Cutchery or Taluk Cutchery or Taluk Kacheri is a neighbourhood of the city of Kollam. It is the 49th ward in Kollam Municipal Corporation; the place got the name Cutchery from a similar word in Malayalam: കച ചേരി. Kollam Taluk office is situated at Cutchery; the place Cutchery got this name because of the presence of Kollam Taluk office situated at this place. A multi-level new Taluk office complex is under construction here. Cutchery is under the Central Zone-II of Kollam city corporation; the headquarters of Kollam Taluk is situated at Cutchery. Historic Iron Bridge in Kollam city is situated at Cutchery. Cutchery junction is an important road junction connecting the present National Highway-66 with Downtown road and Asramam Link Road. Kollam District Hospital, Kollam KSRTC Bus Station and garage are close to Cutchery. Our Lady of Velankanni Shrine is situated at Cutcehry. A good number of residential apartments and hotels are there in Cutchery. Famous Mahatma Gandhi Peace Foundation is situated at Cutchery in Kollam city.
Cutchery junction is an emerging transport hub of Kollam city as the place is the meeting point of Kerala State Water Transport Department's boat yard and Kerala State Road Transport Corporation's only bus station in the city. Taluk Kacheri junction has been included into the city's junction improvements project along with Chinnakada junction. Kollam Municipal Corporation has a plan to improve the road from Kappalandi Mukku – Taluk Kacheri junction via Asramam as one among the 3 inner ring roads in the city; as per the research report done by CRISIL for Draft City Development Plan of Kollam-2041, the passenger car equivalent in Taluk Kacheri junction during peak hours is 6,366, highest in the city and its average per day value is 53,522. The road section from Taluk office junction to High School junction in Kollam city is over-utilized to the extent of 311% of its capacity; as per the National Transportation Planning and Research Centre, Taluk office junction is one of the most accident-prone areas in Kollam city.
To avoid the traffic woes in Cutchery junction, now the Government of Kerala is constructing a new bridge parallel to the historic Iron bridge in Kollam city. Kollam KSRTC Bus Station & Garage KSWTD Boat Jetty, Kollam Kollam Taluk Office Post Office - 691013 KTDC Tamarind Hotel House boats yard, Kollam Hotel See Bee Kollam Chinnakada RP Mall Downtown Kollam
The Kingdom of Travancore was an Indian kingdom from 1500 until 1949. It was ruled by the Travancore Royal Family from Padmanabhapuram, Thiruvananthapuram. At its zenith, the kingdom covered most of modern-day central and southern Kerala with the Thachudaya Kaimal's enclave of Irinjalakuda Koodalmanikkam temple in the neighbouring Kingdom of Cochin, as well as the district of Kanyakumari, now in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu; the official flag of the state was red with a dextrally-coiled silver conch shell at its center. In the early 19th century, the kingdom became a princely state of the British Empire; the Travancore Government took many progressive steps on the socio-economic front and during the reign of Maharajah Sri Chithira Thirunal Balarama Varma, Travancore became the second most prosperous princely state in British India, with reputed achievements in education, political administration, public work and social reforms. The regions had many small independent kingdoms. During the peak time of Chera-Chola-Pandya, this region became a part of the Chera Kingdom.
During that era, when the region was part of the Chera empire, it was still known as Thiruvazhumkode. It was contracted to Thiruvankode, anglicised by the English to Travancore. In course of time, the Ay kingdom, part of the Chera empire, which ruled the Thiruvazhumkode area, became independent, the land was called Aayi desam or Aayi rajyam, meaning'Aayi territory'; the Aayis controlled the land from present-day Kollam district in the north, through Thiruvananthapuram district, all in Kerala, to the Kanyakumari district. There were the major one at Kollam and a subsidiary one at Thrippapur; the kingdom was thus called Venad. Kings of Venad had, at various times, travelled from Kollam and built residential palaces in Thiruvithamcode and Kalkulam. Thiruvithamcode became the capital of the Thrippapur Swaroopam, the country was referred to as Thiruvithamcode by Europeans after the capital had been moved in 1601 to Padmanabhapuram, near Kalkulam; the Chera empire had dissolved by around 1100 and thereafter the territory comprised numerous small kingdoms until the time of Marthanda Varma who, as king of Venad from 1729, employed brutal methods to unify them.
