Basketball is a team sport in which two teams, most of five players each, opposing one another on a rectangular court, compete with the primary objective of shooting a basketball through the defender's hoop while preventing the opposing team from shooting through their own hoop. A field goal is worth two points, unless made from behind the three-point line, when it is worth three. After a foul, timed play stops and the player fouled or designated to shoot a technical foul is given one or more one-point free throws; the team with the most points at the end of the game wins, but if regulation play expires with the score tied, an additional period of play is mandated. Players advance the ball by bouncing it while walking or running or by passing it to a teammate, both of which require considerable skill. On offense, players may use a variety of shots -- a dunk, it is a violation to lift or drag one's pivot foot without dribbling the ball, to carry it, or to hold the ball with both hands resume dribbling.
The five players on each side at a time fall into five playing positions: the tallest player is the center, the tallest and strongest is the power forward, a shorter but more agile big man is the small forward, the shortest players or the best ball handlers are the shooting guard and the point guard, who implements the coach's game plan by managing the execution of offensive and defensive plays. Informally, players may play three-on-three, two-on-two, one-on-one. Invented in 1891 by Canadian-American gym teacher James Naismith in Springfield, United States, basketball has evolved to become one of the world's most popular and viewed sports; the National Basketball Association is the most significant professional basketball league in the world in terms of popularity, salaries and level of competition. Outside North America, the top clubs from national leagues qualify to continental championships such as the Euroleague and FIBA Americas League; the FIBA Basketball World Cup and Men's Olympic Basketball Tournament are the major international events of the sport and attract top national teams from around the world.
Each continent hosts regional competitions for national teams, like FIBA AmeriCup. The FIBA Women's Basketball World Cup and Women's Olympic Basketball Tournament feature top national teams from continental championships; the main North American league is the WNBA, whereas strongest European clubs participate in the EuroLeague Women. In early December 1891, Canadian James Naismith, a physical education professor and instructor at the International Young Men's Christian Association Training School in Springfield, was trying to keep his gym class active on a rainy day, he sought a vigorous indoor game to keep his students occupied and at proper levels of fitness during the long New England winters. After rejecting other ideas as either too rough or poorly suited to walled-in gymnasiums, he wrote the basic rules and nailed a peach basket onto a 10-foot elevated track. In contrast with modern basketball nets, this peach basket retained its bottom, balls had to be retrieved manually after each "basket" or point scored.
Basketball was played with a soccer ball. These round balls from "association football" were made, at the time, with a set of laces to close off the hole needed for inserting the inflatable bladder after the other sewn-together segments of the ball's cover had been flipped outside-in; these laces could dribbling to be unpredictable. A lace-free ball construction method was invented, this change to the game was endorsed by Naismith; the first balls made for basketball were brown, it was only in the late 1950s that Tony Hinkle, searching for a ball that would be more visible to players and spectators alike, introduced the orange ball, now in common use. Dribbling was not part of the original game except for the "bounce pass" to teammates. Passing the ball was the primary means of ball movement. Dribbling was introduced but limited by the asymmetric shape of early balls. Dribbling was common by 1896, with a rule against the double dribble by 1898; the peach baskets were used until 1906 when they were replaced by metal hoops with backboards.
A further change was soon made, so the ball passed through. Whenever a person got the ball in the basket, his team would gain a point. Whichever team got; the baskets were nailed to the mezzanine balcony of the playing court, but this proved impractical when spectators in the balcony began to interfere with shots. The backboard was introduced to prevent this interference. Naismith's handwritten diaries, discovered by his granddaughter in early 2006, indicate that he was nervous about the new game he had invented, which incorporated rules from a children's game called duck on a rock, as many had failed before it. Frank Mahan, one of the players from the original
A marching band is a group in which instrumental musicians perform while marching for entertainment or competition. Instrumentation includes brass and percussion instruments. Most marching bands wear a uniform of a military style, that includes an associated organization's colors, name or symbol. Most high school marching bands, some college marching bands, are accompanied by a color guard, a group of performers who add a visual interpretation to the music through the use of props, most flags and sabres. Marching bands are categorized by function, age, marching style, type of show they perform. In addition to traditional parade performances, many marching bands perform field shows at sporting events and at marching band competitions. Marching bands perform indoor concerts that implement many songs and flair from outside performances. Percussion and wind instruments were used on the battlefield since ancient times. An Iron Age example would be the carnyx; the development of the military band from such predecessors was a gradual development of the medieval and early modern period.
