Downforce is a downwards lift force created by the aerodynamic characteristics of a vehicle. The purpose of downforce is to allow a car to travel faster through a corner by increasing the vertical force on the tires, thus creating more grip; the same principle that allows an airplane to rise off the ground by creating lift from its wings is used in reverse to apply force that presses the race car against the surface of the track. This effect is referred to as "aerodynamic grip" and is distinguished from "mechanical grip", a function of the car's mass and suspension; the creation of downforce by passive devices can be achieved only at the cost of increased aerodynamic drag, the optimum setup is always a compromise between the two. The aerodynamic setup for a car can vary between race tracks, depending on the length of the straights and the types of corners; because it is a function of the flow of air over and under the car, downforce increases with the square of the car's speed and requires a certain minimum speed in order to produce a significant effect.
Some cars have had rather unstable aerodynamics, such that a minor change in angle of attack or height of the vehicle can cause large changes in downforce. In the worst cases this can cause the car to experience lift, not downforce. Two primary components of a racing car can be used to create downforce when the car is travelling at racing speed: the shape of the body, the use of airfoils. Most racing formulae have a ban on aerodynamic devices that can be adjusted during a race, except during pit stops; the downforce exerted by a wing is expressed as a function of its lift coefficient: D = 1 2 W H F ρ v 2 where: D is downforce W is wingspan H is the chord of the wing if F is wing area basis, or the thickness of the wing if using frontal area basis F is the lift coefficient ρ is air density v is velocity In certain ranges of operating conditions and when the wing is not stalled, the lift coefficient has a constant value: the downforce is proportional to the square of airspeed. In aerodynamics, it is usual to use the top-view projected area of the wing as a reference surface to define the lift coefficient.
The rounded and tapered shape of the top of the car is designed to slice through the air and minimize wind resistance. Detailed pieces of bodywork on top of the car can be added to allow a smooth flow of air to reach the downforce-creating elements; the overall shape of a street car resembles an airplane wing. All street cars have aerodynamic lift as a result of this shape. There are many techniques. Looking at the profile of most street cars, the front bumper has the lowest ground clearance followed by the section between the front and rear tires, followed yet by a rear bumper with the highest clearance. Using this method, the air flowing under the front bumper will be constricted to a lower cross sectional area, thus achieve a lower pressure. Additional downforce comes from the rake of the vehicles' body, which directs the underside air up and creates a downward force, increases the pressure on top of the car because the airflow direction comes closer to perpendicular to the surface. Volume does not affect the air pressure because it is not an enclosed volume, despite the common misconception.
Race cars will exemplify this effect by adding a rear diffuser to accelerate air under the car in front of the diffuser, raise the air pressure behind it to lessen the car's wake. Other aerodynamic components that can be found on the underside to improve downforce and/or reduce drag, include splitters and vortex generators; some cars, such as the DeltaWing, do not have wings, generate all of their downforce through their body. The amount of downforce created by the wings or spoilers on a car is dependent on two things: The shape, including surface area, aspect ratio and cross-section of the device, The device's orientation. A larger surface area creates greater drag; the aspect ratio is the width of the airfoil divided by its chord. If the wing is not rectangular, aspect ratio is written AR=b2/s, where AR=aspect ratio, b=span, s=wing area. A greater angle of attack of the wing or spoiler, creates more downforce, which puts more pressure on the rear wheels and creates more drag; the function of the airfoils at the front of the car is twofold.
They create downforce that enhances the grip of the front tires, while optimizing the flow of air to the rest of the car. The front wings on an open-wheeled car undergo constant modification as data is gathered from race to race, are customized for every characteristic of a particular circuit. In most series, the wings are designed for adjustment during the race itself when the car is serviced; the flow of air at the rear of the car is affected by the front wings, front wheels, driver's helmet, side pods and exhaust. This causes the rear wing to be less aerodynamically efficient than the front wing, because it must generate more than twice as much downforce as the front wings in order to maintain the handling to balance the car, the rear wing t
Air Commodore Arthur Dwight Ross was a Royal Canadian Air Force Base Commander of No. 62 Base, No. 6 Group RCAF in Yorkshire, England during the Second World War. Ross received the George Cross for his actions on the night of 27/28 June 1944 at RAF Tholthorpe. Arthur Dwight Ross was born 18 March 1907, in Winnipeg, Canada. After graduating from the Royal Military College of Canada in Kingston, Ontario in 1928, he took a commission in the Royal Canadian Air Force. Ross received his pilot's wings at Camp Borden in February 1929. After a few years of aerial surveying and staffing work, Ross was appointed commander of No. 5 Squadron on Canada's east coast in 1939 where he flew on anti-submarine and convoy escort operations. From August 1940 to March 1942, he worked with the British Commonwealth Air Training Plan as the officer commanding No. 3 Service Flying Training School, at Currie Field in Calgary, Alberta. In December 1942, Ross became the Commanding Officer at RAF Middleton St. George. In February 1944 he was promoted from Group Captain to Air Commodore and was assigned to command No. 62 Base, No. 6 Group RCAF, headquartered at RAF Linton-on-Ouse.
