Interstate Highway System
The Dwight D. Eisenhower National System of Interstate and Defense Highways known as the Interstate Highway System, is a network of controlled-access highways that forms part of the National Highway System in the United States; the system is named for President Dwight D. Eisenhower. Construction was authorized by the Federal Aid Highway Act of 1956, the original portion was completed 35 years although some urban routes were cancelled and never built; the network has since been extended. In 2016, it had a total length of 48,181 miles; as of 2016, about one-quarter of all vehicle miles driven in the country use the Interstate system. In 2006, the cost of construction was estimated at about $425 billion; the United States government's efforts to construct a national network of highways began on an ad hoc basis with the passage of the Federal Aid Road Act of 1916, which provided for $75 million over a five-year period for matching funds to the states for the construction and improvement of highways.
The nation's revenue needs associated with World War I prevented any significant implementation of this policy, which expired in 1921. In December 1918, E. J. Mehren, a civil engineer and the editor of Engineering News-Record, presented his "A Suggested National Highway Policy and Plan" during a gathering of the State Highway Officials and Highway Industries Association at the Congress Hotel in Chicago. In the plan, Mehren proposed a 50,000-mile system, consisting of five east–west routes and 10 north–south routes; the system would include two percent of all roads and would pass through every state at a cost of $25,000 per mile, providing commercial as well as military transport benefits. As the landmark 1916 law expired, new legislation was passed—the Federal Aid Highway Act of 1921; this new road construction initiative once again provided for federal matching funds for road construction and improvement, $75 million allocated annually. Moreover, this new legislation for the first time sought to target these funds to the construction of a national road grid of interconnected "primary highways", setting up cooperation among the various state highway planning boards.
The Bureau of Public Roads asked the Army to provide a list of roads that it considered necessary for national defense. In 1922, General John J. Pershing, former head of the American Expeditionary Force in Europe during the war, complied by submitting a detailed network of 20,000 miles of interconnected primary highways—the so-called Pershing Map. A boom in road construction followed throughout the decade of the 1920s, with such projects as the New York parkway system constructed as part of a new national highway system; as automobile traffic increased, planners saw a need for such an interconnected national system to supplement the existing non-freeway, United States Numbered Highways system. By the late 1930s, planning had expanded to a system of new superhighways. In 1938, President Franklin D. Roosevelt gave Thomas MacDonald, chief at the Bureau of Public Roads, a hand-drawn map of the United States marked with eight superhighway corridors for study. In 1939, Bureau of Public Roads Division of Information chief Herbert S. Fairbank wrote a report called Toll Roads and Free Roads, "the first formal description of what became the interstate highway system" and, in 1944, the themed Interregional Highways.
The Interstate Highway System gained a champion in President Dwight D. Eisenhower, influenced by his experiences as a young Army officer crossing the country in the 1919 Army Convoy on the Lincoln Highway, the first road across America. Eisenhower gained an appreciation of the Reichsautobahn system, the first "national" implementation of modern Germany's Autobahn network, as a necessary component of a national defense system while he was serving as Supreme Commander Of Allied Forces in Europe during World War II, he recognized that the proposed system would provide key ground transport routes for military supplies and troop deployments in case of an emergency or foreign invasion. The publication in 1955 of the General Location of National System of Interstate Highways, informally known as the Yellow Book, mapped out what became the Interstate Highway System. Assisting in the planning was Charles Erwin Wilson, still head of General Motors when President Eisenhower selected him as Secretary of Defense in January 1953.
The Interstate Highway System was authorized on June 29, 1956 by the Federal Aid Highway Act of 1956, popularly known as the National Interstate and Defense Highways Act of 1956. Three states have claimed the title of first Interstate Highway. Missouri claims that the first three contracts under the new program were signed in Missouri on August 2, 1956; the first contract signed was for upgrading a section of US Route 66 to what is now designated Interstate 44. On August 13, 1956, Missouri awarded the first contract based on new Interstate Highway funding. Kansas claims. Preliminary construction had taken place before the act was signed, paving started September 26, 1956; the state marked its portion of I-70 as the first project in the United States completed under the provisions of the new Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1956. The Pennsylvania Turnpike could be considered one of the first Interstate Highways. On October 1, 1940, 162 miles of the highway now designated I‑70 and I‑76 opened between Irwin and Carlisle.