A prototype of the Ottoman military band may be mentioned in the 11th-century Divânu Lügati't-Türk. The European tradition of military bands formed in the Baroque period influenced by the Ottoman tradition. 17th-century traveler Evliya Çelebi noted the existence of 40 guilds of musicians in Istanbul. In the 18th century, each regiment in the British Army maintained its own military band; until 1749 bandsmen were civilians hired at the expense of the colonel commanding a regiment. Subsequently, they became regular enlisted men who accompanied the unit on active service to provide morale enhancing music on the battlefield or, from the late nineteenth century on, to act as stretcher bearers. Instruments during the 18th century included fifes, the oboe, French horn and bassoon. Drummers summoned men from their ranches to muster for duty. In the chaotic environment of the battlefield, musical instruments were the only means of commanding the men to advance, stand or retire. In the mid 19th century each smaller unit had their own fifer and drummer, who sounded the daily routine.
When units massed for battle a band of musicians was formed for the whole. In the United States, modern marching bands are most associated with performing during American football games; the oldest American college marching band, the University of Notre Dame Band of the Fighting Irish, was founded in 1845 and first performed at a football game in 1887. Many American universities had marching bands prior to the twentieth century, which were associated with military ROTC programs. In 1907, breaking from traditional rank and file marching, the first pictorial formation on a football field was the "Block P" created by Paul Spotts Emrick, director of the Purdue All-American Marching Band. Spotts had seen a flock of birds fly in a "V" formation and decided that a band could replicate the action in the form of show formations on a field; the first halftime show at an American football game was performed by the University of Illinois Marching Illini in 1907, at a game against the University of Chicago.
Appearing at the same time as the field show and pictorial marching formations at universities was the fight song, which today are closely associated with a university's band. The first university fight song, For Boston, was created at Boston College. Many more recognizable and popular university fight songs are borrowed and played by high schools across the United States. Four such fight songs used by high schools are the University of Michigan's The Victors, the University of Illinois' Illinois Loyalty, the University of Notre Dame's Victory March, the United States Naval Academy's Anchors Aweigh. During the 20th century, many marching bands added further pageantry elements, including baton twirlers, dance lines, color guard. After World War I, the presence and quality of marching bands in the American public school system expanded as military veterans with service band experience began to accept music teaching positions within schools across the country bringing wind music and marching band into both educational curriculum and school culture.
With high school programs on the rise, marching bands started to become competitive organizations, with the first national contest being held in 1923 in Chicago, Illinois. State and national contests became common featuring parades and mass-band concerts featuring all participating groups. By 1938, competitive band programs had become numerous and widespread, making a national contest too large to manage and leading to multiple state and regional contests in its place. Today, state contests continue to be the primary form of marching band competition in the United States. Since the inception of Drum Corps International in the 1970s, many marching bands that perform field shows have adopted changes to the activity that parallel developments with modern drum and bugle corps; these bands are said to be corps-style bands. Areas where changes have been adopted from drum corps include: Marching: instead of a traditional high step, drum corps tend to march with a fluid glide step known as a roll step, to keep musicians' torsos still.
Auxiliaries: adaptation of the flag, rifle and sabre units into auxiliaries, who march with the band and provide visual flair by spinning and tossing flags or mock weapons and using dance in the performance. Percussion: moving marching timpani and keyboard percussion into a stationary sideline percussion section, or "pit", which has since incorporated many different types of percussion instruments such
Downingtown is a borough in Chester County, Pennsylvania, 33 miles west of Philadelphia. As of the 2010 census it had a population of 7,891. Downingtown was settled by English and European colonists in the early 18th century and has a number of historic buildings and structures; the town was named Milltown due to its number of mills along the East Branch Brandywine Creek, the first of, founded by Daniel Butter. The Butter family had paper mills in the area, Frederick Bicking from Winterburg, was the patriarch of the Bicking paper families. Around the time of the American Revolution, Milltown became more known as Downingtown after the prominent businessman Thomas Downing, a Quaker immigrant in 1717 from Bradninch, England, who owned a number of those mills; the town was named Downingtown in 1812. The town is located along the Lincoln Highway, it was an early westward road in the wagon days as the Lancaster Turnpike. The Lincoln Highway was the first paved road to cross the nation from the Atlantic to the Pacific.
