History of wood carving
Wood carving is one of the oldest arts of humankind. Wooden spears from the Middle Paleolithic, such as the Clacton Spear, show that people have engaged in utilitarian woodwork for millennia. Indeed the beginnings of the craft go so far back that, at least where timber is present, the use of wood exists as a universal in human culture as both a means to create or enhance technology and as a medium for artistry; the North American Indian carves his wooden fish-hook or his pipe stem just as the Polynesian works patterns on his paddle. The native of Guyana decorates his cavassa grater with a well-conceived scheme of incised scrolls, while the native of Loango Bay distorts his spoon with a design of figures standing up in full relief carrying a hammock. Wood carving is present in architecture. Figure-work seems to have been universal. To carve a figure/design in wood may be not only more difficult but less satisfactory than sculpting with marble, owing to the tendency of wood to crack, to be damaged by insects, or to suffer from changes in the atmosphere.
The texture of the material, too proves challenging to the expression of features in the classic type of youthful face. On the other hand, magnificent examples exist of the more rugged features of age: the beetling brows, the furrows and lines neutralizing the defects of the grain of the wood. In ancient work the surface may not have been of such consequence, for figures as a rule being painted for protection and color, it is not always realized at the present day to what extent color has from the most ancient times been used to enhance the effect of wood-carving and sculpture. The modern colour prejudice against gold and other tints is because painted work has been vulgarized; the arrangement of a proper and harmonious scheme of colour is not the work of the house painter, but of the specially trained artist. In the early 20th century, the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, on which much of this entry is based, commented, "Of late years carving has gone out of fashion; the work is slow and requires substantial skill, making the works expensive.
Other and cheaper methods of decoration have driven carving from its former place. Machine work has much to answer for, the endeavor to popularize the craft by means of the village class has not always achieved its own end; the gradual disappearance of the individual artist, elbowed out as he has been, by the contractor, is fatal to the continuance of an art which can never flourish when done at so much a yard." This statement has proven untrue, as the continued survival of the art and craft of woodcarving can be demonstrated by the large number of woodcarvers who have carried on or advanced the tradition in different parts of the world. The extreme dryness of the climate of Egypt accounts for the existence of a number of woodcarvings from this remote period; some wood panels from the tomb of Hosul Egypt, at Sakkarah are of the III. Dynasty; the carving consists of Egyptian hieroglyphs and figures in low relief, the style is delicate and fine. A stool shown on one of the panels has the legs shaped like the fore and hind limbs of an animal, a form common in Egypt for thousands of years.
In the Cairo museum may be seen the statue of a man from the period of the Great Pyramid of Giza 4000 B. C; the expression of the face and the realism of the carriage have never been surpassed by any Egyptian sculptor of this or any other period. The figure is carved out of a solid block of sycamore, in accordance with the Egyptian custom the arms are joined on; the eyes are inlaid with pieces of opaque white quartz, with a line of bronze surrounding to imitate the lid. The IV. V. and VI. dynasties cover the finest period of Egyptian sculpture. The statues found in the tombs show a freedom of treatment, never reached in times, they are all portraits, which the artist strove his utmost to render like his model. For these are not, like mere modern statues works of art, but had a religious signification; as the spirits of the deceased might inhabit, these Ka statues, the features and proportions were copied. There are to be found in the principal museums of Europe many Egyptian examples: mummy cases of human beings with the face alone carved, animal mummy cases, sometimes boxes, with the figure of a lizard carved in full Mummy relief standing on the lid.
Sometimes the animal would be carved in its hollowed body used as the case itself. Of furniture, folding seats like the modern camp stool, chairs with legs terminating in the heads of beasts or the feet of animals, Furniture still exist. Beds supported by lions paws XI. and XII. dynasties, from Gebelein, now in the Cairo Museum), headrests, 6 or 8 in. High, shaped like a crutch on a foot like those used by the native of New Guinea today, are carved with scenes, etc. in outline. In the British Museum may be seen a tiny little coffer, 4 in. by 21/2 in. with delicate figures carved in low relief. This little box stands on cabriole legs 3/4 of an inch long with claw feet, quite Louis Quinze in character. There are incense ladles, the handle representing a bouquet of lotus flowers, the bowl formed like the leaf of an aquatic plant with serrated edges from Gurnah during the XVIII. Dynasty.