The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania refers to the turnpike as the Granddaddy of the Pikes. Milestones in the construction of the Interstate Highway System include: October 17, 1974: Nebraska becomes
A concurrency in a road network is an instance of one physical roadway bearing two or more different route numbers. When two roadways share the same right-of-way, it is sometimes called commons. Other terminology for a concurrency includes overlap, duplex, multiplex, dual routing or triple routing. Concurrent numbering can become common in jurisdictions that allow it. Where multiple routes must pass between a single mountain crossing or over a bridge, or through a major city, it is economically and advantageous for them all to be accommodated on a single physical roadway. In some jurisdictions, concurrent numbering is avoided by posting only one route number on highway signs. Most concurrencies are a combination of two route numbers on the same physical roadway; this is practically advantageous as well as economically advantageous. Some countries allow for concurrencies to occur, others do not allow it to happen. In those nations which do permit concurrencies, it can become common. In these countries, there are a variety of concurrences.
An example of this is the concurrency of Interstate 70 and I-76 on the Pennsylvania Turnpike in western Pennsylvania. I-70 merges with the Pennsylvania Turnpike so the route number can continue east into Maryland. A triple Interstate concurrency is found in Wisconsin along the five-mile section of I-41, I-43, I-894 in Milwaukee, Wisconsin; the concurrency of I-41 and I-43 on this roadway is an example of a wrong-way concurrency. The longest Interstate highway concurrency is I-90 for 265 miles across Indiana and Ohio. There are examples of eight-way concurrencies: I-465 around Indianapolis and Georgia State Route 10 Loop around downtown Athens, Georgia. Portions of the 53-mile I-465 overlap with I-74, US Highway 31, US 36, US 40, US 52, US 421, State Road 37 and SR 67—a total of eight other routes. Seven of the eight other designations overlap between exits 46 and 47 to create an eight-way concurrency. In the United States, concurrencies are marked by placing signs for both routes on the same or adjacent posts.
The federal Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices prescribes that when mounting these adjacent signs together that the numbers will be arranged vertically or horizontally in order of precedence. The order to be used is Interstate Highways, U. S. Highways, state highways, county roads, within each class by increasing numerical value. Several states do not have any concurrencies, instead ending routes on each side of one. There are several circumstances. One example occurs along the Oklahoma–Arkansas state line. At the northern end of this border Oklahoma State Highway 20 runs concurrently with Arkansas Highway 43 and the two highways run north–south along the boundary. Concurrencies are found in Canada. British Columbia Highway 5 continues east for 12 kilometres concurrently with Highway 1 and Highway 97, through Kamloops; this stretch of road, which carries Highway 97 south and Highway 5 north on the same lanes, is the only wrong-way concurrency in British Columbia. In Ontario, the Queen Elizabeth Way and Highway 403 run concurrently between Burlington and Oakville, forming the province's only concurrency between two 400-series highways.
The concurrency was not in the original plan which intended for both the QEW and Highway 403 to run parallel to each other, as the Hamilton–Brantford and Mississauga sections of Highway 403 were planned to be linked up along the corridor now occupied by Highway 407. It was planned for the Mississauga section of Highway 403 would be renumbered as Highway 410 but this never came to pass. Highway 403 was signed concurrently along the Queen Elizabeth Way in 2002, remedying the discontinuity to avoid confusing drivers that wanted to travel between the two segments without using the toll Highway 407. Nonetheless, many surface street signs referring to that section of freeway with the QEW/Highway 403 concurrency still only use the highway's original designation of QEW, although the MTO has updated route markers on the QEW to reflect the concurrency. In the United Kingdom, routes do not run concurrently with others. Where this would occur, the roadway takes the number of only one of the routes, while the other routes are considered to have a gap and are signed in brackets.