Construction of the Pennsylvania Turnpike started in the early 1940s and was completed in the early 1950s. About 1705 Sami Warren built. In 1713 the next owner Hickman sold the 1 1/2 story, 21' 9" × 25' structure to Mary Moore. Thomas Moore moved from the Log House in 1729 and died in 1738. Thomas Downing acquired the Log House in 1739, it remained in the Downing family until 1940, when Thomas W. Downing died and left it to the borough of Downingtown; the borough did some restoration work to the Downingtown Log House in 1947. It served as the home to the Downingtown Chamber of Commerce from 1950 until 1988, but the Log House was deteriorating. Located 18 inches below street level, the house suffered water damage due to runoff from Route 30 and vibration from traffic weakened the structure. From 1988 until 1990 the Downingtown Historical Society relocated the house and did an extensive restoration with money raised for the project, it now sits 70 feet west of its original location, 22 feet from the Route 30 sidewalk, above street level.
In 1904 John S. Trower and William A. Creditt, prominent black Philadelphians, founded the Downingtown Industrial and Agricultural School in Downingtown, to serve as an academic and vocational high school for African-American youths to prepare them for work. Creditt was pastor of the First African Baptist Church in Philadelphia, Trower, a successful caterer and one of the wealthiest black businessmen in the nation, was a member of his congregation. Believing the North needed a school like the Tuskegee Institute, the men found land in Chester County and built the school on a 100-acre campus, they both served as principals until their respective deaths in 1921 and 1921. A private, non-denominational school, in 1907 DIAS began to be state supported. Students were admitted from major northeastern cities. Among its trustees in the early decades was Adam Clayton Powell, Sr. pastor of Abyssinian Baptist Church in Harlem, New York. The school operated until 1993. A new facility was constructed on the property and opened in 2002 as the Chester County campus of the Delaware County Community College.
The city has initiated some widespread and continuing renovation in downtown to the streetscape. There has been residential development on recovered industrial lands in the southeastern part of the borough. Downingtown is the location of some large regional and national businesses, including DNB, First National Bank of Chester County, Victory Brewing Company. In 1988, a stall in its farmer's market was the first place where pretzels were sold by the founders of Auntie Anne's, now a global company with 1,000 stores and $375 million in annual sales. President Lincoln's funeral train passed through Downingtown; the famous Irish patriot and martyr Wolfe Tone lived here. The County Bridge No. 124, Downingtown Log House, East Lancaster Avenue Historic District, General Washington Inn, Roger Hunt Mill are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. The 1958 movie The Blob was filmed around Downingtown; the diner featured in the movie called the "Downingtown Diner", was sold and transported to another state and has been replaced with a similar 50's style diner.
Continuing to be advertised as the "home of the Blob," it has changed ownership numerous times over the years but is still open as of 2019. Downingtown is located at 40°0′23″N 75°42′22″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the borough has a total area of 2.2 square miles, all of it land. At the 2010 census, the borough was 76.0% non-Hispanic White, 12.0% Black or African American, 0.1% Native American, 2.7% Asian, 0.1% Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander, 3.2% were two or more races. 7.2% of the population were of Hispanic or Latino ancestry. As of the census of 2000, there were 7,589 people, 3,059 households, 1,853 families residing in the borough; the population density was 3,473.2 people per square mile. There were 3,197 housing units at an average density of 1,463.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the borough was 83.65% White, 10.79% African American, 0.12% Native American, 2.29% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 1.44% from other races, 1.67% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.53% of the population.
Downingtown has a large population of reside
Swimming is an individual or team sport that requires the use of one's entire body to move through water. The sport takes place in open water. Competitive swimming is one of the most popular Olympic sports, with varied distance events in butterfly, breaststroke and individual medley. In addition to these individual events, four swimmers can take part in either a freestyle or medley relay. A medley relay consists of four swimmers; the order for a medley relay is: backstroke, breaststroke and freestyle. Swimming each stroke requires a set of specific techniques. There are regulations on what types of swimsuits, caps and injury tape that are allowed at competitions. Although it is possible for competitive swimmers to incur several injuries from the sport, such as tendinitis in the shoulders or knees, there are multiple health benefits associated with the sport. Evidence of recreational swimming in prehistoric times has been found, with the earliest evidence dating to Stone Age paintings from around 10,000 years ago.