Relief carving is a type of wood carving in which figures are carved in a flat panel of wood. The figures project only from the background rather than standing freely. Depending on the degree of projection, reliefs may be classified as high or medium relief. Relief carving can be described as "carving pictures in wood"; the process of relief carving involves removing wood from a flat wood panel in such a way that an object appears to rise out of the wood. Relief carving begins with a design idea put to paper in the form of a master pattern, transferred to the wood surface. Most relief carving is done with hand tools - chisels and gouges - which require a mallet to drive them through the wood; as wood is removed from the panel around the objects traced onto it from the pattern, the objects themselves stand up from the background wood. Modeling of the objects can take place as soon as enough background has been removed and the object edges are trimmed to the pattern lines. In order to secure the wood panel, a workbench with fixtures like bench-dogs, carver's screw or clamps, is necessary.
Carving tools come in a wide variety of shapes and sizes, some aimed at the hobbyist, but others directed at professional carvers. Some carving tools are held with one hand, but most relief carving requires that the wood panel be secured so that both hands may be on the carving tool. Much of the skill required for relief carving lies in learning to grip and manipulate tools to get the desired effect. Tool sharpening is a necessary skill to learn, dull tools are a severe obstacle to effective carving. Create a pattern, drawn on paper. Prepare a wood panel for carving; this may be a single piece of a laminated panel. Transfer the pattern to the panel, using carbon paper as the transfer medium. Remove wood around the objects that comprise the pattern. Model the objects Detail the objects Tidy the background behind the objects Apply a suitable finish to the panel 1. High relief between 1/2" and 2" in depth. 2. Bas relief, or Low relief under 1/2" in depth. 3. Deep relief over 2" in depth. 4. Pierced relief, where holes are carved clear through the wood.
Some carvers prefer to finish their carving with a clear finish. But others incorporate pyrography into their relief carvings. Chip carving Relief Carving Wood carving Spielmann, Marion Harry Alexander. "Relief". In Chisholm, Hugh. Encyclopædia Britannica. 23. Cambridge University Press. P. 61
Marquetry is the art and craft of applying pieces of veneer to a structure to form decorative patterns, designs or pictures. The technique may be applied to case furniture or seat furniture, to decorative small objects with smooth, veneerable surfaces or to freestanding pictorial panels appreciated in their own right. Marquetry differs from the more ancient craft of inlay, or intarsia, in which a solid body of one material is cut out to receive sections of another to form the surface pattern; the word derives from a Middle French word meaning "inlaid work". The veneers used are woods, but may include bone, turtle-shell, mother-of-pearl, brass or fine metals. Marquetry using colored straw was a specialty of some European spa resorts from the end of the 18th century. Many exotic woods as well as common European varieties can be employed, from the near-white of boxwood to the near-black of ebony, with veneers that retain stains well, like sycamore, dyed to provide colors not found in nature; the French cabinet maker Andre-Charles Boulle specialized in furniture using metal and either wood or tortoiseshell together, the latter acting as the background.
The simplest kind of marquetry uses only two sheets of veneer, which are temporarily glued together and cut with a fine saw, producing two contrasting panels of identical design. Marquetry as a modern craft most uses knife-cut veneers. However, the knife-cutting technique requires a lot of time. For that reason, many marquetarians have switched to scroll saw techniques. Other requirements are a pattern of some kind, some brown gummed tape, PVA glue and a base-board with balancing veneers on the alternate face to compensate stresses. Finishing the piece will require fine abrasive paper always backed by a sanding block. Either ordinary varnish, special varnishes, modern polyurethane -oil or water based- good waxes and the technique of French polish are different methods used to seal and finish the piece. Sand shading is a process used to make. A piece of veneer to be incorporated into a picture is submerged into hot sand for a few seconds. Another process is engraving fine lines into a picture and filling them with a mixture of India ink and shellac.
