Halifax Harbour is a large natural harbour on the Atlantic coast of Nova Scotia, located in the Halifax Regional Municipality. The harbour is called Jipugtug by the Mikmaq first nation, anglicized as Chebucto and it runs in a northwest-southeast direction. Based on average vessel speeds, the harbour is located approximately one hours sailing time north of the Great Circle Route between the Eastern Seaboard and Europe. As such, it is the first inbound and last outbound port of call in eastern North America with transcontinental rail connections, the harbour is largely formed by a drowned glacial valley which succumbed to sea level rise since glaciation. The harbour includes the geographic areas, Northwest Arm Another drowned river valley now largely used by pleasure boats. The Narrows A constricted passage to Bedford Basin, Bedford Basin A sheltered bay and the largest part of the harbour. The harbour is home to small islands. The harbour limit is formed by the northern end of its largest island - McNabs Island.
The largest island entirely within the limits is Georges Island. Several small islands are located in the Bedford Basin near Bedford, in the Northwest Arm, there is a small peninsula known as Deadmans Island, named for the burial location of War of 1812 prisoners of war. Just 200 m west of Deadmans Island is the equally small Melville Island, Melville Island forms the eastern boundary of Melville Cove and is the location of the Armdale Yacht Club. Melville Cove is the name of the adjacent residential community, although outside the defined harbour limits, Lawlor Island and Devils Island are frequently included in descriptions of Halifax Harbour and the surrounding area. The harbour is marked by a network of buoys and lighthouses, starting with Sambro Island Lighthouse at the harbour approaches. Deep draught vessels must use the channel into the harbour. The west entrance point marking the beginning of the approach using this channel is located near Chebucto Head. Shallow draught vessels may use the Eastern Passage, which runs on the east side of McNabs Island, large vessels have compulsory pilotage, with harbour pilots boarding at the pilot station off Chebucto Head.
There are strict security regulations relating to vessels navigating near RCN facilities and anchorages, but the new Intercolonial Railway took an indirect, southerly route for military and political reasons, and the national government made little effort to promote Halifax as Canadas winter port. Ignoring appeals to nationalism and the ICRs own attempts to promote traffic to Halifax, the war at last boosted Halifaxs harbor into prominence on the North Atlantic
Marriott International, Inc. is an American multinational diversified hospitality company that manages and franchises a broad portfolio of hotels and related lodging facilities. Founded by J. Willard Marriott, the company is now led by his son, Executive Chairman Bill Marriott and President and Chief Executive Officer Arne Sorenson. Marriott was founded by John Willard Marriott in 1927 when he and his wife, Alice Sheets Marriott, opened a beer stand in Washington. As a Mormon missionary in the summers in Washington, D. C. The Marriotts expanded their enterprise into a chain of restaurants and they opened their first hotel, the Twin Bridges Marriott Motor Hotel, in Arlington, Virginia, in 1957. Their son, J. W. Marriott, Jr. led the company to spectacular worldwide growth during his more than 50-year career, in March 2012, at age 80, he turned the CEO responsibilities over to Arne Sorenson, while he assumed the title of Executive Chairman. Marriott International was formed in 1993 when Marriott Corporation split into two companies, Marriott International and Host Marriott Corporation, in 1995, Marriott was the first hotel company worldwide to offer guests the option to book reservations online, via the companys implementation of MARSHA.
In April 1995, Marriott International acquired a 49% interest in Ritz-Carlton Hotel Company LLC, the cost to Marriott was estimated to have be about $200 million in cash and assumed debt. There were other benefits for Ritz-Carlton flowing from its relationship with Marriott, such as being able to take advantage of the parent companys reservation system, the partnership was solidified in 1998 when Marriott acquired a majority ownership of The Ritz-Carlton. Today, there are 81 Ritz-Carlton properties around the world, the Marriott World Trade Center was destroyed during the September 11,2001 attacks. The changes were completed in 2003, Marriott International owned Ramada International Hotels & Resorts until its sale on September 15,2004 to Cendant. On July 19,2006, Marriott announced that all lodging buildings it operated in the United States, the new policy includes all guest rooms, lounges, meeting rooms, public space and employee work areas. There were bombings at the Islamabad Marriott in 2008 and at the Jakarta Marriott in 2009, on November 11,2010, Marriott announced plans to add over 600 hotel properties by 2015.
