Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China and Japan, east of India, west of Papua New Guinea, north of Australia. Southeast Asia is bordered to the north by East Asia, to the west by South Asia and the Bay of Bengal, to the east by Oceania and the Pacific Ocean, to the south by Australia and the Indian Ocean; the region is the only part of Asia that lies within the Southern Hemisphere, although the majority of it is in the Northern Hemisphere. In contemporary definition, Southeast Asia consists of two geographic regions: Mainland Southeast Asia known as Indochina, comprising parts of Northeast India, Laos, Thailand and West Malaysia. Maritime Southeast Asia known as Nusantara, the East Indies and Malay Archipelago, comprises the Andaman and Nicobar Islands of India, East Malaysia, the Philippines, East Timor, Christmas Island, the Cocos Islands. Taiwan is included in this grouping by many anthropologists; the region lies near the intersection of geological plates, with both heavy seismic and volcanic activities.
The Sunda Plate is the main plate of the region, featuring all Southeast Asian countries except Myanmar, northern Thailand, northern Laos, northern Vietnam, northern Luzon of the Philippines. The mountain ranges in Myanmar and peninsular Malaysia are part of the Alpide belt, while the islands of the Philippines are part of the Pacific Ring of Fire. Both seismic belts meet in Indonesia, causing the region to have high occurrences of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. Southeast Asia covers about 4.5 million km2, 10.5% of Asia or 3% of earth's total land area. Its total population is about 8.5 % of the world's population. It is the third most populous geographical region in the world after East Asia; the region is culturally and ethnically diverse, with hundreds of languages spoken by different ethnic groups. Ten countries in the region are members of ASEAN, a regional organization established for economic, military and cultural integration amongst its members; the region, together with part of South Asia, was well known by Europeans as the East Indies or the Indies until the 20th century.
Chinese sources referred the region as 南洋, which means the "Southern Ocean." The mainland section of Southeast Asia was referred to as Indochina by European geographers due to its location between China and the Indian subcontinent and its having cultural influences from both neighboring regions. In the 20th century, the term became more restricted to territories of the former French Indochina; the maritime section of Southeast Asia is known as the Malay Archipelago, a term derived from the European concept of a Malay race. Another term for Maritime Southeast Asia is Insulindia, used to describe the region between Indochina and Australasia; the term "Southeast Asia" was first used in 1839 by American pastor Howard Malcolm in his book Travels in South-Eastern Asia. Malcolm only included the Mainland section and excluded the Maritime section in his definition of Southeast Asia; the term was used in the midst of World War II by the Allies, through the formation of South East Asia Command in 1943.
SEAC popularised the use of the term "Southeast Asia," although what constituted Southeast Asia was not fixed. However, by the late 1970s, a standard usage of the term "Southeast Asia" and the territories it encompasses had emerged. Although from a cultural or linguistic perspective the definitions of "Southeast Asia" may vary, the most common definitions nowadays include the area represented by the countries listed below. Ten of the eleven states of Southeast Asia are members of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations, while East Timor is an observer state. Papua New Guinea has stated that it might join ASEAN, is an observer. Sovereignty issues exist over some territories in the South China Sea; some southern parts of Mainland China, as well as Hong Kong and Taiwan, are considered as part of Southeast Asia by some authors. * Administrative centre in Putrajaya. Southeast Asia is geographically divided into two subregions, namely Mainland Southeast Asia and Maritime Southeast Asia. Mainland Southeast Asia includes: Maritime Southeast Asia includes: The Andaman and Nicobar Islands of India are geographically considered part of Maritime Southeast Asia.