Furniture inlaid with precious woods, metals and stones is known from the ancient world and Roman examples have been recovered from the first century sites of Pompeii and Herculaneum demonstrating that the technique was advanced. The revival of the technique of veneered marquetry had its inspiration in 16th century Florence and at Naples from classical inspiration. Marquetry elaborated upon Florentine techniques of inlaying solid marble slabs with designs formed of fitted marbles and semi-precious stones; this work, called opere di commessi, has medieval parallels in Central Italian "Cosmati"-work of inlaid marble floors and columns. The technique is known in English as pietra dura, for the "hardstones" used: onyx, cornelian, lapis lazuli and colored marbles. In Florence, the Chapel of the Medici at San Lorenzo is covered in a colored marble facing using this demanding jig-sawn technique. Techniques of wood marquetry were developed in Antwerp and other Flemish centers of luxury cabinet-making during the early 16th century.
The craft was imported full-blown to France after the mid-seventeenth century, to create furniture of unprecedented luxury being made at the royal manufactory of the Gobelins, charged with providing furnishings to decorate Versailles and the other royal residences of Louis XIV. Early masters of French marquetry were the Fleming Pierre Golle and his son-in-law, André-Charles Boulle, who founded a dynasty of royal and Parisian cabinet-makers and gave his name to a technique of marquetry employing tortoiseshell and brass with pewter in arabesque or intricately foliate designs. Boulle marquetry was revived in the 1780s. In the decades between matched quarter-sawn veneers sawn from the same piece of timber were arranged symmetrically on case pieces and contrasted with gilt-bronze mounts. Floral marquetry came into favor in Parisian furniture in the 1750s, employed by cabinet-makers like Bernard van Risenbergh, Jean-Pierre Latz and Simon-François Oeben; the most famous royal French furniture veneered with marquetry are the pieces delivered by Jean Henri Riesener in the 1770s and 1780s.
The Bureau du Roi was the most famous amongst these famous masterpieces. Marquetry was not ordinarily a feature of furniture made outside large urban centers. Marquetry was introduced into London furniture at the Restoration of Charles II in 1660, the product of immigrant Dutch'inlayers', whose craft traditions owed a lot to Antwerp. Panels of elaborately scrolling "seaweed" marquetry of box or holly contrasting with walnut appeared on table tops and long-case clocks. At the end of the 17th century, a new influx of French Huguenot craftsmen went to London, but marquetry in England had little appeal in the anti-French, more Chinese-inspired high-style English furniture after ca 1720. Marquetry was revived as a vehicle of Neoclassicism and a'French taste' in London furniture, starting in the late 1760s. Cabinet-makers associated with London-made marquetry furniture, 1765–1790, include Thomas Chippendale and less familiar names, like John Linnell, the French craftsman Pierre Langlois, the firm of William Ince a
Log buildings and structures can be categorized as historic and modern. A diverse selection of their forms and styles with examples of architectural elements is discussed in the following articles. Log cabin - a rustic dwelling Log home - a style and method of building a quality house Izba - a type of Russian peasant house of log construction; the Cabin of Peter the Great is based on an izba. Crib barn - a type of barn built using log cribs Some barns are log barns such as the earliest of the Pennsylvania barn types. Blockhouse, garrison house - some blockhouse or garrison house structures are fitted timber or stacked plank construction buildings to help withstand an attack. Azekurazukuri - a Japanese style of building using triangular log construction Some granarys are of log or plank construction; the Upper Lusatian house called Umgebinde in German, combines timber framing and log building Wooden churches in Ukraine - log buildings are the norm south and east of Germany and many of the churches are recognized world heritage sites.