The bulk of the additions will be in emerging markets, where it plans to have 100 hotel properties and Southeast Asia. On January 21,2011, Marriott said that pornography would not be included in the entertainment offered at new hotels, which will use an internet-based video on demand system. On December 13,2011, J. W. Marriott, Jr. announced he would be stepping down as CEO of the company and it was announced that Arne Sorenson would be taking over as CEO as of March 2012. His had released 2010 tax returns showed earnings in 2010 of $113,881 in directors fees from Marriott. S, in December 2012, Guinness World Records recognized the five-star JW Marriott Marquis Hotel Dubai as the worlds tallest hotel. The scheme disrupted operation of mobile telephone hotspots by sending fraudulent Wi-fi de-authentication packets
Nova Scotia is one of Canadas three Maritime provinces, and one of the four provinces which form Atlantic Canada. Nova Scotia is Canadas second-smallest province, with an area of 55,284 square kilometres, including Cape Breton, as of 2016, the population was 923,598. Nova Scotia is the second most-densely populated province in Canada with 17.4 inhabitants per square kilometre, Nova Scotia means New Scotland in Latin and is the recognized English language name for the province. In Scottish Gaelic, the province is called Alba Nuadh, which simply means New Scotland. Nova Scotia is Canadas second-smallest province in area after Prince Edward Island, the provinces mainland is the Nova Scotia peninsula surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, including numerous bays and estuaries. Nowhere in Nova Scotia is more than 67 km from the ocean, Nova Scotia has many ancient fossil-bearing rock formations. These formations are rich on the Bay of Fundys shores. Blue Beach near Hantsport, Joggins Fossil Cliffs, on the Bay of Fundys shores, has yielded an abundance of Carboniferous age fossils, wassons Bluff, near the town of Parrsboro, has yielded both Triassic and Jurassic age fossils.
Nova Scotia lies in the mid-temperate zone, since the province is almost surrounded by the sea, the climate is closer to maritime than to continental climate. The winter and summer temperature extremes of the climate are moderated by the ocean. However, winters are cold enough to be classified as continental – still being nearer the freezing point than inland areas to the west. The Nova Scotia climate is in ways similar to the central Baltic Sea coast in Northern Europe. This is in spite of Nova Scotia being some fifteen parallels south, areas not on the Atlantic coast experience warmer summers more typical of inland areas, and winter lows a little colder. The province includes regions of the Mikmaq nation of Mikmaki, the Mikmaq people inhabited Nova Scotia at the time the first European colonists arrived. In 1605, French colonists established the first permanent European settlement in the future Canada at Port Royal, the British conquest of Acadia took place in 1710. The Treaty of Utrecht in 1713 formally recognized this and returned Cape Breton Island to the French, present-day New Brunswick still formed a part of the French colony of Acadia.
The British changed the name of the capital from Port Royal to Annapolis Royal, in 1749, the capital of Nova Scotia moved from Annapolis Royal to the newly established Halifax. In 1755 the vast majority of the French population were removed in the Expulsion of the Acadians
The Halifax Peninsula is a community and planning area located in the urban core of municipal Halifax, Nova Scotia. Halifax Peninsula is home to Downtown Halifax, the financial and economic heart of the municipality, the town of Halifax was founded by the British government under the direction of the Board of Trade and Plantations under the command of Governor Edward Cornwallis in 1749. Geographically, the Halifax Peninsula is a Canadian peninsula in central Nova Scotia, although now located entirely within HRM, the peninsula was the original host to the town and now former City of Halifax. The founding of the town sparked Father Le Loutres War, the original settlement was clustered in the southeastern part of the peninsula along The Narrows, between a series of forts and the harbour. After a protracted struggle between residents and the Executive Council, the city was incorporated to in 1841, at this time the Halifax Public Gardens and Victoria Park, Halifax were created, with many Victorian Era monuments.