Written references date from 2000 BC, with some of the earliest references to swimming including the Iliad, the Odyssey, the Bible, the Quran and others. In 1538, Nikolaus Wynmann, a Swiss professor of languages, wrote the first book about swimming, The Swimmer or A Dialogue on the Art of Swimming. Swimming emerged as a competitive recreational activity in the 1830s in England. In 1828, the first indoor swimming pool, St George's Baths was opened to the public. By 1837, the National Swimming Society was holding regular swimming competitions in six artificial swimming pools, built around London; the recreational activity grew in popularity and by 1880, when the first national governing body, the Amateur Swimming Association was formed, there were over 300 regional clubs in operation across the country. In 1844 two Native American participants at a swimming competition in London introduced the front crawl to a European audience. Sir John Arthur Trudgen picked up the hand-over stroke from some South American natives and debuted the new stroke in 1873, winning a local competition in England.
His stroke is still regarded as the most powerful to use today. Captain Matthew Webb was the first man to swim the English Channel, in 1875. Using the breaststroke technique, he swam the channel 21.26 miles in 45 minutes. His feat was not replicated or surpassed for the next 36 years, until T. W. Burgess made the crossing in 1911. Other European countries established swimming federations; the first European amateur swimming competitions were in 1889 in Vienna. The world's first women's swimming championship was held in Scotland in 1892. Men's swimming became part of the first modern Olympic Games in 1896 in Athens. In 1902, the Australian Richmond Cavill introduced freestyle to the Western world. In 1908, the world swimming association, Fédération Internationale de Natation, was formed. Women's swimming was introduced into the Olympics in 1912. Butterfly was developed in the 1930s and was at first a variant of breaststroke, until it was accepted as a separate style in 1952. Competitive swimming became popular in the 19th century.
The goal of high level competitive swimming is to break personal or world records while beating competitors in any given event. Swimming in competition should create the least resistance in order to obtain maximum speed. However, some professional swimmers who do not hold a national or world ranking are considered the best in regard to their technical skills. An athlete goes through a cycle of training in which the body is overloaded with work in the beginning and middle segments of the cycle, the workload is decreased in the final stage as the swimmer approaches competition; the practice of reducing exercise in the days just before an important competition is called tapering. Tapering is used to give the swimmer's body some rest without stopping exercise completely. A final stage is referred to as "shave and taper": the swimmer shaves off all exposed hair for the sake of reducing drag and having a sleeker and more hydrodynamic feel in the water. Additionally, the "shave and taper" method refers to the removal of the top layer of "dead skin", which exposes the newer and richer skin underneath.
This helps to "shave" off mere milliseconds on your time. Swimming is an event at the Summer Olympic Games, where male and female athletes compete in 16 of the recognized events each. Olympic events are held in a 50-meter pool, called a long course pool. There are forty recognized individual swimming events in the pool; the international governing body for competitive swimming is the Fédération Internationale de Natation, better known as FINA. In open water swimming, where the events are swum in a body of open water, there are 5 km, 10 km and 25 km events for men and women. However, only the 10 km event is included in the Olympic schedule, again for both women. Open-water competitions are separate to other swimming competitions with the exception of the World Championships and the Olympics. In competitive swimming, four major styles have been established; these have been stable over the last 30–40 years with minor improvements. They are: Butterfly Backstroke
Pennsylvania the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a state located in the northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States. The Appalachian Mountains run through its middle; the Commonwealth is bordered by Delaware to the southeast, Maryland to the south, West Virginia to the southwest, Ohio to the west, Lake Erie and the Canadian province of Ontario to the northwest, New York to the north, New Jersey to the east. Pennsylvania is the 33rd-largest state by area, the 6th-most populous state according to the most recent official U. S. Census count in 2010, it is the 9th-most densely populated of the 50 states. Pennsylvania's two most populous cities are Philadelphia, Pittsburgh; the state capital and its 10th largest city is Harrisburg. Pennsylvania has 140 miles of waterfront along the Delaware Estuary; the state is one of the 13 original founding states of the United States. Part of Pennsylvania, together with the present State of Delaware, had earlier been organized as the Colony of New Sweden.