An example is the meeting of the M60 and the M62 northwest of Manchester: the motorways coincide for the seven miles between junctions 12 and 18 but the motorway between those points is only designated as the M60. European route numbers as designated by UNECE may have concurrencies, but since the E-route numbers are unsigned and unused in the UK, the existence of these concurrencies is purely theoretical. In Sweden and Denmark, the most important highways use only the European route numbers that have cardinal directions. In Sweden the E6 and E20 run concurrently for 280 kilometres. In Denmark the E47 and E55 run concurrently for 157 kilometres. There are more shorter concurrencies. There are two stretches in Sweden
Interstate 75 in Georgia
Interstate 75 in the U. S. state of Georgia travels north–south along the U. S. Route 41 corridor on the western side of the state, traveling through the cities of Valdosta and Atlanta, it is designated—but not signed—as State Route 401. In downtown Atlanta, I-75 joins with I-85 as the Downtown Connector; the segment from SR 49 in Byron to I-16 in Macon is part of the Fall Line Freeway and may be incorporated into the eastern extension of I-14, entirely within Central Texas and is proposed to be extended to Augusta. I-75 is the longest Interstate Highway within Georgia, it enters near Valdosta, it continues northward through the towns of Tifton and Cordele until it reaches the Macon area, where it intersects with I-16 eastbound towards Savannah. For northbound traffic wishing to avoid potential congestion in Macon, I-475 provides a straight bypass west of that city and I-75's route. After Macon it passes the small town of Forsyth; the freeway reaches no major junctions again until in the Atlanta metropolitan area.
The first metropolitan freeway met is I-675 followed by the Atlanta "Perimeter" bypass, I-285. It heads north several miles towards the Atlanta city center. I-75 runs concurrently with I-85 due north over the Downtown Connector through the central business district of Atlanta. After the two Interstates split, I-75 makes a beeline northwest, crossing outside the I-285 Perimeter and heading towards the major suburban city of Marietta; this section of I-75 just north of I-285 has 15 through lanes, making it the widest roadway anywhere in the Interstate Highway System. North of Marietta, the final major junction in the Atlanta metropolitan area is the I-575 spur. I-75 traverses the hilly northern Georgia terrain as it travels towards Chattanooga, Tennessee; the 180-mile-long section of I-75 from I-475 to I-24 in Chattanooga is one of the longest continuous six-lane freeways in the United States. Due to recent widening in south Georgia, the only four-lane section of I-75 in Georgia is bypassed by six-lane I-475.
The highway that would become I-75 in Georgia was an unnamed expressway, open in 1951 from the southern part of Atlanta to University Avenue. It was projected from University Avenue to Williams Street in downtown Atlanta; this expressway was open from Williams Street to what is now the northern end of the Downtown Connector. It was proposed from the Downtown Connector to the northwest part of Atlanta. By late 1953, this expressway was signed as US 19/US 41 as far north as Lakewood Avenue, it was under construction from the Downtown Connector to Howell Mill Road. It was proposed from Howell Mill Road to the northwest part of Atlanta. By mid-1954, the expressway was signed as SR 295 from Lakewood Avenue to University Avenue, it was under construction from the Downtown Connector to US 41/SR 3E, just north of West Paces Ferry Road. By mid-1955, the highway was under construction from University Avenue to Glenn Street, it was open from Williams Street to US 41/SR 3E in the central part of Atlanta. By mid-1957, the highway was opened from University Avenue to Glenn Street.
It was open from Williams Street to US 41/SR 3E in the northwest part of Atlanta. By the middle of 1960, a short segment southeast of Williams Street was open. By mid-1963, I-75 was signed, it was open from the Florida state line to US 41/SR 7 in Unadilla. It was under construction from Unadilla to just north of the Crawford–Bibb county line, it was open from SR 148 in Bolingbroke to US 23/SR 42 north-northwest of Forsyth. It was open from Glenn Street to Washington Street in downtown Atlanta, it was under construction from US 41/SR 3 in the northwest part of Atlanta to its northern interchange with I-285. It was under construction from SR 53 in Calhoun to the Tennessee state line. Between 1963 and 1965, open from US 41/SR 7 in Unadilla to Hartley Bridge Road south-southwest of Macon, it was proposed from Hartley Bridge Road to I-16 in Macon. It was under construction from I-16 to its northern interchange with I-475 near Bolingbroke, it was open from Bolingbroke to near Forsyth. It was under construction from there to SR 155 south of McDonough.