Builders such as George Lang created many landmark buildings, on 1 April 1996, the government of Nova Scotia formed Halifax Regional Municipality, a single-tier regional government governing all of Halifax County. Down the length of this isthmus is Joseph Howe Drive, generally considered to be the boundary between the Halifax Peninsula and Mainland Halifax, the Halifax Peninsula creates The Narrows, a constriction of Halifax Harbour to its east. The northern end of the rises to a glacial drumlin at Fort Needham. 60 m above sea level is located at Citadel Hill and immediately offshore to the east at Georges Island, the bedrock of this peninsula is Precambrian slate. Glaciers during the Pleistocene era converted the rock surface to an olive-colored loamy till, glaciation removed reddish till from sedimentary rock to the north and redeposited it as a drumlin to form Citadel Hill. The stony loam to loam soils are mapped as Bridgewater series on olive till. Downtown Halifax North End Halifax West End, Halifax Quinpool district South End Halifax Spring Garden Convoy Place Hydrostone Mulgrave Park Westmount Africville Richmond
The Victorian era was the period of Queen Victorias reign, from 20 June 1837 until her death on 22 January 1901. It was a period of peace, refined sensibilities. Some scholars date the beginning of the period in terms of sensibilities, the era followed the Georgian period and preceded the Edwardian period. The half of the Victorian age roughly coincided with the first part of the Belle Époque era of continental Europe, culturally there was a transition away from the rationalism of the Georgian period and toward romanticism and mysticism with regard to religion, social values, and arts. The end of the saw the Boer War. Domestically, the agenda was increasingly liberal with a number of shifts in the direction of political reform, industrial reform. Two especially important figures in period of British history are the prime ministers Benjamin Disraeli and William Gladstone. Disraeli, favoured by the queen, was a gregarious Conservative and his rival Gladstone, a Liberal distrusted by the Queen, served more terms and oversaw much of the overall legislative development of the era.
The population of England and Wales almost doubled from 16.8 million in 1851 to 30.5 million in 1901, Scotlands population rose rapidly, from 2.8 million in 1851 to 4.4 million in 1901. However, Irelands population decreased sharply, from 8.2 million in 1841 to less than 4.5 million in 1901, mostly due to the Great Famine. Between 1837 and 1901 about 15 million emigrants departed the UK permanently, in search of a life in the United States, South Africa, New Zealand, Australia. During the early part of the era, politics in the House of Commons involved battles between the two parties, the Whigs/Liberals and the Conservatives. These parties were led by such prominent statesmen as Lord Melbourne, Sir Robert Peel, Lord Derby, Lord Palmerston, Disraeli, Victoria became queen in 1837 at age 18. Her long reign until 1901 was mainly a time of peace, Britain reached the zenith of its economic, political and cultural power. The era saw the expansion of the second British Empire, Historians have characterised the mid-Victorian era as Britains Golden Years.
There was prosperity, as the income per person grew by half. There was peace abroad, and social peace at home, opposition to the new order melted away, says Porter. The Chartist movement peaked as a movement among the working class in 1848, its leaders moved to other pursuits, such as trade unions
Georges Island (Nova Scotia)
Georges Island is a glacial drumlin and the largest island entirely within the harbour limits of Halifax Harbour located in Nova Scotias Halifax Regional Municipality. The Island is the location of Fort Charlotte - named after King Georges wife Charlotte, Fort Charlotte was built during Father Le Loutres War, a year after Citadel Hill. The island is now a National Historic Site of Canada, many other islands in Nova Scotia and New England were named after various King Georges or other Georges. Unlike those in the US, those in Canada have as a rule kept that name, the island was originally named île à la Raquette which means Snowshoe Island. For a brief time, the Island was known as île dEnville, in 1749, the island was named George Island after King George II, and finally, in 1963, it was renamed Georges Island. Upon the arrival of Edward Cornwallis and the outbreak of Father Le Loutres War, fortifications were established on Citadel Hill, during the Seven Years War, two thousand French sailors were imprisoned on the island after the British victory in the Battle off Cape Race, Newfoundland.
