A shopping mall is a modern, chiefly North American, term for a form of shopping precinct or shopping center, in which one or more buildings form a complex of shops representing merchandisers with interconnecting walkways that enable customers to walk from unit to unit. A shopping arcade is a specific type of shopping precinct, distinguished in English for mall shopping by the fact that connecting walkways are not owned by a single proprietor and are in open air. Shopping malls in 2017 accounted for 8% of retailing space in the United States. Many early shopping arcades such as the Burlington Arcade in London, the Galleria Vittorio Emanuele II in Milan, numerous arcades in Paris are famous and still trading. However, many smaller arcades have been demolished, replaced with large centers or "malls" accessible by vehicle. Technical innovations such as electric lighting and escalators were introduced from the late 19th century. From the late 20th century, entertainment venues such as movie theaters and restaurants began to be added.
As a single built structure, early shopping centers were architecturally significant constructions, enabling wealthier patrons to buy goods in spaces protected from the weather. In places around the world, the term shopping centre is used in Europe and South America. Mall is a term used predominantly in North America. Outside of North America, "shopping precinct" and "shopping arcade" are used. In North America, Persian Gulf countries, India, the term shopping mall is applied to enclosed retail structures, while shopping centre refers to open-air retail complexes. In the United Kingdom and Ireland, "malls" are referred to as shopping centres. Mall refers to either a shopping mall – a place where a collection of shops all adjoin a pedestrian area – or an pedestrianized street that allows shoppers to walk without interference from vehicle traffic. In North America, mall is used to refer to a large shopping area composed of a single building which contains multiple shops "anchored" by one or more department stores surrounded by a parking lot, while the term "arcade" is more used in the United Kingdom, to refer to a narrow pedestrian-only street covered or between spaced buildings.
The majority of British shopping centres are located in city centres found in old and historic shopping districts and surrounded by subsidiary open air shopping streets. Large examples include West Quay in Southampton. In addition to the inner city shopping centres, large UK conurbations will have large out-of-town "regional malls" such as the Metrocentre in Gateshead; these centres were built in the 1980s and 1990s, but planning regulations prohibit the construction of any more. Out-of-town shopping developments in the UK are now focused on retail parks, which consist of groups of warehouse style shops with individual entrances from outdoors. Planning policy prioritizes the development of existing town centres. Westfield Stratford City, in Stratford, is the largest shopping centre in Europe with over 330 shops, 50 restaurants and an 11 screen cinema and Westfield London is the largest inner-city shopping center in Europe. Bullring, Birmingham is the busiest shopping centre in the UK welcoming over 36.5 million shoppers in its opening year.
There are a reported 222 malls in Europe. In 2014, these malls had combined sales of $12.47 billion. This represented a 10% bump in revenues from the prior year. One of the earliest examples of public shopping areas comes from ancient Rome, in forums where shopping markets were located. One of the earliest public shopping centers is Trajan's Market in Rome located in Trajan's Forum. Trajan's Market was built around 100-110 CE by Apollodorus of Damascus, it is thought to be the world's oldest shopping center – a forerunner of today's shopping mall; the Grand Bazaar of Istanbul was built in the 15th century and is still one of the largest covered shopping centers in the world, with more than 58 streets and 4,000 shops. Numerous other covered shopping arcades, such as the 19th-century Al-Hamidiyah Souq in Damascus, might be considered as precursors to the present-day shopping mall. Isfahan's Grand Bazaar, covered, dates from the 10th century; the 10-kilometer-long, covered Tehran's Grand Bazaar has a lengthy history.
The oldest continuously occupied shopping mall in the world is to be the Chester Rows. Dating back at least to the 13th century, these covered walkways housed shops, with storage and accommodation for traders on various levels. Different rows specialized in different goods, such as'Bakers Row' or'Fleshmongers Row'. Gostiny Dvor in St. Petersburg, which opened in 1785, may be regarded as one of the first purposely-built mall-type shopping complexes, as it consisted of more than 100 shops covering an area of over 53,000 m2; the Marché des Enfants Rouges in Paris still runs today. The Oxford Covered Market in Oxford, England still runs today; the Passage du Caire was opened in Paris in 1798. The Burlington Arcade in London was opened in 1819; the Arcade
Harrisburg is the capital city of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania in the United States, the county seat of Dauphin County. With a population of 49,192, it is the 15th largest city in the Commonwealth, it lies on the east bank of the Susquehanna River, 107 miles west of Philadelphia. Harrisburg is the anchor of the Susquehanna Valley metropolitan area, which had a 2017 estimated population of 571,903, making it the fourth most populous in Pennsylvania and 96th most populous in the United States. Harrisburg played a notable role in American history during the Westward Migration, the American Civil War, the Industrial Revolution. During part of the 19th century, the building of the Pennsylvania Canal and the Pennsylvania Railroad allowed Harrisburg to become one of the most industrialized cities in the Northeastern United States; the U. S. Navy ship USS Harrisburg, which served from 1918 to 1919 at the end of World War I, was named in honor of the city. In the mid-to-late 20th century, the city's economic fortunes fluctuated with its major industries consisting of government, heavy manufacturing and food services.