During his reign, Thiruvithamcode or Travancore became the official name. The Kingdom of Travancore was located at the extreme southern tip of the Indian subcontinent. Geographically, Travancore was divided into three climatically distinct regions: the eastern highlands, the central midlands, the western lowlands. Venad was a former state at the tip of the Indian Subcontinent, traditionally ruled by rajas known as the Venattadis. Till the end of the 11th century AD, it was a small principality in the Ay Kingdom; the Ays were the earliest ruling dynasty in southern Kerala, who, at their zenith, ruled over a region from Nagercoil in the south to Trivandrum in the north. Their capital during the first Sangam age was in Aykudi and towards the end of the 8th century AD, was at Quilon. Though a series of attacks by the resurgent Pandyas between the 7th and 8th centuries caused the decline of the Ays, the dynasty was powerful till the beginning of the 10th century; when the Ay power diminished, Venad became the southernmost principality of the Second Chera Kingdom.
An invasion of the Cholas into Venad caused the destruction of Kollam in 1096. However, the Chera capital, Mahodayapuram fell in the subsequent Chola attack, which compelled the Chera king, Rama varma Kulasekara, to shift his capital to Kollam. Thus, Rama Varma Kulasekara, the last emperor of the Chera dynasty, is the founder of the Venad royal house, the title of the Chera kings, was thenceforth kept by the rulers of Venad, thus the end of the Second Chera dynasty in the 12th century marks the independence of Venad. In the second half of the 12th century, two branches of the Ay Dynasty and Chirava, merged in the Venad family, which set up the tradition of designating the ruler of Venad as Chirava Moopan and the heir-apparent as Thrippappur Moopan. While the Chrirava Moopan had his residence at Kollam, the Thrippappur Moopan resided at his palace in Thrippappur, 9 miles north of Thiruvananthapuram, was vested with the authority over the temples of Venad kingdom the Sri Padmanabhaswamy temple.
The history of Travancore began with Marthanda Varma, who inherited the kingdom of Venad, expanded it into Travancore during his reign. After defeating a union of feudal lords and establishing internal peace, he expanded the kingdom of Venad through a series of military campaigns from Kanyakumari in the south to the borders of Kochi in the north during his 29-year rule; this rule included Travancore-Dutch War between the Dutch East India Company, allied to some of these kingdoms and Travancore. In 1741, Travancore won the Battle of Colachel against the Dutch East India Company, resulting in the complete eclipse of Dutch power in the region. In this battle, the admiral of the Dutch, Eustachius De Lannoy, was captured and defected to Travancore. De Lannoy was appointed as Captain of His Highness' Body-guard and Senior Admiral and he modernised the Travancore army by introducing firearms and artillery. Travancore became the most dominant state in the Kerala region by defeating the powerful Zamorin of Kozhikode in the battle of Purakkad in 1755.
Ramayyan Dalawa, the Prime Minister of Marthanda Varma played an important role in this consolidation and expansion. On 3 J
Thamarakulam Thamarakkulam is a business centre and neighbourhood of Kollam city in Kerala, India. Thamarakulam is near Chinnakada. Ganapathy temple in Thamarakulam is a famous Hindu temple and worship centre in Kollam district. Caparisoned elephants from this temple is an unavoidable thing during the celebrations of Kollam Pooram.'Ezhunnellippu' of elephants from Thamarakulam temple is a regular ritual of Kollam Pooram. Kollam Development Authority office is situated at Thamarakulam; the government of Kerala organized an urban development meet in the name'Partner Kerala' during the month February, 2014. Kollam Municipal Corporation and Kollam Development Authority submitted some proposals in that meet for Thamarakulam, they are,: Kollam Municipal Corporation unveiled its plan to construct a commercial complex-cum-convention centre and multilevel car parking at Thamarakulam at a total cost of Rs 178.53 crore. Kollam Development Authority proposed a shopping mall, office complex and exhibition-cum-trading centre for micro and medium enterprises at Thamarakkulam at a cost of Rs 80 crore.