While visiting the base's sub-station at RAF Tholthorpe, an incident occurred which earned Ross the George Cross, the highest gallantry award for civilians as well as for military personnel in actions which are not in the face of the enemy. The incident resulted in awards being earned by other personnel. During the night of 27/28 June 1944, an RCAF Halifax aircraft of 425 Squadron was returning from a bombing raid on a flying bomb launching site in northern France; the aircraft struggled back on three engines. Upon landing, the pilot, Sergeant M. J. P. Lavoie, lost control and veered his aircraft into a parked Halifax, loaded with fuel and bombs; the George Cross citation explains the incident in detail: Ross's George Cross citation reads: St. James's Palace, S. W.1, 27th October, 1944. The KING has been graciously pleased to approve the following awards of the GEORGE CROSS, the George Medal and the British Empire Medal to the undermentioned: Awarded The GEORGE CROSS. Air Commodore Arthur Dwight Ross, O.
B. E. Royal Canadian Air Force. Awarded the George Medal. Can/R.96959 Flight Sergeant Joseph Rene Marcel St. Germain, Royal Canadian Air Force. Can/R.87217 Corporal Maurice Marquet, Royal Canadian Air Force. Awarded the British Empire Medal. Can /R.273581 Leading Aircraftman Melvin Muir McKenzie, Royal Canadian Air Force. Can/R.188008 Leading Aircraftman Robert Rubin Wolfe, Royal Canadian Air Force. One night in June, 1944, an aircraft, while attempting to land, crashed into another, parked in the dispersal area and loaded with bombs; the former aircraft was burning furiously. Air Commodore Ross was at the airfield to attend the return of aircraft from operations and the interrogation of aircrews. Flight Sergeant St. Germain a bomb aimer, had just returned from an operational sortie and Corporal Marquet was in charge of the night ground crew, whilst leading Aircraftmen McKenzie and Wolfe were members of the crew of the crash tender. Air Commodore Ross with the assistance of Corporal Marquet, extricated the pilot who had sustained severe injuries.
At that moment ten 500 Ib. bombs in the second aircraft, about 80 yards away and this officer and airman were hurled to the ground. When the hail of debris had subsided, cries were heard from the rear turret of the crashed aircraft. Despite further explosions from bombs and petrol tanks which might have occurred, Air Commodore Ross and Corporal Marquet returned to the blazing wreckage and endeavoured in vain to swing the turret to release the rear gunner. Although the port tail plane was blazing furiously, Air Commodore Ross hacked at the perspex with an axe and handed the axe through the turret to the rear gunner who enlarged the aperture. Taking the axe again the air commodore, assisted now by Flight Sergeant St. Germain as well as by Corporal Marquet broke the perspex steel frame supports and extricated the rear gunner. Another 500 lb. bomb exploded which threw the 3 rescuers to the ground. Flight Sergeant St. Germain rose and threw himself upon a victim in order to shield him from flying debris.
Air Commodore Ross's arm was severed between the wrist and elbow by the second explosion. He calmly walked to the ambulance and an emergency amputation was performed on arrival at station sick quarters. Meanwhile, Corporal Marquet had inspected the surroundings, seeing petrol running down towards two nearby aircraft, directed their removal from the vicinity by tractor. Leading Aircraftmen McKenzie and Wolfe rendered valuable assistance in trying to bring the fire under control and they helped to extricate the trapped rear gunner both being injured by flying debris. Air Commodore Ross showed fine leadership and great heroism in an action which resulted in the saving of the lives of the pilot and rear gunner, he was ably assisted by Flight Sergeant St. Germain and Corporal Marquet who both displayed courage of a high order. Valuable service was rendered by Leading Aircraftmen McKenzie and Wolfe in circumstances of great danger. From 1945 -- 1948, Ross commanded the RCAF Staff College in Ontario.