The Pennsylvania Farm Show, the largest free indoor agriculture exposition in the United States, was first held in Harrisburg in 1917 and has been held there every early-to-mid January since then. Harrisburg hosts an annual outdoor sports show, the largest of its kind in North America, an auto show, which features a large static display of new as well as classic cars and is renowned nationwide, Motorama, a two-day event consisting of a car show, motocross racing, remote control car racing, more. Harrisburg is known for the Three Mile Island accident, which occurred on March 28, 1979, near Middletown. In 2010 Forbes rated Harrisburg as the second best place in the U. S. to raise a family. Despite the city's recent financial troubles, in 2010 The Daily Beast website ranked 20 metropolitan areas across the country as being recession-proof, the Harrisburg region landed at No. 7. The financial stability of the region is in part due to the high concentration of state and federal government agencies.
Harrisburg's site along the Susquehanna River is thought to have been inhabited by Native Americans as early as 3000 BC. Known to the Native Americans as "Peixtin", or "Paxtang", the area was an important resting place and crossroads for Native American traders, as the trails leading from the Delaware to the Ohio rivers, from the Potomac to the Upper Susquehanna intersected there; the first European contact with Native Americans in Pennsylvania was made by the Englishman, Captain John Smith, who journeyed from Virginia up the Susquehanna River in 1608 and visited with the Susquehanna tribe. In 1719, John Harris, Sr. an English trader, settled here and 14 years secured grants of 800 acres in this vicinity. In 1785, John Harris, Jr. made plans to lay out a town on his father's land, which he named Harrisburg. In the spring of 1785, the town was formally surveyed by William Maclay, a son-in-law of John Harris, Sr. In 1791, Harrisburg became incorporated, in October 1812 it was named the Pennsylvania state capital, which it has remained since.
The assembling here of the sectional Harrisburg Convention in 1827 led to the passage of the high protective-tariff bill of 1828. In 1839, Harrison and Tyler were nominated for President of the United States at the first national convention of the Whig Party of the United States, held in Harrisburg. Before Harrisburg gained its first industries, it was a scenic, pastoral town, typical of most of the day: compact and surrounded by farmland. In 1822, the impressive brick capitol was completed for $200,000, it was Harrisburg's strategic location. It was settled as a trading post in 1719 at a location important to Westward expansion; the importance of the location was. The Susquehanna River flowed west to east at this location, providing a route for boat traffic from the east; the head of navigation was a short distance northwest of the town, where the river flowed through the pass. Persons arriving from the east by boat had to exit at Harrisburg and prepare for an overland journey westward through the mountain pass.
Harrisburg assumed importance as a provisioning stop at this point where westward bound pioneers transitioned from river travel to overland travel. It was because of its strategic location that the state legislature selected the small town of Harrisburg to become the state capital in 1812; the grandeur of the Colonial Revival capitol dominated the quaint town. The streets were orderly and platted in grid pattern; the Pennsylvania Canal was coursed the length of the town. The residential houses were situated on only a few city blocks stretching southward from the capitol, they were one story. No factories were present but there were blacksmith shops and other businesses. During the American Civil War, Harrisburg was a significant training center for the Union Army, with tens of thousands of troops passing through Camp Curtin, it was a major rail center for the Union and a vital link between the Atlantic coast and the Midwest, with several railroads running through the city and spanning the Susquehanna River.
As a result of this importance, it was a target of General Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia during its two invasions; the first time during the 1862 Maryland Campaign, when Lee planned to capture the city after taking Harpers Ferry, West Virginia, but was prevented from d
The National Railroad Passenger Corporation, doing business as Amtrak, is a passenger railroad service that provides medium- and long-distance intercity service in the contiguous United States and to nine Canadian cities. Founded in 1971 as a quasi-public corporation to operate many U. S. passenger rail services, it receives a combination of state and federal subsidies but is managed as a for-profit organization. Amtrak's headquarters is located one block west of Union Station in Washington, D. C. Amtrak serves more than 500 destinations in 46 states and three Canadian provinces, operating more than 300 trains daily over 21,400 miles of track. Amtrak owns 623 miles of this track and operates an additional 132 miles of track; some track sections allow trains to run as fast as 150 mph. In fiscal year 2018, Amtrak served 31.7 million passengers and had $3.4 billion in revenue, while employing more than 20,000 people. Nearly 87,000 passengers ride more than 300 Amtrak trains on a daily basis. Nearly two-thirds of passengers come from the 10 largest metropolitan areas.