It was proposed from there to SR 54 in Morrow. It was under construction from Morrow to US 19/US 41 west of Morrow, it was proposed from that interchange to SR 331 in Forest Park. It was open from Forest Park to West Paces Ferry Road in northwest Atlanta, it was under construction from there to SR 120 in Marietta. It was proposed from Marietta to SR 140 in Adairsville, it was under construction from Adairsville to SR 53 in Calhoun. It was open from Calhoun to the Tennessee state line. In 1966, the highway was open from the Florida state line to its southern interchange with I-475 near Macon, it was open from I-16 to US 23/SR 42 near Forsyth. It was open from Forest Park to its northern interchange with I-285. In 1967, it was under construction from US 80/SR 74 to I-16 in Macon, it was under construction from near Forsyth to the US 19/US 41 interchange west of Morrow. It was open from Forest Park to SR 120 in Marietta, it was under construction from SR 120 to Allgood Road in Marietta. In 1968, the highway was open US 23/SR 42 near Forsyth to SR 20 in McDonough.
It was under construction from McDonough to SR 54 in Morrow. It was open from Morrow to Allgood Road in Marietta, it was under construction from US 411/SR 61 near Cartersville to SR 140 in Adairsville. In 1969, the highway was under construction from its southern interchange with I-475 to I-16 in Macon, it was open from I-16 to Allgood Road in Marietta. In 1971, it was open from the Flo
2009 Southeastern United States floods
The 2009 Southeastern United States floods were a group of floods that affected several counties throughout northern Georgia, Alabama and Arkansas. The worst flooding occurred across the Atlanta metropolitan area. Continuous rain, spawned by moisture pulled from the Gulf of Mexico, fell faster than the local watersheds could drain the runoff. Initial damages from around the state were estimated at $250 million. On September 26, Georgia Insurance Commissioner John Oxendine raised the estimated cost to $500 million with the potential for it to rise; some 20,000 homes and other buildings received major damage and 17 Georgia counties received Federal Disaster Declarations. The flood is blamed for at least ten deaths; the floods were historic. The Chattahoochee River, the largest river in the region, measured water levels at a 500-year flood level. Rain began falling on the Atlanta area on September 15, 2009, with the National Weather Service reporting only 0.04 inches that day at the Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport.
Additional rain fell throughout the week, with only a trace amount recorded for September 18. However, a large rain event began to inundate the area on September 19; the official NWS monitoring station at the Atlanta airport recorded 3.70 inches of rainfall from daybreak to 8pm, while outlying monitoring stations recorded 5 inches of rainfall in a 13-hour period. Flooding began in one neighborhood that day, with the remainder of the area placed under a flash flood watch for the rest of the weekend. Hundreds of people were rescued by boat from their homes, at least ten people died in their cars by driving where water crossed the road, which motorists were warned against on local radio and TV; the American Red Cross started emergency shelters in each county affected by the floods. Most Atlanta area school districts were closed September 21, due to floodwaters and the difficulty for school buses to get around the hundreds of closed roads; the Chattahoochee rose to the highest levels. Water levels along the river rose over the 0.2 percent chance exceedence flood at the gage location.
The River reached its second-highest level in Vinings at Paces Ferry Road, would have surpassed its 1916 record were it not for the impoundment built in the 1950s. Along the river in both Vinings and Roswell, a one percent chance exceedence. Peachtree Creek topped its stream gauge and the bridge itself at Northside Drive, but remained just below its 1916 record. Nancy Creek, did reach a record level, destroying the Peachtree-Dunwoody Road bridge. Peachtree-Dunwoody Road bridge reopened March 23, 2010. Both Peachtree Creek and Nancy Creek are tributaries of the Chattahoochee River; the western side of the Interstate 285 beltway crosses the Chattahoochee River. This section of the interstate was underwater for several days. Many of the roller coasters and rides at Six Flags Over Georgia were underwater, with at least 80% of Great American Scream Machine submerged by the Chattahoochee River. Located along the Chattahoochee River in west Atlanta, the R. M. Clayton sewage treatment plant, the largest in the Southeastern U.
S. was swamped with four feet of water. Millions of gallons of untreated sewage were released into the rising waters. Other plants in Cobb and Gwinnett counties experienced similar spills. Located near the Chattahoochee, a Kellogg Company food plant was flooded, resulting in the closure of the plant and a subsequent national shortage of frozen waffles. Lake Lanier rose while Lake Allatoona soared to more than ten feet or three meters over full pool, using its flood reserve capacity for the first time after years of the 2006–2009 Southeastern U. S. drought. Lake Allatoona reached its highest level since 1990. On Monday, September 21, Sweetwater Creek rose to its highest level ever. On September 22, The United States Geological Survey measured the greatest flow recorded on Sweetwater Creek, at 28,000 cubic feet per second; the flooding from the creek was met with water from the swollen Chattahoochee River, which blocked Interstate 20 west of Atlanta for two days. Many homes and businesses in the area were submerged.