Until 1961, Ross was Air Commander of the Western Atlantic Area's Canadian Atlantic sub-area of NATO's Allied Command Atlantic. This command's purpose was to keep the sea lanes open between the United States and Europe during the Cold War. An air cadet squadron based in Kingston, Ontario bears his name. Dwight Ross School in Greenwood, Nova Scotia is name
Friedrich Albert Fallou was the German founder of modern soil science. While working as a lawyer and tax assessor, Fallou established himself as an independent scientist, a recognized authority in the natural history of farm and forest soil. In 1862 he advanced the idea. Intent on establishing the study of soils as an independent science, Fallou introduced the term pedology. Friedrich Albert Fallou came from an aristocratic French Huguenot family, he was the son of a judicial bailiff, spent his childhood in Rochlitz and Grimma, where he was a student at the Gymnasium St. Augustine, he never married. From 1814 to 1817 Fallou studied jurisprudence at the University of Leipzig. From 1818 to 1824 he worked as a lawyer in Colditz. In 1825 he was appointed town clerk of Waldheim and worked as administrative officer at the City Court, as a land value tax assessor, his love of nature turned his attention to soils. He wrote geographic descriptions of Saxon regions and towns, which he published in the journal "Saxonia" under the pseudonym "Baldwin from Eichberg".
In 1833 he resigned as city clerk and again ran a practice as a lawyer and land evaluator, this time until 1850. After that, Fallou devoted himself exclusively to geological and pedological studies. In 1856 he moved to the Diedenmühle near Waldheim in Saxony, living here as an independent scientist until his death. Working in soil evaluation for most of his professional life, Fallou was unhappy with the declining soil quality in his region, he developed a passionate interest in soil. Fallou conducted independent geological and mineralogical studies in the 1830s, he had a particular interest in the granulite geology near Prachatice on the eastern edge of the Bohemian Forest. In the years after 1840 he devoted his time to the origin of agricultural and forest soils, his first major publication was a description of the rock formations of Muldengaues and their influence on vegetation. This was published in 1845 and received an award from the Princely Jablonowski'schen Society in Leipzig. In 1853 he published his book "The arable lands of the Kingdom of Saxony", along with a second edition in 1855.
Through numerous study trips in Saxony and neighboring countries, Fallou recognized the need to make soil science knowledge applicable to agriculture and forestry use. In his two books "First Principles of Soil Science" and "Pedology or General and Special Soil Science" he developed his collected field observations of soil into a systematic approach, he explained why soil formation was worthy of study and appealed for recognition of soil science as a discipline. In the 1862 work, he presented a proposal for soil profile description, discussed the physical and chemical properties of soils, proposed classification of soils based on mineral properties. Based on these two works, Fallou is mentioned prominently as the first among founders of modern soil science. Fallou's subsequent works were "The land of the Kingdom of Saxony and its surroundings..." and "The main soil types of the North and Baltic countries of the German Empire scientifically considered". These along with several articles published in Julius Adolph Stöckhardt's magazine Zeitschrift für deutsche Landwirthe gained him recognition for his scientific advancements.
Vasily Dokuchaev was more influential than Fallou, however in the years following Dokuchaev's death, Fallou was regarded as the founder of modern soil science by Dokuchaev's student, influential Russian pedologist Konstantin Dmitrievich Glinka. Fallou's historical status as founder is supported by Moscow soil scientist and bibliographer of Russian soil science, Arseny Yarilov, Editor of “Pochvovedenie”. Yarilov titled his 1904 article about Fallou in Pochvovedenie Friedrich Albert Fallou, Founder of Soil Science. Es giebt ja in der ganzen Natur keinen wichtigeren, keinen der Betrachtung würdigeren Gegenstand und wenn ein berühmter Philosoph und Staatsmann der Vorzeit den Ackerbau für das würdigste Geschäft eines freien Bürgers erklärt, so muß es auch ein ebenso würdiges Geschäft für ihn sein, sich mit dem Boden bekannt zu machen, ohne welchen kein Ackerbau denkbar. There is no more important object in nature, no object more worthy of contemplation, if a famous philosopher and statesman of the past declares agriculture to be the worthy business of a free citizen it would be an worthy business for him to get acquainted with the soil, without which agriculture is not conceivable.
