other non-emergency traffic would have to wait for, make traffic stops, or arrests. Much of the equipment described above is available for purchase by the general public, thereby enabling imposters to obtain the necessary materials to commit such a crime.

While the equipment will not bear the name of a specific law enforcement agency, the unsuspecting victim may not notice the difference. In an extreme case, a Hempstead, New York man set up a fake police station in addition to the above, where he interrogated those he arrested; some of the following crimes have been committed while impersonating a police officer: Home invasion, by gaining entry under the guise of a police officer, followed by theft from the premises, torture, or in rare cases, murder. Theft and motor vehicle theft - approaching a victim, explaining that an item or a vehicle is stolen; the impersonator will seize the "evidence" and never return it. Armed robbery, following a traffic stop Kidnapping following a traffic stop or false arrest Fake authority, in which the officer attempts to extort money from the victim, claiming it is a fine, or can be paid on the spot to avoid further legal consequences. Prank phone calls and other fraudulent / deceptive electronic communications, where one might make a comment about a group that invites retaliation.

The 2014 American film Let's Be Cops features the main characters pretending to be police officers. A popular webseries Dick Figures aired an episode called'We're Cops' featured'red' and'blue' rob a bank dressed as a police officer; the 1991 James Cameron film Terminator 2: Judgment Day features Robert Patrick as a T-1000 who impersonates a Los Angeles police officer in order to find and kill John Connor. It's Always Sunny in Philadelphia episode “Bums: Making a Mess All Over the City”, Frank buys a decommissioned police cruiser and dresses as a cop with Dennis, they use their new status to receive free hotdogs and harass citizen by taking their money and possession. Another example is the 1980 film featuring Dan Aykroyd The Blues Brothers in which the Blues Brothers purchase an ex cop car Dodge Monaco In describing the car to his brother Jake Blues, Elwood says, "It's got a cop motor, a 440-cubic-inch plant. It's got cop suspension, cop shocks. It's a model made before catalytic converters so it'll run good on regular gas."

Sugarloaf Cable Car

The Sugarloaf Cable Car is a cableway in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Moving between Praia Vermelha and the Sugarloaf Mountain, it stops at Morro da Urca on its way up and down, reaches the summit of the 1,299-foot mountain; the cableway was envisioned by the engineer Augusto Ferreira Ramos in 1908 who sought support from well-known figures of Rio's high society to promote its construction. Opened in 1912, it was only the third cableway to be built in the world. In 1972 the cars were updated, growing from a capacity of 22 to 75, in 1979 it featured in an action scene for the James Bond film Moonraker. Today it is used by 2,500 visitors every day; the cable cars run every 30 minutes, between 10 pm. The development of technical and engineering achievement of the National Exhibition in Commemoration of the First Centenary of the Opening of the Ports of Brazil to the International Trade in 1908 motivated engineer Augusto Ramos to imagine a cable car system in Rio de Janeiro. Ramos had to resort to well-known personages of Rio's high society.

These included Eduardo Guinles and Raymundo Ottoni de Castro Maya, who were powerful figures with a range of developmental interests in the city, to promote the idea of an electric cable system. When the cable car was built, there were only two others in the world: the chairlift at Mount Ulia, in Spain, with a length of 280 metres, built in 1907, the lift at Wetterhorn, in Switzerland, with a length of 560 metres, built in 1908; the Sugarloaf Cable Car was opened on 27 October 1912. Its Portuguese-language name comes from the similarities between the cablecars, the former trams in town. Envisioned by Augusto Ramos, it is managed by Companhia Caminho Aéreo Pão de Açúcar, a company created by Ramos; the first cable cars were used for 60 years. The cable car stopped at Urca. In 1951, an accident occurred in which one of the two cables snapped, leaving 22 people dangling on one cable. One mechanic aboard, Augusto Goncales, climbed out and slithered down to Urca station and helped to build an emergency car to go back up and rescue the other passengers, 12 women and girls, 6 men and 3 children, in an event which took about 10 hours.