Eastern Bangladesh and Northeast India have strong cultural ties with Southeast Asia and sometimes considered both South Asian and Southeast Asian. Sri Lanka has on some occasions been considered a part of Southeast Asia because of its cultural ties to mainland Southeast Asia; the rest of the island of New Guinea, not part of Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, is sometimes included, so are Palau and the Northern Mariana Islands, which were all part of the Spanish East Indies with strong cultural and linguistic ties to the region the Philippines. The eastern half of Indonesia and East Timor are considered to be biogeographically part of Oceania due to its distinctive faunal features. New Guinea and its surrounding islands are geologically considered as a part of Australian continent, connected via the Sahul Shelf; the region
Jalan Besar is a one-way road in Singapore, connecting Kallang and Rochor. Jalan Besar only appeared in the 1880s, when the Municipality constructed it through nipah land and called it Jalan Besar, meaning "big or wide road" in Malay; the area belonged to Richard Owen Norris from the 1830s to 1865. Syed Allie bought 70 acres of land in this area and filled in what was predominantly swamp land; the site where Beatty School was and the HDB flats are was a big expanse of open ground. A rubber factory stood on the field, another in Kitchener Road; the place was full of a favourite haunt of hunters. The other side of Jalan Besar between Lavender Street and Syed Alwi Road was swamp land. Flying ducks, fish, mud lobsters and multi-coloured snakes thrived there; the area was reclaimed by dumping refuse. In 1923, the New World Amusement Park located off Jalan Besar was opened by the enterprising sons of Ong Sam Leong, Peng Hock and Boon Tat. A peculiarity of the street names in Jalan Besar is that many bear the names of World War I British generals and admirals and two French generals — Allenby, French, Jellicoe, Foch, Sturdee and Petain.
The names of battle places such as Flanders and Verdun are reflected. Today, Jalan Besar is a gazetted conservation area. Most of the roads above were cut from the 1920s onwards when the then-swampland was filled in with incinerator ash from Singapore's first incinerator built in the vicinity of today's Syed Alwi Road. From 1926, the Municipal Council decided to name the newly opened roads after personalities and battle-sites of the European conflict so as to remind the then-colony of Singapore of the conflicts in Europe; the street is known to the Hoklos as kam kong ka poh thai tu long, which means "the slaughter pig depot in Kampong Kapor", a reference to the abattoir in the vicinity. "Jalan Besar" is a common street name in Malaysia used as an occasional substitute for the colonially named "Main Street" and "Main Road", as part of the country's increased use of Malay over English. The name is prevalent in individual towns that featured their own set of street names representing main thoroughfares and streets related to specific landmarks.
Jalan Besar Stadium Victor R Savage, Brenda S A Yeoh, Toponymics - A Study of Singapore Street Names, Eastern Universities Press, ISBN 981-210-205-1 Jalan Besar: A Heritage Trail, National Heritage Board
Museum Planning Area
The Museum Planning Area is a planning area located in the Central Area of the Central Region of Singapore. The area plays a "bridging role" between the Orchard area and the Downtown Core, which necessitates proper transport networks for vehicles and public transport. Due to the sheer size of green areas in the district, the Urban Redevelopment Authority has designated it a'green lung' in the Central Area. However, the Museum Planning Area is home to cultural and commercial activities. Around 65% of the area is available for future development, making it a hotbed for new infrastructure and buildings. Museum planning area is bounded by the planning areas of Newton and Rochor to the north, the Downtown Core to the southeast, Singapore River to the south, River Valley to the west and Orchard to the northwest. Ten national monuments are located within the Museum Planning Area, namely the Armenian Church, the Cathedral of the Good Shepherd, Cathay Building, the Central Fire Station, the House of Tan Yeok Nee, the MacDonald House, the Old Tao Nan School, the National Museum of Singapore, the Old Hill Street Police Station and the Singapore Art Museum/Former Saint Joseph's Institution.