During the war, Fort Charlotte was one of four forts where Acadians were imprisoned over the nine years of the Expulsion of the Acadians. The Acadian prisoners in the vicinity of Halifax were subject to various degrees of confinement and dependence upon victualization, without the right to own land, from 1759 to 1768. According to historian Ronnie Gilles-LeBlanc there were approximately 1660 Acadians held prisoner on the island during the deportation, many Acadian men in the region were occupied with road building, wharf building, and wood cutting, and lodged close to where they worked. During the American Revolution the 84th Regiment of Foot were stationed at the fort to protect the harbour from American Privateers. Georges Island was part of the Halifax Defence Complex from the century to the Second World War, with Citadel Hill. For nearly two hundred years Georges Island was the scene of constant military activity, tales of executions and hidden tunnels surround the folklore associated with the mysterious island.
It had an Island Prison Camp, a Look Out Point, an Acadian Prison camp, the Georges Island Lighthouse was established on the island in 1876. The original wooden tower burned in 1917 and was replaced by a concrete tower in 1917. The light was manned until 1972 when it was automated and destaffed, although not yet open to the public, its fortifications named Fort Charlotte are currently undergoing restoration by the federal heritage department. Parks Canada has announced that hope to open the park to visitors within the next 3 to 5 years. In March 2009, the government designated $3.5 million to install water, sewer. “This would be the first step opening the island, ” said Carla Wheaton
Canada is a country in the northern half of North America. Canadas border with the United States is the worlds longest binational land border, the majority of the country has a cold or severely cold winter climate, but southerly areas are warm in summer. Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its territory being dominated by forest and tundra. It is highly urbanized with 82 per cent of the 35.15 million people concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, One third of the population lives in the three largest cities, Toronto and Vancouver. Its capital is Ottawa, and other urban areas include Calgary, Quebec City, Winnipeg. Various aboriginal peoples had inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Pursuant to the British North America Act, on July 1,1867, the colonies of Canada, New Brunswick and this began an accretion of provinces and territories to the mostly self-governing Dominion to the present ten provinces and three territories forming modern Canada.
With the Constitution Act 1982, Canada took over authority, removing the last remaining ties of legal dependence on the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy, with Queen Elizabeth II being the head of state. The country is officially bilingual at the federal level and it is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Its advanced economy is the eleventh largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources, Canadas long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. Canada is a country and has the tenth highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the ninth highest ranking in the Human Development Index. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, Canada is an influential nation in the world, primarily due to its inclusive values, years of prosperity and stability, stable economy, and efficient military.
While a variety of theories have been postulated for the origins of Canada. In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona, from the 16th to the early 18th century Canada referred to the part of New France that lay along the St. Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named The Canadas, until their union as the British Province of Canada in 1841. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the name for the new country at the London Conference. The transition away from the use of Dominion was formally reflected in 1982 with the passage of the Canada Act, that year, the name of national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day
Pedestrian zones are areas of a city or town reserved for pedestrian-only use and in which most or all automobile traffic may be prohibited. Converting a street or an area to use is called pedestrianisation. However, pedestrianisation can sometimes lead to reductions in business activity, property devaluation, in some cases traffic in surrounding areas may increase, due to displacement rather than substitution of car traffic. Pedestrian zones have a variety of approaches to human-powered vehicles such as bicycles, inline skates, skateboards. Some have a ban on anything with wheels, others ban certain categories, others segregate the human-powered wheels from foot traffic. Many Middle Eastern kasbahs have no wheeled traffic, but use donkey-driven or hand-driven carts for freight transport, the idea of separating pedestrians from wheeled traffic is an old one, dating back at least to the Renaissance. However, the earliest modern implementation of the idea in cities seems to date from about 1800, separated shopping arcades were constructed throughout Europe in the 19th century, precursors of modern shopping malls.