President Vargas praised Goncales as the "Hero of the Day". In October 1972, a second cable was added, as well as new cabins, which expanded its capacity from 22 to 75; the cable car was the setting for the 1979 James Bond film Moonraker in which British secret agent James Bond battles with his nemesis Jaws in the middle of the tramway, which results in a tramcar with Jaws in it crashing into the ground station and smashing through the wall, although he miraculously survives. During the filming, the stuntman Richard Graydon narrowly avoided falling to his death. For the scene in which Jaws bites into the steel tramway cable with his teeth, the cable was made of liquorice, although Richard Kiel was still required to use his steel dentures. In 1979, Las Vegas-based Steven McPeak walked the tightrope on the steel cable, the highest stretch of the cable car route, a feat which entered him into the Guinness Book of World Records. On 18 January 1983, the route was expanded to Sugarloaf Mountain. In 2007, Falko Traber walked along the rope of the cable railway.

On the centenary of the cableway in 2012, Google honored it with viewable in Brazil. This cable car appears in a few video games as well. For instance, it appears off in the distance in the Wii version of Need for Speed: Nitro, in one part of the Santa Teresa racing course in Rio de Jainero; the cable cars run every 30 minutes, between 10 pm. They have a capacity of about 65 people; the first part of the line, from the starting station to the stop off station at Morro da Urca, has a length of 600 metres, with the maximum speed of 6 metres per second. Morro da Urca is situated at an altitude of 722 feet, it contains a cafe, snack bar, souvenir stands, a children's play area. The second part of the line, Morro da Urca to Sugarloaf, has a length of 850 metres, with a maximum speed of 10 metres per second; the latter part of the trip up to 1,299 feet on Sugarloaf towards the top, is steep. Official website

Petersen's theorem

In the mathematical discipline of graph theory, Petersen's theorem, named after Julius Petersen, is one of the earliest results in graph theory and can be stated as follows: Petersen's Theorem. Every cubic, bridgeless graph contains a perfect matching. In other words, if a graph has three edges at each vertex, every edge belongs to a cycle it has a set of edges that touches every vertex once. We show that for every cubic, bridgeless graph G = we have that for every set U ⊆ V the number of connected components in the graph induced by V − U with an odd number of vertices is at most the cardinality of U. By Tutte theorem G contains a perfect matching. Let Gi be a component with an odd number of vertices in the graph induced by the vertex set V − U. Let Vi denote the vertices of Gi and let mi denote the number of edges of G with one vertex in Vi and one vertex in U. By a simple double counting argument we have that ∑ v ∈ V i deg G ⁡ = 2 | E i | + m i, where Ei is the set of edges of Gi with both vertices in Vi.

Since ∑ v ∈ V i deg G ⁡ = 3 | V i | is an odd number and 2|Ei| is an number it follows that mi has to be an odd number. Moreover, since G is bridgeless we have that mi ≥ 3. Let m be the number of edges in G with one vertex in U and one vertex in the graph induced by V − U; every component with an odd number of vertices contributes at least 3 edges to m, these are unique, the number of such components is at most m/3. In the worst case, every edge with one vertex in U contributes to m, therefore m ≤ 3|U|. We get | U | ≥ 1 3 m ≥ | |; the theorem is due to a Danish mathematician. It can be considered as one of the first results in graph theory; the theorem appears first in the 1891 article "Die Theorie der regulären graphs". By today's standards Petersen's proof of the theorem is complicated. A series of simplifications of the proof culminated in the proofs by König. In modern textbooks Petersen's theorem is covered as an application of Tutte's theorem. In a cubic graph with a perfect matching, the edges that are not in the perfect matching form a 2-factor.

By orienting the 2-factor, the edges of the perfect matching can be extended to paths of length three, say by taking the outward-oriented edges. This shows that every bridgeless graph decomposes into edge-disjoint paths of length three. Petersen's theorem can be applied to show that every maximal planar graph can be decomposed into a set of edge-disjoint paths of length three. In this case, the dual graph is cubic and bridgeless, so by Petersen's theorem it has a matching, which corresponds in the original graph to a pairing of adjacent triangle faces; each pair of triangles gives a path of length three that includes the edge connecting the triangles together with two of the four remaining triangle edges. By applying Petersen's theorem to the dual graph of a triangle mesh and connecting pairs of triangles that are not matched, one can decompose the mesh into cyclic strips of triangles. With some further transformations it can be turned into a single strip, hence gives a method for transforming a triangle mesh such that its dual graph becomes hamiltonian.