The area is home to significant events such as the Battle of MacDonald House bombing. Other historical sites include: YMCA Building National Theatre United Chinese Library The Museum Planning Area is bordered by Rochor to the northeast, the Downtown Core to the southeast, the Singapore River Area to the southwest, River Valley to the west and Newton and Orchard to the northwest; the area is bounded by Hill Street, River Valley Road, Clemenceau Avenue and Bras Basah Road. It is the smallest urban planning area, with an area of 83 hectares. Parks and open spaces take up a third of the area of the Museum Planning Area, include Fort Canning, Istana Park and Bras Basah Park, which can be used for recreational purposes. Collectively, these places will form the so-called'green lung' of the Central Area. Terraces have been proposed to allow for "a more prominent and convenient access" to the Fort Canning area; the Museum Planning Area is Singapore's "institutional hub", with 11% of land set aside for institutional use and reserve sites to be safeguarded for future institutions.
The many museums in the area, which give the Museum District its name, include the National Museum of Singapore, the Singapore Art Museum, the Asian Civilisations Museum, the National Archives of Singapore and the Singapore Philatelic Museum. The arts scene is vibrant in the area, with The Substation, the Singapore Calligraphy Centre, the YMS Arts Centre and the Singapore Dance Ensemble all located within its boundaries. Scattered throughout the area are places of worship such as churches, Hindu temples and synagogues; the Registry of Marriages and the sprawling Singapore Management University campus are located in the area. Despite its prime location, residential projects were only allocated 1% of the land area, the Museum Planning Area was criticised for lacking residential zoning. Due to the lack of residents, there were fears. Furthermore, the concept of living within the Central Area had gained popularity, up-market skyscraper condominiums could be built; the greenery of the Museum Planning Area could provide a peaceful environment for living.
The URA replied that several plots of land had been sold for residential-commercial mixed use, that more housing developments were to be planned and constructed. The URA emphasised the importance of the area as a transition between the central business district and shopping areas, as well as the green, pedestrian-friendly nature of the URA's plan for the area; the Museum Planning Area is home to various shopping malls, including Park Mall, Plaza Singapura, The Cathay, Singapore Shopping Centre and The Atrium @ Orchard. More vacant land will be set aside for commercial uses around Dhoby Ghaut MRT Station and Bras Basah MRT Station; these will be properly connected with the respective stations. Hotels in the area include Hotel Rendezvous. Furthermore, a hotel development at the foot of Fort Canning Hill near the junction of Clemenceau Avenue and River Valley Road is in the planning stages, is meant to be a retreat from urban living "amidst lush greenery". Other developments are planned on reserved sites near Fort Canning, but details have not been released.
The Museum Planning Area is served by four Mass Rapid Transit Stations: Dhoby Ghaut, Bras Basah, Fort Canning and Bencoolen The North South Line and the North East Line can only be accessible from Dhoby Ghaut while the Circle Line can be accessible from both and the Downtown Line can be accessible from Fort Canning and Bencoolen. The Central Expressway's Chin Swee Tunnel passes under the area. Several changes to the road network in the area will be implemented, including the construction of Fort Canning Tunnel and the realignment of Stamford Road and Handy Road; the rationale for the improvements is increased traffic from Marina Centre and relieving the traffic congestion along Orchard Road. Furthermore, a new road network has been put in place to ensure smooth traffic flow after the full development of land around the MRT Stations. Armenian Street Bras Basah Road Central Expressway Clemenceau Avenue Fort Canning Tunnel Hill Street Orchard Road Queen Street River Valley Road Stamford Road Victoria Street The Development Guide Plan for the Museum Planning Area envisages "a comprehensive pedestrian network linking developments and open spaces".
New promenades and pedestrian malls are planned for the area to enhance and connect existing sidewalks. A web of underpasses and covered walkways will link Orchard, the Sin
Marina Bay Financial Centre
The Marina Bay Financial Centre is a mixed-use development located along Marina Boulevard and Central Boulevard at Marina Bay, Singapore. It consists of three office towers, two residential towers and retail space at Marina Bay Link Mall, occupying a 3.55 hectare site. The construction of the Marina Bay Financial Centre development comprises two phases, with its first phase completed in 3Q 2010; the entire development was completed in 2012 and the grand opening of Marina Bay Financial Centre was officiated by Singapore Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong on 15 May 2013. The first phase consists of the office Towers 1 and 2, Marina Bay Residences with 428 units and 94,500 square feet of the retail mall; the local architect for phase 1 was DCA Architects Pte Ltd. The second phase comprises office Tower 3, 84,500 square feet of the retail mall and Marina Bay Suites with 221 units. Marina Bay Suites attained TOP in June 2013. For this major project, Schindler Singapore supplied a total of 105 units of elevators and 6 units of escalators.