Corner post construction sometimes called post-and-plank - this construction method blurs the line between timber framing and log construction with a frame infilled with logs or planks to form the walls. Timber dam - timber crib dams are used to dam rivers. Zakopane Style architecture – inspired by the regional art of Poland’s highland region known as Podhale uses log construction. Hogan - this Native American dwelling evolved to be built of logs. Chalet - Originally a dwelling-barn-house type farmhouse of timber construction Black Forest house - traditional farmhouse type of timber construction Octagonal churches in Norway are of log construction, some dating from the 17th century For Finnish and German language users see the special type of Finnish log church construction called Tukipilarikirkko or Stützpfeilerkirche Media related to Category:Log structures at Wikimedia Commons Media related to Category:Granaries by material at Wikimedia Commons Media related to Category:Stabbur at Wikimedia Commons Media related to Category:Hórreos at Wikimedia Commons Media related to Category:Wooden architecture in Ukraine at Wikimedia Commons Media related to Category:Log churches at Wikimedia Commons Media related to Category:Timber dams at Wikimedia Commons Media related to Category:Farm buildings in Sweden at Wikimedia Commons Media related to Category:Farm buildings in Finland at Wikimedia Commons Media related to Category:Farm buildings in Norway at Wikimedia Commons See farm buildings and houses in southeast Europe including Switzerland, Hungary, etc. where log construction is common
A dovetail rail or dovetail mount can refer to several types of brackets found on firearms for mounting sights. Dovetail rails refer to any rail with an inverted trapezium cross-section running parallel to the bore for mounting a scope or diopter sight to a rifle; these are sometimes called "tip-off" mounts, allow the user to take on or off the sight. Dovetail mount can refer to a dovetail track running perpendicular to the bore, see "Other uses" below. Dovetails come in several different types and sizes depending on manufacturer, but the most common are the 11 mm and 3⁄8 inch; some other less known, but commercially available dovetail mounts, are 12, 13, 13.5, 14, 14.5, 16, 16.5, 17 and 19 mm. While the well standardized picatinny rail mount is most known in the U. S. many European gun manufacturers offer proprietary scope base receiver mounting systems for their guns, for example Sako has tapered dovetails, Tikka use a 16 mm dovetail, there are other solutions such as the Blaser Saddle Mount or Recknagel Swing Mount.
Dovetail mounts are today found on light recoiling air guns, but can be found on some modern rifles for hunting and sport shooting using smokeless powder, although other options such as the picatinny rail are becoming more popular. Some examples of rifles with different types of rails: 9.5 mm: Crosman Pumpmaster 760, CZ 452 and Remington Model 552. 11 mm: Accuracy International Arctic Warfare, CZ 452, 455 and 511, Remington Model 597, Sig Sauer 200 STR, Walther LGR and Weihrauch HW 35. 13 mm: Chiappa Firearms Double Badger 17 mm: Sako TRG 19 mm: CZ 550Dovetails are integrated into some rifles most noticeably the L85A2 and A1 variants of the SA80 bullpup rifle for mounting the iron sights and the SUSAT sighting system but in recent times has been changed Picatinny rail in place of it as Dovetails where not fit for purpose according to the MOD to make space for ACOG sighting system. Dovetail mount can refer to a dovetail track running perpendicular to the bore used for smaller front sights posts and rear sights blades found on handguns and some rifles.
This mounting method is meant as a semi-permanent friction fit mounting solution where a slot is milled, for instance in the slide of a pistol, a sight with a corresponding dovetail is punched or drifted into that slot. Rear sights are offered in many dovetail cut profiles which are non-compatible, some well known cut profiles are those from sight manufacturers such as Novak, BoMar, LPA/TRT, Kimber or the 1911 mil standard. Additionally many pistol manufacturers have their own proprietary dovetail cut profiles. Warsaw Pact rail, a variant dovetail rail system design developed by the Soviet Union to side-mount telescopic sights to rifles and machine guns. UIT rail, an older standard T-slot design used for mounting slings on competition firearms Weaver rail mount, early rail system used for scope mounts, still has some popularity in the civilian market Picatinny rail, the improved and military standardized version of the Weaver mount developed by Picatinny Arsenal in New Jersey. Used for both for scope mounts and for accessories.