The name Amtrak is a portmanteau of the words America and trak, the latter itself a sensational spelling of track. In 1916, 98% of all commercial intercity travelers in the United States moved by rail, the remaining 2% moved by inland waterways. Nearly 42 million passengers used railways as primary transportation. Passenger trains were owned and operated by the same owned companies that operated freight trains; as the 20th century progressed, patronage declined in the face of competition from buses, air travel, the automobile. New streamlined diesel-powered trains such as the Pioneer Zephyr were popular with the traveling public but could not reverse the trend. By 1940, railroads held just 67 percent of commercial passenger-miles in the United States. In real terms, passenger-miles had fallen by 40 % from 42 billion to 25 billion. Traffic surged during World War II, aided by troop movement and gasoline rationing; the railroad's market share surged with a massive 94 billion passenger-miles. After the war, railroads rejuvenated their overworked and neglected passenger fleets with fast and luxurious streamliners.
These new trains brought only temporary relief to the overall decline. As postwar travel exploded, passenger travel percentages of the overall market share fell to 46% by 1950, 32% by 1957; the railroads had lost money on passenger service since the Great Depression, but deficits reached $723 million in 1957. For many railroads, these losses threatened financial viability; the causes of this decline were debated. The National Highway System and airports, both funded by the government, competed directly with the railroads, who paid for their own infrastructure. Progressive Era rate regulation limited the railroad's ability to turn a profit. Railroads faced antiquated work rules and inflexible relationships with trade unions. To take one example, workers continued to receive a day's pay for 100-to-150-mile work days. Streamliners covered that in two hours. Matters approached a crisis in the 1960s. Passenger service route-miles fell from 107,000 miles in 1958 to 49,000 miles in 1970, the last full year of private operation.
The diversion of most U. S. Postal Service mail from passenger trains to trucks and freight trains in late 1967 deprived those trains of badly needed revenue. In direct response, the Atchison and Santa Fe Railway filed to discontinue 33 of its remaining 39 trains, ending all passenger service on one of the largest railroads in the country; the equipment the railroads had ordered after World War II was now 20 years old, worn out, in need of replacement. As passenger service declined various proposals were brought forward to rescue it; the 1961 Doyle Report proposed. Similar proposals failed to attract support; the federal government passed the High Speed Ground Transportation Act of 1965 to fund pilot programs in the Northeast Corridor, but this did nothing to address passenger deficits. In late 1969 multiple proposals emerged in the United States Congress, including equipment subsidies, route subsidies, lastly, a "quasi-public corporation" to take over the operation of intercity passenger trains.
Matters were brought to a head on March 5, 1970, when the Penn Central, the largest railroad in the Northeast United States and teetering on bankruptcy, filed to discontinue 34 of its passenger trains. In October 1970, Congress passed, President Richard Nixon signed into law, the Rail Passenger Service Act. Proponents of the bill, led by the National Association of Railroad Passengers, sought government funding to ensure the continuation of passenger trains, they conceived the National Railroad Passenger Corporation, a private entity that would receive taxpayer funding and assume operation of intercity passenger trains. The original working brand name for NRPC was Railpax, but shortly before the company started operating it was changed to Amtrak. There were several key provisions: Any railroad operating intercity passenger service could contract with the NRPC, thereby joining the national system. Participating railroads bought into the NRPC using a formula based on their recent intercity passenger losses.
The purchase price could be satisfied either by cash or rolling stock. Any participating railroad was freed of the obligation to operate intercity passenger service after May 1, 1971, except for those services chosen by the Department of Transportation as part of a "basic system" of servic
City Island (Pennsylvania)
City Island is a mile-long island in the Susquehanna River between Harrisburg and Wormleysburg, Pennsylvania in the United States. It is used for leisure and sports activities, its previous names have included Turkey Island, Maclay's Island, Forster's Island and Hargast Island. The island contains archaeological remains of the Susquehannocks and the Iroquois tribes, who at one time established settlements here. During the initial development of Harrisburg, the island was only able to be reached by boat, until 1817 when the Camelback Bridge, site of the present-day Market Street Bridge, was completed. In 1903, the Harrisburg Athletics professional baseball team arrived at the park, but the team folded. By the 1980s, concerts were held in the old field, left over, such as Metallica and Grateful Dead. However, major bands stopped coming to Harrisburg when the amusement tax was created in 1982; the island is the site of FNB Field, the home of the Harrisburg Senators minor baseball team, Penn FC, a professional soccer team.