Clyde & Co Clasis Singapore Private Limited located on the 30th floor of the office Tower 3, houses the Honorary Consulate of Iceland. Tower 1 is leased to international banking and financial institutions such as Standard Chartered bank, the anchor tenant occupying 500,000 square feet of office space, Baker & McKenzie, Raffles Quay Asset Management, Societe Generale, Wellington Management Company. Tower 2 is leased to multi-national institutions such as IBM, American Express, BHP Billiton, Bank Pictet, Eastspring Investments, ICAP, The Macquarie Group, Nomura Securities and Servcorp. Tower 3's anchor tenant is DBS Bank. Other tenants comprise a mix of multinational companies from various sectors such as legal firms, real estate development, financial services and specialist food providers, energy trading and technology companies, they include Booking.com, Ashurst LLP, Aryzta AG, Clifford Chance, Endurance Specialty Insurance Ltd, Fitness First, Gunvor, Louis Dreyfus, Lynx Energy Trading, M&A Development Pte Ltd, S&P Global, Mead Johnson, Software AG, Trammo and WongPartnership.
Tower 3 attained TOP in March 2012. Marina Bay Suites, the second luxury residential development won the FIABCI Singapore Property Awards 2014; the Singapore Property Awards is the local chapter of the international FIABCI Prix d'Excellence Awards. Marina Bay Financial Centre clinched the top award in the Office category at the FIABCI Prix d'Excellence Awards 2012, which recognises the world's outstanding real estate developments. Marina Bay Residences was runner-up in the Residential category. Marina Bay Financial Centre won the Gold award for the mixed-use category in the MIPIM Asia Awards 2011, which honours outstanding real estate projects in the Asia Pacific region. MBFC won the Participants‟ Choice Award, which honours the project that receives the most delegate votes. Marina Bay Residences and Marina Bay Financial Centre Phase 1 were named winners in the Residential and Office Categories at the inaugural FIABCI Singapore Property Awards held in October 2011. Marina Bay Financial Centre has won accolades for its achievements towards environmental sustainability under the BCA Green Mark awards.
2009 – BCA Green Mark Gold Plus Award for Phase 2 2009 – BCA Green Mark Gold Award for Marina Bay Suites 2008 – BCA Green Mark Gold Award for Phase 1 2007 – BCA Green Mark Gold Award for Marina Bay Residences Marina Bay Link Mall offers about 179,000 sq ft of retail and dining space. Phase 1 was opened to the public on 3 November 2010; the mall is a subterranean mall with shops at the basement, ground level, the office towers and an alfresco dining area at the Ground Plaza located between MBFC Tower 1 and Marina Bay Residences. Downtown MRT station is linked to Basement 2 of Marina Bay Link Mall. 5 mins walk from Marina Bay MRT station on the North South Circle Line. 10 mins away from Raffles Place MRT station on North South Line and East West Line
Parliament House, Singapore
The Parliament House of Singapore is a public building and cultural landmark and build houses the Parliament of Singapore. It is located in the Civic District of the Downtown Core within the Central Area. Within its vicinity is Raffles Place, which lies across it from the Singapore River, the Supreme Court's building across the road; the building was designed to represent a contemporary architectural expression of stateliness and authority. The prism-shaped top, designed by former president Ong Teng Cheong, was a modernist take on the traditional dome; the space constraints faced by the Old Parliament House were felt since the early 1980s, when the members of parliament grew from 51 in 1963 to 75 in 1983, a point made by Leader of the House, Edmund William Barker during a parliamentary debate on 16 March 1983. The old building had been renovated several times to accommodate the demand for space, but there was a limit as to how much the building could be widened without disrupting the Chamber's configuration and causing discomfort to its members.