Major popularity in the civilian market. NATO Accessory Rail, a further development from the MIL-STD-1913 Picatinny rail KeyMod - an open source "negative space" rail mount design developed by VLTOR Weapon Systems to replace the MIL-STD-1913 rail for mounting accessories M-LOK - a free licensed "negative space" rail mount design developed by Magpul Industries as a competing standard to VLTOR's KeyMod Rail Integration System, generic term for a system for attaching accessories to small firearms
Wood is a porous and fibrous structural tissue found in the stems and roots of trees and other woody plants. It is an organic material, a natural composite of cellulose fibers that are strong in tension and embedded in a matrix of lignin that resists compression. Wood is sometimes defined as only the secondary xylem in the stems of trees, or it is defined more broadly to include the same type of tissue elsewhere such as in the roots of trees or shrubs. In a living tree it performs a support function, enabling woody plants to grow large or to stand up by themselves, it conveys water and nutrients between the leaves, other growing tissues, the roots. Wood may refer to other plant materials with comparable properties, to material engineered from wood, or wood chips or fiber. Wood has been used for thousands of years for fuel, as a construction material, for making tools and weapons and paper. More it emerged as a feedstock for the production of purified cellulose and its derivatives, such as cellophane and cellulose acetate.
As of 2005, the growing stock of forests worldwide was about 434 billion cubic meters, 47% of, commercial. As an abundant, carbon-neutral renewable resource, woody materials have been of intense interest as a source of renewable energy. In 1991 3.5 billion cubic meters of wood were harvested. Dominant uses were for building construction. A 2011 discovery in the Canadian province of New Brunswick yielded the earliest known plants to have grown wood 395 to 400 million years ago. Wood can be dated by carbon dating and in some species by dendrochronology to determine when a wooden object was created. People have used wood for thousands of years for many purposes, including as a fuel or as a construction material for making houses, weapons, packaging and paper. Known constructions using wood date back ten thousand years. Buildings like the European Neolithic long house were made of wood. Recent use of wood has been enhanced by the addition of bronze into construction; the year-to-year variation in tree-ring widths and isotopic abundances gives clues to the prevailing climate at the time a tree was cut.
Wood, in the strict sense, is yielded by trees, which increase in diameter by the formation, between the existing wood and the inner bark, of new woody layers which envelop the entire stem, living branches, roots. This process is known as secondary growth; these cells go on to form thickened secondary cell walls, composed of cellulose and lignin. Where the differences between the four seasons are distinct, e.g. New Zealand, growth can occur in a discrete annual or seasonal pattern, leading to growth rings. If the distinctiveness between seasons is annual, these growth rings are referred to as annual rings. Where there is little seasonal difference growth rings are to be indistinct or absent. If the bark of the tree has been removed in a particular area, the rings will be deformed as the plant overgrows the scar. If there are differences within a growth ring the part of a growth ring nearest the center of the tree, formed early in the growing season when growth is rapid, is composed of wider elements.
It is lighter in color than that near the outer portion of the ring, is known as earlywood or springwood. The outer portion formed in the season is known as the latewood or summerwood. However, there are major differences, depending on the kind of wood; as a tree grows, lower branches die, their bases may become overgrown and enclosed by subsequent layers of trunk wood, forming a type of imperfection known as a knot. The dead branch may not be attached to the trunk wood except at its base, can drop out after the tree has been sawn into boards. Knots affect the technical properties of the wood reducing the local strength and increasing the tendency for splitting along the wood grain, but may be exploited for visual effect. In a longitudinally sawn plank, a knot will appear as a circular "solid" piece of wood around which the grain of the rest of the wood "flows". Within a knot, the direction of the wood is up to 90 degrees different from the grain direction of the regular wood. In the tree a knot is either the base of a dormant bud.
A knot is conical in shape with the inner tip at the point in stem diameter at which the plant's vascular cambium was located when the branch formed as a bud. In grading lumber and structural timber, knots are classified according to their form, size and the firmness with which they are held in place; this firmness is affected by, among other factors, the length of time for which the branch was dead while the attaching stem continued to grow. Knots materially affect cracking and warping, ease in working, cleavability of timber, they are defects which weaken timber and lower its value for structural purposes where strength is an important consideration. The weakening effect is much more serious when timber is subjected to forces perpendicular to the grain and/or tension than when under load along the grain and/or compression; the extent to which knots affect the strength of a beam depends upon their position, size and condition. A knot on the upper side is compressed. If there is a season check
Pyrography or pyrogravure is the art of decorating wood or other materials with burn marks resulting from the controlled application of a heated object such as a poker. It is known as pokerwork or wood burning; the term graphos. It can be practiced using specialized modern pyrography tools, or using a metal implement heated in a fire, or sunlight concentrated with a magnifying lens. "Pyrography reached its highest standard in the 19th century. In its crude form it is pokerwork." A large range of tones and shades can be achieved. Varying the type of tip used, the temperature, or the way the iron is applied to the material all create different effects. After the design is burned in, wooden objects are coloured. Light-coloured hardwoods such as sycamore, basswood and birch are most used, as their fine grain is not obtrusive. However, other woods, such as maple, pine or oak, are used. Pyrography is applied to leather items, using the same hot-iron technique. Leather lends itself to bold designs, allows subtle shading to be achieved.