Interstate 575 was blocked by Noonday Creek, which blocked several other roads including Georgia State Route 92. The Little River caused major problems in the same area, blocking the original parallel route of Georgia 5, Arnold Mill Road and east of Woodstock. Commuters trying to get back home to Cherokee county found it took hours due to the numerous road closures and unmarked detours, extending the September 21, 2009 rush hour until after 9:00pm as people sat in gridlocked traffic. Kennesaw State University in Cobb County received significant flooding on several parts of campus including the east parking deck. Several buildings and dormitories along Campus Loop Drive were flooded from lake. Water rushing into the Social Science building rose up to the bottom of the hand-rail of the first floor stairs. Classes were cancelled at 1:00pm on Monday, September 21 for the remainder of the day and again on September 22 and 23 while damage was assessed and clean-up began. Pope High School was surrounded by water.
Clarkdale Elementary School was flooded to the roof. Students were evacuated early September 21; the Cobb County School District, wary of rising waters, let middle school students lea
Piedmont Avenue (Atlanta)
Piedmont Avenue is a major thoroughfare in Atlanta, beginning in Downtown Atlanta and ending at its continuation as Piedmont Road just before crossing under Interstate 85. Along the way, Piedmont Avenue passes through Midtown Atlanta where several historic properties are located on the street. Piedmont Avenue was called Calhoun Street; as of 1872, Calhoun Street reached north to Seventh Street in today's Midtown. For the 1895 Cotton States Expo, in order to connect downtown to the exposition grounds at Piedmont Park, Plaster's Bridge Road south of 10th street was rerouted to connect to an extension of Calhoun Street, all of this new through street was renamed Piedmont Avenue. Source: Google Maps Piedmont Avenue Southeast begins at the Georgia State Capitol in Downtown Atlanta at Martin Luther King, Jr. Drive, it proceeds northeast, crossing under the Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority line at Georgia State station. It passes various Georgia State University buildings. After crossing Edgewood Avenue, the street turns due north and becomes Piedmont Avenue Northeast passes Auburn Avenue, the historic heart of the black community.
It crosses the Downtown Connector freeway. At this point Piedmont Avenue forms the border between the SoNo neighborhood on the west and Old Fourth Ward on the east. In this section, Piedmont passes the Georgia Power headquarters, Renaissance Park, many gated apartment communities and several newer high-rise residential buildings, the Atlanta Civic Center, former site of the Buttermilk Bottom slum. Passing North Avenue and Ponce de Leon Avenue, Piedmont enters Midtown Atlanta, first through the NRHP-listed Historic Midtown, known for its bungalow houses. In Historic Midtown there are several historic properties of note, including the Craigie House, 705 Piedmont and the William P. Nicolson House at 821 Piedmont Ave. Piedmont and Tenth is considered the heart of the gay community in Atlanta, with several popular gay bars located here. North of 10th, the streetscape turns into early 20th century multi-unit residential buildings. North of 12th Street, Piedmont Avenue borders Piedmont Park, to its east.
After 14th Street, Piedmont Avenue becomes two-way. North of 14th, Piedmont forms the border between the posh, historic Ansley Park neighborhood on the west and Piedmont Park, the Piedmont Driving Club and the Atlanta Botanical Garden on the east. Piedmont crosses the BeltLine trail and Clear Creek at the northern tip of Piedmont Park and intersects with Monroe Drive, at the northwest corner of which the open-air Ansley Mall is located. After the intersection with Monroe, Piedmont Avenue forms the border between Piedmont Heights and Morningside/Lenox Park where the NRHP-listed Rock Spring Presbyterian Church is located, it intersects Cheshire Bridge Road and changes its name to Piedmont Road and becomes Georgia 237, continuing north to Buckhead. Photos of Piedmont Avenue through the years at Atlanta Journal-Constitution site
Snow removal or snow clearing is the job of removing snow after a snowfall to make travel easier and safer. This is done by governments and institutions. De-icing is defined as removal of existing snow, ice or frost from a roadway, airport runway, or other surface, it includes both mechanical means, such as plowing or scraping, chemical means, such as application of salt or other ice-melting chemicals. Anti-icing is treatment with ice-melting chemicals before or during the onset of a storm in order to prevent or delay the formation and adhesion of ice and snow to the surface. Brine, or wetted salt, is applied shortly before the beginning of a snowstorm; when properly performed, anti-icing can reduce the amount of salt required and allow easier removal by mechanical methods, including plowing. The de-icing of roads has been accomplished by snowplows or specially-designed dump trucks that spread salt mixed with sand and gravel, onto slick roads. Rock salt is used because it is inexpensive and available in large quantities.