It was the second state to ratify the United States Constitution, on December 12, 1787. Independence Hall, where the United States Declaration of Independence and United States Constitution were drafted, is located in the state's largest city of Philadelphia. During the American Civil War, the Battle of Gettysburg was fought in the south central region of the state. Valley Forge near Philadelphia was General Washington's headquarters during the bitter winter of 1777–78. Pennsylvania is 170 miles north to south and 283 miles east to west. Of a total 46,055 square miles, 44,817 square miles are land, 490 square miles are inland waters, 749 square miles are waters in Lake Erie, it is the 33rd-largest state in the United States. Pennsylvania has 51 miles of coastline along Lake Erie and 57 miles of shoreline along the Delaware Estuary. Of the original Thirteen Colonies, Pennsylvania is the only state that does not border the Atlantic Ocean; the boundaries of the state are the Mason–Dixon line to the south, the Twelve-Mile Circle on the Pennsylvania-Delaware border, the Delaware River to the east, 80° 31' W to the west and the 42° N to the north, with the exception of a short segment on the western end, where a triangle extends north to Lake Erie.
Cities include Philadelphia, Reading and Lancaster in the southeast, Pittsburgh in the southwest, the tri-cities of Allentown and Easton in the central east. The northeast includes the former anthracite coal mining cities of Scranton, Wilkes-Barre and Hazleton. Erie is located in the northwest. State College serves the central region while Williamsport serves the commonwealth's north-central region as does Chambersburg the south-central region, with York and the state capital Harrisburg on the Susquehanna River in the east-central region of the Commonwealth and Altoona and Johnstown in the west-central region; the state has five geographical regions, namely the Allegheny Plateau and Valley, Atlantic Coastal Plain and the Erie Plain. New York Ontario Maryland Delaware West Virginia New Jersey Ohio Pennsylvania's diverse topography produces a variety of climates, though the entire state experiences cold winters and humid summers. Straddling two major zones, the majority of the state, with the exception of the southeastern corner, has a humid continental climate.
The southern portion of the state has a humid subtropical climate. The largest city, has some characteristics of the humid subtropical climate that covers much of Delaware and Maryland to the south. Summers are hot and humid. Moving toward the mountainous interior of the state, the winter climate becomes colder, the number of cloudy days increases, snowfall amounts are greater. Western areas of the state locations near Lake Erie, can receive over 100 inches of snowfall annually, the entire state receives plentiful precipitation throughout the year; the state may be subject to severe weather from spring through summer into fall. Tornadoes occur annually in the state, sometimes in large numbers, such as 30 recorded tornadoes in 2011; as of 1600, the tribes living in Pennsylvania were the Algonquian Lenape, the Iroquoian Susquehannock & Petun and the Siouan Monongahela Culture, who may have been the same as a little known tribe called the Calicua, or Cali. Other tribes who entered the region during the colonial era were the Trockwae, Saponi, Nanticoke, Conoy Piscataway, Iroquois Confederacy—possibly among others.
Other tribes, like the Erie, may have once held some land in Pennsylvania, but no longer did so by the year 1600. Both the Dutch and the English claimed both sides of the Delaware River as part of their colonial lands in America; the Dutch were the first to take possession. By June 3, 1631, the Dutch had begun settling the Delmarva Peninsula by establishing the Zwaanendael Colony on the site of present-day Lewes, Delaware. In 1638, Sweden established the New Sweden Colony, in the region of Fort Christina, on the site of present-day Wilmington, Delaware. New Sweden claimed and, for the most part, controlled the lower Delaware River region (parts of present-day Delaware, New Jersey, Pe
The Rose Parade, hosted by the Pasadena Tournament of Roses, is an annual parade held along Colorado Boulevard in Pasadena, California, on New Year's Day. Beginning in the morning at 8:00 a.m. Pacific Time, it is produced by the non-profit Pasadena Tournament of Roses Association and includes flower-covered floats, marching bands, equestrian units; the parade is followed in the afternoon by the Rose Bowl, one of the major bowl games in college football. First held on January 1, 1890, the Rose Parade is watched in person by hundreds of thousands of spectators on the parade route, is broadcast on multiple television networks in the United States, it is seen by millions more on television worldwide in more than 100 international territories and countries. The Rose Bowl college football game was added in 1902 to help fund the cost of staging the parade. Since 2011, the parade has been sponsored by Honda. Accordingly, the company has the parade's first float, which like all floats, follows the parade's theme.