In Pedology or General and Special Soil Science, Dresden 1862.. Translation by Google Translate Omnium autem rerum, ex quibus aliquid adquiritur, nihil est agri cultura melius, nihil uberius, nihil dulcius, nihil homine libero dignius. "For of all gainful professions, nothing is better, nothing more pleasing, nothing more delightful, nothing better becomes a well-bred man than agriculture." Cicero De officiis. Book I, Section 42. Translation by Cyrus R. Edmonds, p. 73 Fallou, F. A. Die Gebirgsformationen zwischen Mittweida und Rochlitz, der Zschopau und beiden Mulden und ihr Einfluß auf die Vegetation. Versuch einer geognostischen-agronomischen Beschreibung, Leipzig: Staritz Fallou, F. A. Die Ackererden des Königreichs Sachsen und der angrenzenden Gegend, geognostisch untersucht und classificiert. Eine bodenkundliche Skizze [The arable earth of the Kingdom of Saxony and the neighboring area
Valentine Marshall was a British man, tried and charged for his alleged involvement in the Nottingham Reform Bill riots. Born Valentine Marshall in 1814, he was the son of John Marshall. John was a framework knitter from Coal Pit Lane. Valentine was described as a farm labourer from Nottingham, five foot seven inches tall with a florid complexion, dark brown hair and dark grey eyes. At the age of 17, Valentine Marshall was tried at Nottingham's Shire Hall for the offence of'rioting and burning Colwick Hall' during the Nottingham Reform Bill riots of 1831. Several witnesses identified him as being part of the mob, but other witnesses said he was elsewhere at the time, he pleaded not guilty and denied the charge, stating that he was on Colwick Green when the incident took place. Marshall was sentenced to death by hanging. Valentine Marshall was held at the County Gaol where his name can be seen, carved into the wall of the prison exercise yard, he was taken to the hulk'Justitia' at Woolwich, London, in February 1832.
In March of the same year, he was moved with fifty other prisoners to the convict transport, the'England'. It held two hundred male convicts including thirty boys from the'Eurylus' boys hulk. Valentine arrived at Hobart in Van Diemen's Land on 19 July 1832; the journey had lasted 105 days - a short time for the period as an average crossing lasted eight or nine months. Instead of being assigned to work for a free settler, once he arrived in Van Diemen's Land, Marshall was kept for public services; this meant. Valentine married a free woman, Letitia Riley, on 23 December 1834, he was reprimanded on two occasions for disobedience and striking his wife. He received a ticket of leave on 22 June 1838 and a free pardon on 24 May 1842; this was reported in the'Nottingham Review' and in the'Illustrated London News' in February 1844. The Nottingham Review article went on to say that a letter has been received in Nottingham from Valentine, which said that he would be returning during the year, he never did.
By he had three children and another four followed. In December 1874, Valentine's wife, died aged 52, he remarried a widowed dressmaker, Emma Palmer. He is at this time described as a seedsman. Marshall died from Bronchitis and paralysis, aged 73, on 12 September 1887
Colonel Raymond A. "Cheval" Lallemant, was a Belgian military pilot and flying ace who served in the British Royal Air Force during World War II. He was credited with destroying six aircraft, making him one of the highest scoring Belgian aces of the conflict. Lallemant, nicknamed "cheval", flew Hawker Typhoons in No. 609 Squadron in a ground attack role. Promoted to Squadron Leader and commanding officer of No. 609 Squadron in late 1944, Lallemand was shot down over the Netherlands in September 1944 but survived despite his injuries. He was awarded bar. Remy Van Lierde Lallemant, R. A. Rendez-vous avec la chance. Paris: Robert Laffont, 1962. Le colonel Lallemant était un "as" de la RAF at La Libre Belgique En mémoire de Raymond Lallemant at Le Courrier de l'Escaut
For 77 years the Sydney Female Refuge Society provided a home for women escaping from prostitution and unmarried young girls who fell pregnant. The society operated from 1848 to 1925 and until 1901 was located in Pitt Street South; the refuge was established on 21 August 1848 by Sydney-siders concerned at the level of extra-marital pregnancies and prostitution. The Refuge Committee made it clear they felt Sydney was no worse than other cities but that it did have unique problems of its own; the first of these was the legacy of young women sent out as convicts and separated from the guidance and support of their parents and families, leaving them susceptible to attack by unscrupulous men. A second problem was caused by the lack of water and sanitation in the city which encouraged disease and poor health; the society had its origins with a member of the Sydney Mechanic’s Institute, Philip Clapman, who in June 1848 arranged a private meeting with New South Wales State Ministers. A provisional committee was set up supported by Edward Deas Thomson, Colonial Secretary, Sir Alfred Stephen, the Chief Justice.