It features the Skyline Sports Complex, the home of the Central Penn Piranha, a semi-professional football team which belongs to the North American Football League. The complex is open year-round to the public, provides a multi-purpose sports field, sand volleyball courts, a fitness center; the island provides family-based amusements such as the 2 ft narrow gauge City Island Railroad, carousel, "Pride of the Susquehanna" paddlewheel riverboat, horse-drawn carriage rides, batting cages, miniature golf, a riverside village and a concrete beach. The island can be reached from either side of the Susquehanna River by Market Street Bridge or, from the Harrisburg side and by pedestrians and cyclists only, by Walnut Street Bridge. You can see a full list of things to do on City Island's website Harrisburg Senators Penn FC City Island Fun Arcade and Batting Cages City Island was the proposed location of: A CorridorOne regional rail station; the National Sports Hall of Fame
Capitol District (Harrisburg, Pennsylvania)
The Capitol District is a neighborhood adjacent to the state capitol in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. It is delineated by Forster St. to the North, State St. to the South, 3rd St. to the East, the Susquehanna River to the west. This neighborhood borders the large Pennsylvania State Capitol Complex and has easy access to the downtown Harrisburg; the Capital District is home to Saint Patrick's Cathedral, many beautiful houses, several small bistros. List of Harrisburg neighborhoods
Midtown is a neighborhood in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. Its zip code is 17102; the Midtown neighborhood is delineated by Forster Street to the south, Maclay Street to the north, 7th Street to the east, the Susquehanna River to the west. Midtown is home to the Pennsylvania Governor's Mansion and the Broad Street Market, the oldest continually operated street market in the country; the section of Midtown from Reily to Kelker Streets and 2nd to 3rd Streets is known as Engleton. Its Queen Anne style homes were built in the 1890s by Benjamin Engle; the Old Uptown, Old Midtown, Old Fox Ridge historic districts listed on the National Register of Historic Places are all contained within the Midtown neighborhood. Olde Uptown is a neighborhood of large homes built in the early 1900s between Kelker and Maclay streets; the area, crime ridden for many years, is being aggressively renovated and rehabbed. Much of this neighborhood lies within the Old Uptown Historic District; as of the 2010 census there were 7,628 people living in Midtown.
The racial makeup of Midtown was 53.4% White, 36.6% Black or African-American, 2.3% Asian and 8.4% were Hispanic or Latino of any race. Persons aged 25–29 make up a large portion of the total population, at 13.6%. 5.5% of the total population consists of unmarried partners. At the corner 3rd and Reily streets, the Midtown Scholar Bookstore and Famous Reading Cafe opened in 2008 two blocks south near the corner of Verbeke. Considered the largest used academic bookstore between Chicago and New York, it contains thousands of used books and otherwise from a wide range of fields; the Midtown Cinema movie theater is Harrisburg's only first-run independent and foreign film theater. In 2007, Harrisburg Area Community College opened its new Midtown campus at the corner of 3rd and Reilly streets in the renovated Evangelical Press Building; the building holds many of the college's technical programs and has a capacity to hold several hundred students. In the future, a garden and walkway will be built nearby to connect the campus with a new parking garage and other new classroom facilities to be built.
Midtown is known for its sizable gay population, while most of Harrisburg's gay bars and establishments are in the Capitol District on the edge of Midtown. The Harrisburg Midtown Arts Center is under construction on 3rd street. Several investors from New York City announced plans to build a 34,000-square-foot art gallery, 10,000-square-foot playhouse and film studio inside the abandoned Police Athletic League building. HMAC runs the Stage on Herr, a bar and performance space just off 3rd on Herr St. North Third street is considered "Coffee Row" for its collection of coffee shops including Elementary Coffee in Broad Street Market and the Famous Reading Cafe. Much of Midtown fell into disrepair in the 1970s and 1980s after the Hurricane Agnes floods which damaged many homes in the Old Uptown area. However, since the 1990s the neighborhood has gentrified drastically along the Penn and Green street corridors; this is due to a strong housing stock for renovation and proximity to the Central Business District, experiencing growth itself.
Today, gentrification is spreading as many historic homes are getting rehabbed and upgraded throughout the northern and eastern part of Midtown. Capitol Heights and Governor's Square are two new housing developments that are under construction. Together, they are adding several hundred new homes to Midtown. List of Harrisburg neighborhoods Friends of Midtown Midtown Scholar Bookstore Midtown Square Action Council Midtown Cinema Midtown Arts Center Green Street Properties Midtown Development, LLC Powers & Associates, LLC WCI Partners, LP
Old Midtown Historic District (Harrisburg)
The Old Midtown Historic District is a historic district in the Midtown neighborhood of Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. The district is located from Forster to Verbeke, Front to Third street, it represents the first urbanized neighborhood in the city of Harrisburg. The area of Third street near Verbeke is known as the Historic Midtown Market District and is home to many unique boutiques and shops. Broad Street Market Harrisburg Midtown Arts Center Historic Harrisburg Resource Center Holocaust Memorial Sunken Gardens at Riverfront Park List of Harrisburg neighborhoods Friends of Midtown HarrisburgPA.gov—City Wide Sights: Historic Midtown and Old Uptown National Register - Inventory