However, brine freezes at −18 °C, so it is ineffective at these low temperatures. It has a strong tendency to cause corrosion, rusting the steel used in most vehicles and the rebar in concrete bridges. More recent snowmelters use other salts, such as calcium chloride and magnesium chloride, which not only decrease the freezing point of water to a much lower temperature but produce an exothermic reaction, whose dissipated heat further aids in melting. In addition, they are somewhat safer for concrete sidewalks. Organic compounds have been developed that reduce the environmental impact associated with salts and that have longer residual effects when spread on roadways in conjunction with salt brines or solids; these compounds are generated as byproducts of agricultural operations, such as sugar beet refining or ethanol distillation. A mixture of some selection of these organic compounds with a combination of salts results in a substance, both more spread and more effective at lower temperatures.
Since the 1990s, use of liquid chemical melters has been increasing, sprayed on roads by nozzles instead of a spinning spreader used with salts. Liquid melters are more effective at preventing the ice from bonding to the surface than melting through existing ice. Several proprietary products incorporate anti-icing chemicals into the pavement. Verglimit incorporates calcium chloride granules into asphalt pavement; the granules are continually exposed by traffic wear, release calcium chloride onto the surface. This prevents snow and ice from sticking to the pavement Cargill SafeLane is a proprietary pavement surface treatment that absorbs anti-icing brines, to be released during a storm or other icing event, it provides a high-friction surface, increasing traction. In Niigata, Japan inexpensive hot water bubbles up through holes in the pavement to melt snow, though this solution is only practical within a city or town; some individual buildings may melt snow and ice with electric heating elements buried in the pavement, or on a roof to prevent ice dams on the shingles, or to keep massive chunks of snow and dangerous icicles from collapsing on anyone below.
Small areas of pavement can be kept ice-free by circulating heated liquids in embedded piping systems. Most snow removal by individuals is clearance of walkways. After heavy snowfalls, snow may be removed from roofs to reduce the risk of structural damage due to the weight. In places with light snow, brooms or other light instruments can be used to brush off snow from walks and other surfaces. In regions with more precipitation, snow is removed with snow shovels, a large lightweight shovel used to push snow and lift it, snow scoops or sleigh shovels, a large and deep hopper-like implement fitted with a wide handle and designed to scoop up a load of snow and slide it on any slippery surface to another location without lifting. Other tools include snow shovels with one or more wheels. Shovelling can strain the back and the heart; each year middle aged persons die from heart attacks while shovelling snow. Snow blowers are used by people unwilling or unable to perform this labour, people with large driveways or other substantial surfaces and people who live in areas with long lasting winters with large amounts of snowfall.
Others may hire a contractor with a shovel. After a large snowfall, businessmen with plow trucks drive through cities offering to plow for money. Removing ice is more difficult. Snow blowers are ineffective at clearing ice. Picks are sometimes used. There is always the risk of damaging the pavement with these instruments. Icy areas can be covered with salt or some other substance, bags of which are available. A recent technological advance is the snowmelt system that heats the pavement from below and melts snow and ice after a period of time; such systems are expensive to install and operate and they are not cost effective in areas with low winter temperatures and large snowfalls. Some governments offer free snow clearing for the elderly and others in need. In some cities, snow clearing for elder and handicapped residents counts towards community service hours assigned as a punishment for minor offences. In some places, laws require homeowners to clear snow from the public sidewalk in front of their house, as well as a pathway on their own property to their mailbox.