The debate concluded in 1989, when the First Deputy Prime Minister Goh Chok Tong proposed the idea to build a new parliament house. The project started in earnest in May 1989, when a project team was formed to design and build the new house. Headed by Liu Thai Ker, CEO and Chief Planner of the Urban Redevelopment Authority, it comprised architects and engineers from the URA and the Public Works Department. Various designs were put forth by PWD architects for the new site next to the existing parliament house, led by PWD Director Chua Hua Meng and Deputy Director Lee Kut Cheung. In 1992, the project was approved by the government with a budget of S$148.2 million. The following year, the Committee on the Parliament Complex Development Project was established, headed by the Speaker of Parliament Tan Soo Khoon, with Wong Kan Seng, Lee Boon Yang, Lim Hng Kiang as its members. Tasked to liaise with architects in the planning and construction of the building, the committee members went on two overseas study missions to gather ideas to be incorporated into the building's design.
The first trip was made to Australia, where visits were made to the newly built Parliament House in Canberra. Here, extensive attention was paid to public education of the parliamentary system in the form of galleries, moot parliaments. A second visit was made to Europe, to incorporate contrasting older, traditional ideas into the building's design. With these ideas incorporated, the new building's concept plan was approved by the Cabinet in 1994. Construction began in 1995 on the expunged Hallpike Street under the direction of PWD Director Chua Hua Meng and Deputy Director Tan Chee Wee, was completed in July 1999 at a cost of S$115.2 million. On 6 September 1999, the flag of Singapore was lowered for the last time at the old Parliament House, before the ceremonial "walk over" was conducted from the old building to the new. Led by the Speaker of Parliament and the Prime Minister, the entourage of MPs walked along Parliament Place, a renamed segment of High Street, before reaching the new Parliament House where the flag was unfurled and hoisted with the national anthem being played.
The entourage filed into the new Chamber, where the parliamentary debate resumed. On 4 October 1999, the building was opened with a simple ceremony held at the building's foyer, where a stainless steel plaque was unveiled before 100 MPs and invited guests; the new Parliament House was designed by the Public Works Department, comprises three new blocks integrated with an existing restored building built in 1864 and which once housed the Attorney-General's Chambers. This block was gazetted as a national monument on 14 February 1992; the building was built not only as a venue for parliamentary debates, but a research centre and meeting place for the members of parliament, as well as a place of interest for students and the general public. Due to its setting in the richly historical area, the building's overall design harks back to its more historical neighbours with its slate grey external colour scheme and liberal use of accentuated columns reflective of the colonnade design common in classical architecture.
The main entrance from North Bridge Road is preceded by a grand ceremonial driveway flanked by palm trees, an iconic tree peculiar to the tropical region and complemented by fountain pools. The building's grand foyer is topped by the timber atrium, seen from the outside as the building's signature prism-shaped pinnacle. With 100 seats and room for 20 more, the new Chamber features contemporary IT features like an electronic voting system, an integrated congress system, IT terminals and so on. Generous space is devoted to the Strangers' Gallery and the Press Gallery, allowing for more members of the public to observe proceedings. In addition, a new sound-proofed Educational Gallery was built on the top floor of the chamber allowing for staff and teachers to verbally explain live parliamentary proceedings to students, as well as a moot parliament, history corner, multimedia information kiosks to provide a full educational programme, as is the case in the Parliament House in Canberra. Part of the new building are a 170-seat auditorium, a library, range of meeting and IT rooms and media facilities, a dining room, a 100-seat public cafeteria and a gymnasium.