Rose Parade 2018 featured 44 floats, 20 equestrian units with 400 horses, 21 marching bands. The theme of this 129th Rose Parade was "Making a Difference" and the Grand Marshal of the parade was Gary Sinise. Members of Pasadena's Valley Hunt Club first staged the parade in 1890. Since the parade has been held in Pasadena every New Year's Day, except when January 1 falls on a Sunday. In that case, it is held on the subsequent Monday, January 2; this exception was instituted in 1893, as organizers did not wish to disturb horses hitched outside Sunday church services. Many of the members of the Valley Hunt Club were former residents of Midwest, they wished to showcase their new California home's mild winter weather. At a club meeting, Professor Charles F. Holder announced, "In New York, people are buried in the snow. Here our flowers are blooming and our oranges are about to bear. Let's hold a festival to tell the world about our paradise." So the club organized horse-drawn carriages covered in flowers, followed by foot races, polo matches, a game of tug-of-war on the town lot that attracted a crowd of 2,000 to the event.
Upon seeing the scores of flowers on display, the professor decided to suggest the name "Tournament of Roses." Over the next few founding years, marching bands and motorized floats were added. By 1895, the event was too large for the Valley Hunt Club to handle, hence the Pasadena Tournament of Roses Association was formed. By the 11th annual tournament, the town lot on which the activities were held was renamed Tournament Park, a large open area directly adjacent to Pasadena's world-famous institution of higher learning, Caltech. Activities soon included ostrich races, bronco busting demonstrations, an odd novelty race between a camel and an elephant. Soon reviewing stands were built along the parade route and newspapers in Eastern Seaboard cities started to take notice of the event; the stately Italian Renaissance-style mansion of William Wrigley Jr. was offered to the city of Pasadena after Mrs. Wrigley's death in 1958, under the condition that their home would be the Rose Parade's permanent headquarters.
Tournament House is the name given the former home. The first associated football game was played on January 1, 1902. Titled the "Tournament East-West football game," it is considered to be the first Rose Bowl; the next game was not played until New Year's Day 1916. The game derives its modern name from Rose Bowl Stadium, built for the 1923 game. In 2002 and 2006, the "Granddaddy of'em all" was not held the same day as the parade. Not all fans were pleased with the change. Once the BCS title game was separated from the host bowl, it no longer affected the date of the Rose Bowl Game; the Tournament of Roses Parade has followed the same route following Colorado Boulevard for many decades. The day before the parade, the entire environs of the neighborhood streets south of the intersection of Orange Grove and Colorado Blvds. are sealed off and reserved for the marshaling of the dozens of floats, equestrian units, other elements. This staging area is referred to as the "Formation Area" and is managed by the Formation Area Committee.
On parade morning the various elements are dispatched in front of Tournament House. The parade starts headed north on South Orange Grove Boulevard beginning at Green Street. At Colorado Boulevard it passes the main proceeds east on Colorado Boulevard; the parade turns north on Sierra Madre Boulevard. The floats must travel under the Sierra Madre Boulevard/I-210 freeway overpass, requiring over-height floats to reduce their height; the parade ends at Paloma Street near Pasadena High School. Floats continue into the Post-Parade viewing area. In total this route is 5.5 miles long. The 2009 parade featured 46 floats, including some new entries, such as Jack in the Box's Jack-O-Licious, City of Mission Viejo's Making a Splash, RFD-TV's Hee Haw, the City of Roseville's Entertaining
Wrestling is a combat sport involving grappling-type techniques such as clinch fighting and takedowns, joint locks and other grappling holds. The sport can either be genuinely competitive. A wrestling bout is a physical competition, between two competitors or sparring partners, who attempt to gain and maintain a superior position. There are a wide range of styles with varying rules with both traditional historic and modern styles. Wrestling techniques have been incorporated into other martial arts as well as military hand-to-hand combat systems; the term wrestling is attested as wræstlunge. Wrestling represents one of the oldest forms of combat; the origins of wrestling go back 15,000 years through cave drawings. Babylonian and Egyptian reliefs show wrestlers using most of the holds known in the present-day sport. Literary references to it occur as early as the ancient Indian Vedas. In the Book of Genesis, the Patriarch Jacob is said to have wrestled with an angel; the Iliad, in which Homer recounts the Trojan War of the 13th or 12th century BC contains mentions of wrestling.