Those who fail to do so, depending on the jurisdiction's laws, may experience fines and may be civilly liable fo
Interstate 85 in Georgia
Interstate 85 is a major Interstate Highway that travels northeast-to-southwest in the U. S. state of Georgia. It enters the state at the Alabama state line near West Point, Lanett, traveling through the Atlanta metropolitan area and to the South Carolina state line, where it crosses the Savannah River near Lake Hartwell. I-85 connects northern Georgia with Montgomery, Alabama, to the southwest, with South Carolina, North Carolina, Virginia to the northeast. Within Georgia, I-85 is designated as the unsigned State Route 403. I-85 in Georgia travels parallel with the route of U. S. Route 29. However, from Atlanta northeast to South Carolina, I-85 ventures away from that route, traveling about halfway between US 29 and the combination of US 23 and US 123. Within the City of Atlanta, I-85 has a concurrency with I-75 known as the "Downtown Connector". After splitting from Downtown Connector, it is known as Northeast Expressway until its junction with I-285. I-85 enters the state of Georgia from Alabama via twin bridges over the Chattahoochee River, it skirts the town of West Point, with Kia's multibillion-dollar plant located adjacent to the freeway just east of West Point.
After leaving West Point, I-85 enters the LaGrange area, the first large town in Georgia on its route to the northeast. Northeast of LaGrange, I-85 has an interchange with the long spur freeway, I-185, to the Columbus, Georgia Metropolitan Area; this is the only connection between the Interstate Highway System. From LaGrange, I-85 heads northeastward towards Atlanta. Before reaching Atlanta, the highway runs through a widened stretch that includes six to eight lanes between exits 35 and 77, passing near the suburbs of Moreland, Fairburn, Union City, College Park and East Point as well as intersecting I-285 at its southwest end in of the most complex interchanges in the country, meanwhile providing access to Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport. I-85 runs along the northwestern boundary of the airport, providing access to the domestic terminal. I-75 services the International Terminals of the airport, which are located on the east side of the airport. At the southwestern edge of Atlanta's city limits, I-85 merges with I-75 to form the Downtown Connector, 12 to 14 lanes wide.
At the southern edge of downtown Atlanta, this freeway has an interchange with the major east-west Interstate Highway, I-20. The two freeways skirt the eastern edge of downtown, running due north, passing through the Georgia Tech campus and the Atlantic Station section of Atlanta before the two highways split, with I-75 exits via the right three lanes and heads northwest while I-85 uses the left three lanes and heads northeast. Heading northbound after the Brookwood Interchange with I-75, I-85 is routed along a ten lane wide viaduct from the Buford Highway Connector to State Route 400. Continuing northeast of Atlanta, I-85 continues through the northeastern suburbs, bypassing Chamblee and Doraville, where there is another intersection with I-285; the Interstate travels through the northeastern suburbs of Atlanta, including Lilburn, Lawrenceville. The Interstate has freeway interchanges with SR 316 in Duluth and I-985 in Suwanee, which provides a link to Gainesville. I-85 leaves the Atlanta area, continuing to travel through rural northeast Georgia.
At Lake Hartwell—which was formed by the damming of the Savannah River—I-85 crosses into South Carolina. I-85 has the first express lanes in Georgia, located in DeKalb counties. From Chamblee–Tucker Road to Old Peachtree Road, travelers that utilize the converted 15.5-mile lanes will be charged a toll varying from 10 to 90 cents per mile, depending on traffic conditions and usage. Though not signed on the freeway, they are HOT lanes, which means registered transport vehicles, carpools with three or more occupants and buses are exempt from toll charges as long as they are registered as such. Tolls are collected using an electronic toll collection system. All travelers that use the lane must have a Peach Pass sticker to avoid fines. Starting in November 2014, SunPass and NC Quick Pass are interoperable with Peach Pass, allowing motorists with those transponders to use the express lanes. Funds generated from the express lanes will be used to defray the costs of construction and maintenance of the lanes.
Long term revenue allocation is being studied and a decision about future excess revenues will be made in the project process. Proponents for the express lanes say it is to provide commuters with a more reliable, free-flow commute option. Detractors point out that existing infrastructure was reused for the express lanes and that commute times on the non-paying travel lanes have doubled since implementation. Constructed as a four- to six-lane expressway in the 1950s, the stretch of I-85 between the southern merge with I-75 and North Druid Hills Road was reconstructed as part of the Georgia Department of Transportation's Freeing the Freeways program; this project included rebuilding all overpasses, new HOV-ready ramps, a widen