The first pedestrianisation of an existing street seems to have taken place around 1929 in Essen and this was in a very narrow shopping street that could not accommodate both vehicular and pedestrian traffic. Two other German cities followed this model in the early 1930s, by 1955 twenty-one German cities had closed at least one street to traffic, although only four were true pedestrian streets, designed for the purpose. At this time pedestrianisation was not seen as a traffic restraint policy, pedestrianisation was common in the United States during the 1950s and 60s as downtown businesses attempted to compete with new suburban shopping malls. However, most of these initiatives were not successful in the long term, a car-free zone is different from a typical pedestrian zone, in that it implies a development largely predicated on modes of transport other than the car. A pedestrian zone may be more limited in scope, for example a single square or street being for pedestrians. A number of towns and cities in Europe have never allowed motor vehicles, archetypal examples are, which occupies many islands in a lagoon, divided by and accessed from canals.
The city has been car-free for more than three decades, motor traffic stops at the car park at the head of the viaduct from the mainland, and water transport or walking takes over from there. However, motor vehicles are allowed on the nearby Lido, mount Athos, an autonomous monastic state under the sovereignty of Greece, does not permit automobiles on its territory. Trucks and work-related vehicles only are in use there, the medieval city of Mdina in Malta does not allow automobiles past the city walls. It is known as the Silent City because of the absence of traffic in the city. Sark, an island in the English Channel, is a zone where only bicycles, carriages
A hotel is an establishment that provides paid lodging on a short-term basis. Small, lower-priced hotels may offer only the most basic guest services and facilities, Hotel rooms are usually numbered to allow guests to identify their room. Some boutique, high-end hotels have custom decorated rooms, some hotels offer meals as part of a room and board arrangement. In the United Kingdom, a hotel is required by law to serve food, in Japan, capsule hotels provide a tiny room suitable only for sleeping and shared bathroom facilities. The precursor to the hotel was the inn of medieval Europe. For a period of about 200 years from the mid-17th century, inns began to cater to richer clients in the mid-18th century. One of the first hotels in a sense was opened in Exeter in 1768. Hotels proliferated throughout Western Europe and North America in the early 19th century, Hotel operations vary in size and cost. Most hotels and major hospitality companies have set standards to classify hotel types. Full service hotels often contain upscale full-service facilities with a number of full service accommodations, an on-site full service restaurant.
Boutique hotels are independent, non-branded hotels that often contain upscale facilities. Small to medium-sized hotel establishments offer a limited amount of on-site amenities, economy hotels are small to medium-sized hotel establishments that offer basic accommodations with little to no services. Extended stay hotels are small to medium-sized hotels that offer full service accommodations compared to a traditional hotel. Timeshare and destination clubs are a form of property ownership involving ownership of a unit of accommodation for seasonal usage. A motel is a small-sized low-rise lodging with direct access to rooms from the car park. Boutique hotels are typically hotels with an environment or intimate setting. A number of hotels have entered the public consciousness through popular culture, some hotels are built specifically as a destination in itself, for example at casinos and holiday resorts. The organizational chart and volume of job positions and hierarchy varies by size and class
Victoria Park, Halifax, Nova Scotia
Victoria Park is an urban park on Spring Garden Road in Halifax, Nova Scotia, across from the Halifax Public Gardens. The North British Society erected various monuments and statues, Rabbie Burns, Sir Walter Scott and William Alexander, at the south end of the park is the Sidney Culverwell Oland Memorial Fountain. Lawson created the memorial to Robert Burns in Ayr, inaugurated in 1892, other versions were circulated to Dublin, Montreal, Winnipeg and elsewhere. On the base of the Rabbie Burns statue are commemorations of the poems, The Cotter’s Saturday Night – “From scenes like these old Scotia’s grandeur springs. ”Right, Tam O’Shanter’s Ride – “Ae spring brought off her master hale but left behind her ain grey tail. ”Left, The Jolly Beggars and Liberty - A Cantata Back, To a Mountain Daisy – “Wee, crimson-tipped flow’r
RBC Waterside Centre
The RBC Waterside Centre is a commercial development in Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada built by local real estate developer Armour Group. The original six buildings occupy a block facing the Halifax waterfront bounded by Upper Water Street, Duke Street, Hollis Street. It includes the oldest storefront in Halifax and the site of the famous 18th-century tavern “The Great Pontack”, the buildings have housed commercial and retail tenants, but Armour group has said that the buildings are no longer economical and their replacements by facades should be seen as restoration. The proposed development has split municipal politicians in Halifax and those opposed, such as the Heritage Trust of Nova Scotia, say that Halifax is losing its small and dwindling number of heritage buildings which are a resource for culture and tourism. Supporters like the Downtown Halifax Business Commission say that developers should be given a free rein to promote economic activity, the debate led Nova Scotia’s Conservative Premier Rodney MacDonald to intervene in the citys politics in support of the development and demolition.