Kollam Thangassery Mundakkal Chinnakada Andamukkam City Bus Stand
Kerala, locally known as Keralam, is a state on the southwestern, Malabar Coast of India. It was formed on 1 November 1956, following passage of the States Reorganisation Act, by combining Malayalam-speaking regions. Spread over 38,863 km2, Kerala is the twenty-second largest Indian state by area, it is bordered by Karnataka to the north and northeast, Tamil Nadu to the east and south, the Lakshadweep Sea and Arabian Sea to the west. With 33,387,677 inhabitants as per the 2011 Census, Kerala is the thirteenth-largest Indian state by population, it is divided into 14 districts with the capital being Thiruvananthapuram. Malayalam is the most spoken language and is the official language of the state; the Chera Dynasty was the first prominent kingdom based in Kerala. The Ay kingdom in the deep south and the Ezhimala kingdom in the north formed the other kingdoms in the early years of the Common Era; the region had been a prominent spice exporter since 3000 BCE. The region's prominence in trade was noted in the works of Pliny as well as the Periplus around 100 CE.
In the 15th century, the spice trade attracted Portuguese traders to Kerala, paved the way for European colonisation of India. At the time of Indian independence movement in the early 20th century, there were two major princely states in Kerala-Travancore State and the Kingdom of Cochin, they united to form the state of Thiru-Kochi in 1949. The Malabar region, in the northern part of Kerala had been a part of the Madras province of British India, which became a part of the Madras State post-independence. After the States Reorganisation Act, 1956, the modern-day state of Kerala was formed by merging the Malabar district of Madras State, the state of Thiru-Kochi, the taluk of Kasaragod in South Canara, a part of Madras State; the economy of Kerala is the 12th-largest state economy in India with ₹7.73 lakh crore in gross domestic product and a per capita GDP of ₹163,000. Kerala has the lowest positive population growth rate in India, 3.44%. The state has witnessed significant emigration to Arab states of the Persian Gulf during the Gulf Boom of the 1970s and early 1980s, its economy depends on remittances from a large Malayali expatriate community.
Hinduism is practised by more than half of the population, followed by Christianity. The culture is a synthesis of Aryan, Dravidian and European cultures, developed over millennia, under influences from other parts of India and abroad; the production of pepper and natural rubber contributes to the total national output. In the agricultural sector, tea, coffee and spices are important; the state's coastline extends for 595 kilometres, around 1.1 million people in the state are dependent on the fishery industry which contributes 3% to the state's income. The state has the highest media exposure in India with newspapers publishing in nine languages English and Malayalam. Kerala is one of the prominent tourist destinations of India, with backwaters, hill stations, Ayurvedic tourism and tropical greenery as its major attractions; the name Kerala has an uncertain etymology. One popular theory derives Kerala from alam; the word Kerala is first recorded as Keralaputra in a 3rd-century BCE rock inscription left by the Maurya emperor Ashoka, one of his edicts pertaining to welfare.
The inscription refers to the local ruler as Keralaputra. This contradicts the theory that Kera is from "coconut tree". At that time, one of three states in the region was called Cheralam in Classical Tamil: Chera and Kera are variants of the same word; the word Cheral refers to the oldest known dynasty of Kerala kings and is derived from the Proto-Tamil-Malayalam word for "lake". The earliest Sanskrit text to mention Kerala is the Aitareya Aranyaka of the Rigveda. Kerala is mentioned in the Ramayana and the Mahabharata, the two Hindu epics; the Skanda Purana mentions the ecclesiastical office of the Thachudaya Kaimal, referred to as Manikkam Keralar, synonymous with the deity of the Koodalmanikyam temple. Keralam may stem from the Classical Tamil chera alam; the Greco-Roman trade map. According to Tamil classic Purananuru, Chera king Senkuttuvan conquered the lands between Kanyakumari and the Himalayas. Lacking worthy enemies, he besieged the sea by throwing his spear into it. According to the 17th century Malayalam work Keralolpathi, the lands of Kerala were recovered from the sea by the axe-wielding warrior sage Parasurama, the sixth avatar of Vishnu.