It was conjectured by Lovász and Plummer that the number of perfect matchings contained in a cubic, bridgeless graph is exponential in the number of the vertices of the graph n. The conjecture was first proven for bipartite, bridgeless graphs by Voorhoeve for planar, bridgeless graphs by Chudnovsky & Seymour; the general case was settled by Esperet et al. where it was shown that every cubic, bridgeless graph contains at least 2 n / 3656 perfect matchings. Biedl et al. discuss efficient versions of Petersen's theorem. Based on Frink's proof they obtain an O algorithm for computing a perfect matching in a cubic, bridgeless graph with n vertices. If the graph is furthermore planar the same paper gives an O algorithm, their O time bound can be improved based on subsequent improvements to the time for maintaining the set of bridges in a dynamic graph. Further improvements, reducing the time bound to O or O, were given by Stanczyk. If G is a regular graph of degree d whose edge connectivity is at least d − 1, G has an number of vertices it has a perfect matching.

More every edge of G belongs to at least one perfect matching. The condition on the number of vertices can be omitted from this result when the degree is odd, because in that case the number of vertices is always even

Betsy Bryan

Betsy Morrell Bryan is an American Egyptologist, leading a team, excavating the Precinct of Mut complex in Karnak, at Luxor in Upper Egypt. She is Alexander Badawy Professor of Egyptian Art and Archaeology, Near Eastern Studies Professor at Johns Hopkins University, her work has included research and writing about Thutmose IV and Amenhotep III, on an Egyptian drinking festival. The quest for immortality: treasures of ancient Egypt / Erik Hornung and Betsy M. Bryan, editors. Washington, D. C.: National Gallery of Art. Xiv, 239 p.: col. ill. Col. map. ISBN 3-7913-2735-6, ISBN 0-89468-303-9 The reign of Thutmose IV / Betsy M. Bryan. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, c1991. 389 p. 19 p. of plates: ill.. ISBN 0-8018-4202-6 Egypt’s dazzling sun: Amenhotep III and his world / by Arielle P. Kozloff and Betsy M. Bryan with Lawrence M. Berman. Cleveland: Cleveland Museum of Art in collaboration with Indiana University Press. Xxiv, 476 p.: ill.. ISBN 0-940717-16-6, ISBN 0-940717-17-4 You can be a woman Egyptologist / Betsy Morrell Bryan and Judith Love Cohen.

Marina Del Rey, Calif.: Cascade Pass, 1999. 38 p.: col. ill.. ISBN 1-880599-45-7, ISBN 1-880599-10-4 Hopkins in Egypt Today Archaeologists Bring Egyptian Excavation to the Web January 5, 2006 The Gazette Online ""Betsy Bryan... is part of an international team bringing a new exhibit of artifacts to the National Gallery of Art.... Bryan is the curator of The Quest for Immortality: Treasures of Ancient Egypt"

Phyllis Heineman

Phyllis M. Heineman is an American politician and a Republican member of the South Dakota Senate representing District 13 since January 11, 2011. Heineman served non-consecutively in the South Dakota Legislature from her appointment by Governor of South Dakota Bill Janklow November 2, 1999 to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Dana John Windhorst until January 2009 in the South Dakota House of Representatives District 13 seat. Heineman earned her BA in mathematics from South Dakota State University. 2012 Heineman was unopposed for the June 5, 2012 Republican Primary and won the November 6, 2012 General election with 6,623 votes against Democratic nominee Sam Khoroosi. 2000 Heineman and Don Hennies were unopposed for the 2000 Republican Primary. 2002 Heineman and incumbent Representative Hennies were unopposed for the June 4, 2002 Republican Primary. 2004 Heineman and former Representative Hennies won the three-way June 1, 2004 Republican Primary where Heineman placed first with 2,994 votes.

2006 Heineman ran in the June 6, 2006 Republican Primary and won the five-way November 7, 2006 General election where incumbent Democratic Representative Thompson took the first seat and Heineman took the second seat with 4,717 votes ahead of Democratic nominee Susan Blake, Republican nominee Richard Gourley, Independent candidate Brian Liss. 2008 Term limited from remaining in the House, Heineman was unopposed to challenge incumbent District 13 Democratic Senator Scott Heidepriem in the June 3, 2008 Republican Primary, but lost the November 4, 2008 General election to Senator Heidepriem. 2010 When Senate District 13 incumbent Democratic Senator Heidepriem ran for Governor of South Dakota, Heineman was unopposed for the June 8, 2010 Republican Primary and won the November 2, 2010 General election with 4,856 votes against Democratic nominee Matt Parker. Official page at the South Dakota Legislature Campaign site Profile at Vote Smart Phyllis Heineman at Ballotpedia Phyllis Heineman at the National Institute on Money in State Politics