Indian epics Mahabharata contain references to martial arts including wrestling. In ancient Greece wrestling occupied a prominent place in literature; the ancient Romans borrowed from Greek wrestling, but eliminated much of its brutality. During the Middle Ages wrestling remained popular and enjoyed the patronage of many royal families, including those of France and England. Early British settlers in America brought a strong wrestling tradition with them; the settlers found wrestling to be popular among Native Americans. Amateur wrestling flourished throughout the early years of the North American colonies and served as a popular activity at country fairs, holiday celebrations, in military exercises; the first organized national wrestling tournament took place in New York City in 1888. Wrestling has been an event at every modern Olympic Games since the 1904 games in St. Louis, Missouri; the international governing body for the sport, United World Wrestling, was established in 1912 in Antwerp, Belgium as the International Federation of Associated Wrestling Styles.
The 1st NCAA Wrestling Championships were held in 1912, in Ames, Iowa. USA Wrestling, located in Colorado Springs, became the national governing body of U. S. amateur wrestling in 1983. Some of the earliest references to wrestling can be found in wrestling mythology; the Epic of Gilgamesh: Gilgamesh established his credibility as a leader, after wrestling Enkidu. Greek mythology celebrates the rise of Zeus as ruler of the earth after a wrestling match with his father, Cronus. Both Heracles and Theseus were famous for their wrestling against beast; the Mahabharata describes a malla-dwandwa between the accomplished wrestlers Jarasandha. Rustam of the Shahnameh is regarded by Iranian pahlevans as the greatest wrestler. In Pharaonic Egypt, wrestling has been evidenced by documentation on Egyptian artwork. Greek wrestling was a popular form of martial art, at least in Ancient Greece. Oil wrestling is the national sport of Turkey and it can be traced back to Central Asia. After the Roman conquest of the Greeks, Greek wrestling was absorbed by the Roman culture and became Roman wrestling during the period of the Roman Empire.
Shuai jiao, a wrestling style originating in China, which according to legend, has a reported history of over 4,000 years. Arabic literature depicted Muhammad as a skilled wrestler, defeating a skeptic in a match at one point; the Byzantine emperor Basil I, according to court historians, won in wrestling against a boastful wrestler from Bulgaria in the eighth century. In 1520 at the Field of the Cloth of Gold pageant, Francis I of France threw fellow king Henry VIII of England in a wrestling match; the Lancashire style of folk wrestling may have formed the basis for Catch wrestling known as "catch as catch can." The Scots formed a variant of this style, the Irish developed the "collar-and-elbow" style which found its way into the United States. A Frenchman "is credited with reorganizing European loose wrestling into a professional sport", Greco-Roman wrestling; this style, finalized by the 19th century and by wrestling was featured in many fairs and festivals in Europe. Greco-Roman wrestling and contemporary freestyle wrestling were soon regulated in formal competitions, in part resulting from the rise of gymnasiums and athletic clubs.
On continental Europe, prize money was offered in large sums to the winners of Greco-Roman tournaments, freestyle wrestling spread in the United Kingdom and in the United States after the American Civil War. Wrestling professionals soon increased the popularity of Greco-Roman and freestyle wrestling, worldwide. Greco-Roman wrestling became an event at the first modern Olympic games, in Athens in 1896. Since 1908, the event has been in every Summer Olympics. Freestyle wrestling became an Olympic event, in 1904. Women's freestyle wrestling was added to the Summer Olympics in 2004. Since 1921, United World Wrestling has regulated amateur wrestling as an athletic discipline, while professional wrestling has become infused with theatrics but still requires athletic ability. Today, various countries send national wrestling teams to the Olympics, including Russi