Car parking is available below ground, leaving much valuable space above to include lush landscaping and a 2,770 square metre garden. Tan, Sumiko The Singapore Parliament: The House We Built Times Media, Singapore ISBN 981-232-144-6 Official website Parliament of Singapore: Design of Parliament House
Dr. Yaacob bin Ibrahim, MP is a Singaporean politician. A member of the governing People's Action Party until 2020, he is Minister for Communications and Information, Minister-in-charge of Muslim Affairs and Minister in charge of Cyber Security. A Member of Parliament since 1997, he was the Minister for Community Development and Sports from 2003 to 2004, as the Minister for the Environment and Water Resources from 2004 to 2011, as the Minister for the Information and the Arts from 21 May 2011 to 1 November 2012. Dr Yaacob has been active in community service since his school days and has been involved in the Association of Muslim Professionals, Majlis Ugama Islam Singapura and the Nature Society. A volunteer tutor, became the Chairman of the Council for the Development of Singapore Malay/Muslim Community in March 2002, he is married with a daughter. Questions about his son's citizenship and if he would serve national service were raised when a leaked US diplomatic cable from WikiLeaks stated the minister's two children as US citizens.
In response, he clarified that his children have dual American and Singaporean citizenship until the age of 18 because of the status of his wife as an American citizen. He confirms. Yaacob's eldest brother Ismail Ibrahim was the first Malay recipient of the President's Scholarship, his sister Zuraidah Ibrahim was a former Straits Times journalist now with South China Morning Post. His younger brother Latiff Ibrahim is a lawyer. Yaacob studied at Tanjong Katong Technical Secondary School, which turned coeducational during his time there, he graduated from the University of Singapore with an honours degree in civil engineering in 1980 and in 1989 obtained a Doctor of Philosophy from Stanford University. He was a postdoc at Cornell University, he returned to Singapore in 1990 and joined the National University of Singapore faculty in 1991. He received his department's teaching excellence award in 1994, he is on leave of absence from the university as an associate professor. A Member of Parliament since 1997, he represented the Jalan Besar Group Representation Constituency and the Moulmein-Kallang GRC since the 2011 general election.
Within both GRCs, he has been responsible for the Kolam Ayer ward. In April 2001 he became the first Mayor of Central District of Singapore until November 2001. Yaacob was Parliamentary Secretary and Senior Parliamentary Secretary at the Ministry of Communications and Information Technology, he became a Minister of State for at the Ministry of Community Development and Sports in November 2001. In March 2002, Yaacob became the Acting Minister for Community Development and Sports and Minister-in-charge of Muslim Affairs and made a full member of the Cabinet in May 2003, he became the Minister of Environment and Water Resources in 2004. In 2009, after the Bukit Timah canal burst its banks after a downpour, resulting in parts of Bukit Timah being submerged, Yaacob remarked it was a freak event that "occurs once in 50 years"; the country would go on to experience more than 70 flash floods between the year 2010 and 2013. In May 2011, in a cabinet rearrangement, Yaacob became Minister for Information and the Arts.
He continues to serve as the Minister-in-charge of Muslim Affairs. Yaacob is on the PAP Central Executive Committee as Vice-Chairman. In April 2015, Dr Yaacob was appointed the Minister in charge of Cyber Security and oversees the Cyber Security Agency, an agency formed under the Prime Minister's Office, he has been re-appointed to serve in this capacity following the September 2015 General Election. Yaacob stepped down from the cabinet on 30 April 2018. Profile of Yaacob Ibrahim at cabinet.gov.sg
Supreme Court of Singapore
The Supreme Court of the Republic of Singapore is one of the two tiers of the court system in Singapore, the other tier being the State Courts. The Supreme Court consists of the Court of Appeal and the High Court and hears both civil and criminal matters; the Court of Appeal hears both criminal appeals from the High Court. The Court of Appeal may decide a point of law reserved for its decision by the High Court, as well as any point of law of public interest arising in the course of an appeal from a subordinate court to the High Court, reserved by the High Court for the decision of the Court of Appeal; the High Court's jurisdiction is as follows: a civil case is commenced in the High Court if the subject matter of the claim exceeds S$250,000. Probate matters are dealt with in the High Court if the value of the estate exceeds S$3 million or if the case involves the resealing of a foreign grant. In addition, ancillary matters in family proceedings involving assets of S$1.5 million or above are heard in the High Court.