Among their first decisions was the stipulation the new institution should be non-denominational and should abide by a clear set of rules. The running of the Institution was conducted by the Ladies’ Committee and the Gentlemen’s Committee but the internal management of the Institute was the sole responsibility of the Ladies; the refuge was first housed in the ‘Old House of Correction’ next to the Carter’s Barracks in Pitt Street. This building housed the treadmill where juvenile offenders, some of maturer years, were corrected. Modifications were made to the buildings by Mr Thomas Cowlshaw, a builder who lived in Hutchinson Street, Surrey Hills. One of the first orders of business was the removal of the treadmill, noted to have no place in the upcoming regime of female reform. Entry to the refuge was either voluntary or made upon the recommendation of a magistrate, keeper of the gaol or a minister of religion. Once inside the inmates were expected to abide by the rules laid out and to stay for 1-2 years during which time they worked in the laundry or as seamstresses to earn money for the upkeep of the refuge.
The rules stipulated that they were not allowed to receive visits from anyone except those that have a legal right to see them, these only on Tuesdays and Fridays, in the presence of the ‘Visiting Ladies’. These rules were at times hard to enforce as it was difficult to confirm who the relatives were. On Tuesday 15 December 1864, Emily Brown was visited by “her brother” I told him he could not see her again without a letter from his father as matron has heard he was not her brother. Although the institution claimed to only accept voluntary admissions it seems that in some cases parents placed their children there - with varying results. In December 1858 the society reported how, Two young girls, aged fifteen and sixteen years, who were for some months inmates of the refuge, have since called, in the most feeling manner gratefully acknowledged their obligations to your committee, for the reception and treatment. By 1855 around 150 women had passed through the gates of the refuge and by 1858 the committee could claim that forty-six have obtained situations, fifteen have been married, thirty-one restored to their friends.
This suggests a high success rate but the number of escapes listed in the minute books suggests a much more complex environment. It remains unclear whether the return of thirty-one inmates to their “friends” would mark a successful outcome in practice for these women. In 1860 Inspector Harrison stated that nearly a third of the prostitutes working in Sydney were under the age of sixteen and had been born in Australia. In 1858 Charles Cowper’s government undertook to reimburse the society for improvements they made to the site; the first new building was opened by Mrs Young, 3 October 1860, but requests for improvements to the buildings were a constant feature in the annual reports over this period. In 1869 the committee described the accommodation as being, by no means satisfactory, the addition of another range of buildings is necessary, it has been repaired from time to time but the expenditure seems useless. In 1870 a new building was plans submitted by George Allen Mansfield the architect.
This year saw Mrs Wait, the Matron and she was replaced by Mrs Malbon. The new building was completed in 1871. Around 1901 the buildings on Pitt Street were demolished to make way for the Central Railway Station and the society purchased a new property in Silver Street, St Peters. On 35 March 1925, the refuge was voluntarily wound up and Mr Harmsworth Way and the process started to move the assets to the Church of England Homes in Glebe Point. First Annual Report of the Sydney Female Refuge Society, 1848, Kemp and Fairfax, George Street, Sydney, 149 Annual Report of the Sydney Female Refuge Society, 1853, 1854, 1855, Daniel Lovett Welch, Atlas Office, 485 George Street, Sydney, 1856 p.10 Tenth Annual Report of the Sydney Female Refuge Society, 1858, Stokes and Co, 205 George Street North, Sydney, 1859 Thirteenth Annual Report of the Sydney Female Refuge Society, 1861, A. W. Douglas, Atlas Office, Hunter Street, Sydney, 1862 Twenty-first Annual Report of the Sydney Female Refuge Society, 1861, Joseph Cook and Co. 370 George Street, Sydney, 1869 Twenty-Third Annual Report of the Sydney Female Refuge Society, 1871, Joseph Cook & Co. 370 George Street, Sydney, 1872 The Sydney Female Refuge