Almost all of the presenters at public hearings in September 2008 opposed the project, the move was seen as key to reviving the Halifax waterfront and Halifaxs downtown tourism. Heritage proponents have argued that the pending demolition underscores Halifaxs weak heritage laws, the development was rejected by the council of Halifax Regional Municipality in a tie vote on October 21,2008. The head of Armour Group, Ben McCrea, initially said he would not appeal as it would create bad publicity, the Board overturned Halifax councils decision on March 26,2009, and Halifax council voted on April 7 not to appeal the Boards decision. The development was completed by early 2014. Royal Bank held an open to students and recent graduates of the adjacent Nova Scotia College of Art. RBC moved to the Waterside Centre from their old George Street location over a weekend in August 2014, an opening ceremony for the new building was held on 11 September 2014. The building achieved LEED Gold certification in February 2016, project profile at Armour Group website
The Westin Nova Scotian
The Westin Nova Scotian is a Canadian hotel located in Halifax, Nova Scotia and operated by New Castle Hotels and Resorts. It was built in 1928 by the Canadian National Railway as the Nova Scotian Hotel and after changes of owners. The hotel has been called Halifaxs grande dame and has played host to dignitaries, royalty. The hotel was built by the Canadian National Railways, construction began in 1928 and it opened on 23 June 1930 as the Nova Scotian Hotel. The hotel was connected by an interior walkway to the Halifax Railway Station. The hotel, like others opened by Canadian National Hotels, was designed by Archibald and Schofield, comprising the Canadian architects John Smith Archibald and it was designed as a complex with the Halifax railway station and the Cornwallis Park across the street. The central axis of the park is aligned with the front entrance of the Nova Scotian, the hotel had 130 rooms and five suites over eight storeys. The Atlantic Ballroom could accommodate up to 275 dinner guests, a new wing was built to the north in 1959, adding 161 more rooms including nine more suites.
In 1966, the name was changed to the Hotel Nova Scotian, Elizabeth II, Queen of Canada has stayed in the hotel twice, once in the 1950s and once in the 1970s. Prince Charles and Princess Diana attended a dinner on 15 June 1983 at the Hotel Nova Scotian hosted by Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau. The 700 guests enjoyed a dinner of Canadian wines and cuisine, a crowd of thousands grew outside the hotel hoping to catch a glimpse of the couple before they returned to the HMY Britannia for their departure from Halifax. The hotel was sold by Canadian National Hotels in 1981 when that chain divested all of its properties in the early 1980s and it was purchased by Revenue Hotels and in 1989 Hilton Hotels took over management and the name changed to the Halifax Hilton. Hilton invested $15 million to upgrade the hotel, Revenue Hotels sought to turn the hotel into a casino, but the bid failed. A company was hired to demolish the hotel and it was saved when the property was purchased, in April 1996, by New Castle Hotels and Resorts of Connecticut.
The hotel was only a week away from demolition. An additional $4 million was put into renovating the hotel and it reopened on 1 December 1996 as The Westin Nova Scotian, the hotel today is a historic 15-storey structure overlooking Cornwallis Park to the west and the seaport to the east. Cruise ships still regularly dock alongside the hotel and the adjacent railway station offers regular service to Montreal via the Ocean. There are now 310 rooms in the hotel, including 10 suites, the Crown Suite, on the 11th floor, offers sweeping views of Halifax Harbour and is where Queen Elizabeth II stayed in the past