Criminal cases involving offences which carry the death penalty and those punishable with imprisonment for a term exceeding ten years, are prosecuted in the High Court. Non-bailable offences are tried in the High Court; as a rule of thumb, the High Court in Singapore has inherent jurisdiction to try all matters within Singapore. The earliest predecessor of the Supreme Court was the Court of Judicature of Prince of Wales' Island and Malacca, established by the Second Charter of Justice, issued by the Crown as letters patent dated 27 November 1826; the Court was presided over by the Governor of the Straits Settlements and Resident Councillor of the settlement where the court was to be held, another judge called the Recorder. The Third Charter of Justice of 12 August 1855 reorganized the Court, providing the Straits Settlements with two Recorders, one for Prince of Wales' Island and the other for Singapore and Malacca. Following the reconstitution of the Straits Settlements as a Crown colony with effect from 1 April 1867, the Court of Judicature was replaced by the Supreme Court of the Straits Settlements.
The Governor and Resident Councillors ceased to be judges of the Court. Further changes to the Court's constitution were made in 1873, it now consisted of two divisions – the Chief Justice and the Senior Puisne Judge formed the Singapore and Malacca division of the Court, while the Judge of Penang and the Junior Puisne Judge formed the Penang division. The Supreme Court received jurisdiction to sit as a Court of Appeal in civil matters. In 1878 the jurisdiction and residence of judges was made more flexible, thus impliedly abolishing the geographical division of the Supreme Court. Appeals from decisions of the Supreme Court lay first to the Court of Appeal and to the Queen-in-Council, the latter appeals being heard by the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council; as a result of legislation passed in 1885, the Supreme Court consisted of the Chief Justice and three puisne judges. The Court was altered in 1907, it now had two divisions, one exercising original civil and criminal jurisdiction and the other appellate civil and criminal jurisdiction.
During the Japanese occupation of Singapore, all the courts that had operated under the British were replaced by new courts established by the Japanese Military Administration. The Syonan Koto-Hoin was formed on 29 May 1942. Following the end of World War II, the courts that had existed before the war were restored. There was no change in the judicial system when the Straits Settlements were dissolved in 1946, Singapore became a crown colony in its own right, except that the Supreme Court of the Straits Settlements became known as the Supreme Court of Singapore. Singapore gained independence from the United Kingdom through merger with Malaysia in 1963; the judicial power of Malaysia was vested in a Federal Court, a High Court in Malaya, a High Court in Borneo, a High Court in Singapore. Appeals lay from the High Court in Singapore to the Federal Court in Kuala Lumpur, to the Privy Council; the merger did not last: in 1965 Singapore left the Federation of Malaysia and became an independent republic.
However, the High Court remained part of the Federal Court structure until 1969, when Singapore enacted the Supreme Court of Judicature Act to regularize the judicial system. Coming into force on 9 January 1970, the Act declared that the Supreme Court of Singapore now consisted of the Court of Appeal, the Court of Criminal Appeal and the High Court; the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council remained Singapore's highest appellate court until a permanent Court of Appeal for both civil and criminal appeals was established. Appeals to the Privy Council were abolished in 1994; the first woman to serve as a supreme court justice is Lai Siu Chiu, sworn in on 30 April 1994. Article 93 of the Constitution of the Republic of Singapore vests the judicial power of Singapore in the Supreme Court and the Subordinate Courts; the Chief Justice is the head of the judiciary. The Supreme Court is a superior court of record, it is superior in the sense that its jurisdiction to hear civil and criminal cases is unlimited compared to the Subordinate Courts, it hears appeals from these courts.
As a court of record, it keeps a perpetual record of its proceedings. The Court of Appeal is the upper division of the lower one being the High Court; the Supreme Court Bench consists of the Chief Justice, the Judges of Appeal, Judges and Judicial Commissioners of the High Court. All members of the Bench ar