Specialist vegetable-tanned leather must be used for pyrography in light colours for good contrast. Pyrography is popular among gourd crafters and artists, where designs are burned onto the exterior of a dried hard-shell gourd; the process has been practiced by a number of cultures including the Egyptians and some African tribes since the dawn of recorded history. Pyrographer Robert Boyer hypothesises that the art form dates back to prehistory, when early humans created designs using the charred remains of their fires, it was known in China from the time of the Han dynasty, where it was known as "Fire Needle Embroidery". During the Victorian era, the invention of pyrography machines sparked a widespread interest in the craft, it was at this time that the term "pyrography" was coined In the late 19th century, a Melbourne architect by the name of Alfred Smart discovered that water-based paint could be applied hot to wood by pumping benzoline fumes through a heated hollow platinum pencil; this improved the pokerwork process by allowing the addition of tinting and shading that were impossible.
In the early 20th century, the development of the electric pyrographic hot wire wood etching machine further automated the pokerwork process, Art Nouveau pyrographic gloveboxes and other works were popular in that era. Pyrography is a traditional folk art in many parts of Europe, including Romania, Poland and Flanders, as well as Argentina and other areas in South America. Traditional pyrography can be performed using any heated metal implement. Modern pyrography machines exist, can be divided into three main categories. Solid-point burners are similar in design to a soldering iron, they have a solid brass tip, heated by an electrical element, operate at a fixed temperature. Wire-nib burners have variable temperature controls; the writing nib is heated by an electric current passing directly through it. Some models have interchangeable nibs to allow for different effects. Laser cutters can be set to scorch the material instead of cutting all the way through it. Many laser cutters provide software facilities to import image files and transfer them onto a sheet of wood.
Some laser systems are sufficiently sensitive to perform pyrography on thin card or paper. Woods differ in hardness, figure, texture and other physical characteristics. Hardness: All woods can be classified into hard or soft. Softwoods are from coniferous trees. You may be aware of a little bit of resin oozing and a slight turpentine smell when you burn on softwood. Hardwoods are from broad-leaved trees; these hardwood trees can be classified into two distinct growing seasons each year such as: Earlywood: lighter in color and weight and only moderately strong Latewood: heavier and much stronger. Softwood will burn faster, it does not require hot temperature to burn as do the hardwoods. Grain: Grain is the direction of the fibrous elements of the wood cells; this is important to sand with the grain. The grain can cause deviation from its intended path with use of woodturning pen unless you apply more pressure and burn slower on the grain. Figure: This is the natural design, or pattern, that you can see on the cut surface of the wood.
The figure present on the wood should always be taken into consideration when you are planning your woodburned design. Texture: There is a texture on the surface of that wood that feels either coarse of fine or uneven; as a beginning woodburner, avoid using fine or intricate designs on uneven, coarse-textured wood. Softwoods are moderately coarse-textured. With some textures it may mean that you will have to compensate when burning it – going slower on the harder summerwood and with a lighter touch on the softer springwood to create an burn overall. Color: Woodburning should be used to enhance the natural beauty of a wooden project, so do not always hide a beautiful figure, luster, or color if it is present; the main hazard to be wary of is the fine wood dust when sanding the wood or in some cases the pitch/sap or resin that emits harmful fumes when burning. All wood dust is hazardous & can cause respiratory problems if you do not wear a mask, some more than others & should be avoided. You should always wear a quality dust mask/respirator while power carving, use a good dust collection system to avoid