Parasurama threw his axe across the sea, the water receded as far as it reached. According to legend, this new area of land extended from Gokarna to Kanyakumari; the land which rose from sea was filled with unsuitable for habitation. Out of respect and all snakes were appo
Mar Sabor and Mar Proth
Mar Sabor and Mar Proth who came to India along with Maruvan Sapir Iso were two Bishops who built and presided over a number of churches in the Kingdom of Travancore operating in accordance with Saint Thomas Christians. In 825 AD, the seaport of Quilon was part of the Venad Kingdom; the ruling monarch, Iyyanadikal Thiruvadikal, welcomed the monks on their arrival and showered them with special privileges and honours. Maruvan Sapir Iso built the Nilalkkal ashram near St. Thomas Church in Chayal, he died and buried in Chayal ashram. Mar Sabor and Mar Proth came from Dayro d-Mor Mattai,Ninaveh - is located atop Mount Alfaf in northern Iraq and is 20 kilometers from Mosul Mar Sabor and Mar Proth moved to various villages and established churches including Kadamattom St George Orthodox Syrian Church, Kothanalloor, Kadisha Church in Kollam, Kadisha Church in Kayamkulam and finally to present Thevalakkara Marth Mariam Orthodox Church, where they died and were buried. Parochial writers claim that Mar Sabor and Mar Proth came from Persia or Chaldea at the invitation of the King Kuleshakara of Quilon as an Authority for the Doctrine of Trinity against the background of a Shivate Revival of Advaita Vedanta propounded by Adi Shankara There is no documentary evidence that Kulasekhara invited Mar Sabor.
According to available records Mar Sabor had to flee Persia because of persecution of Christians by the Zoroastrian ruler.. The start of the Malayalam era referred to as Kollavarsham, is associated with Kollam; the era was started by these East Syrian Saints who settled in Korukeni Kollam, near to the present Kollam. Communal writers claim that the start of the ME has been dated to 825 AD, when a great convention was held in Kollam at the behest of King Kulashekhara. Kollam was an important town in that period. Velu Pillai's Manual does not show any documentary evidences, it is a mere narration of the imaginary stories of religious sects. The Hindu paper dated March 3, 2010, says that the research conducted by Dr. Jeyapraksh has established the fact that the Kollam varsha was fixed during the reign of Rajasekhara Varma Udayamarthanda. Two sessions of almanac experts took place in Kozhikode. Thed Kollam session decided to make the first day of the Malayalam month Chingam as the New Year day. V. Nagam Aiya in his Travancore State Manual records that in 822 AD two bishops Mar Sapor and Mar Peroz, settled in Quilon with their followers.
Two years the Malabar Era began and Quilon undoubtedly became the premier city of the Malabar region including Travancore and Cochin. Nagam Aiya wrote the State Manual without quoting evidences, he accepted the imaginary stories of communal writers. There is nothing in the Kerala archives that Mar Sabor founded the Thangasserry ports. Chera rulers were having commercial and maritime contacts with foreign countries long before Mar Sabor arrived at Kollam as a refugee. Sanghom literature speaks about Greek ships on Kerala coast. M. G. S. Narayanan in his paper on the Chera-Pandya conflict in the 8th–9th centuries, which led to the emergence of Venad or the Kingdom of Quilon writes, "It is not surprising that the Chera king, contemplating the development of the new harbour town at Kurakeni Kollam welcomed the monks and permitted him to introduce Syrian liturgy in worship other than Sanskrit liturgy following the shivite revival; this was the period. The foundation of Kollam in 825 A. D. must have coincided with this victory of Chera in the Vel province.
Therefore it is easy to understand the anxiety of the Chera king to please Vaishanavites and allow the Assyrian Monks to settle at Kollam so that the harbour might grow and compete with Nillakal further south which had passed under the control of the Pandya. The Syrian Christian Monks who took advantage of the situation were clever and resourceful. In the absence of materials for a detailed history, it is difficult to ascertain whether Mar Abo was a or missionary, he was both at the same time and there was no inherent contradiction between the two roles." Narayanan has referred to the enterprising spirit of Chera kings and how they welcomed merchants from abroad, this does not give special significance to the arrival of refugee monks. Narayanan writes in Cultural Symbiosis in Kerala that "By the time of the Syrian christian Copper Plates of the 9th century the foreign Christians and the Christians of Kerala who were just Nampoothiri Vaishnavites and Nairs had become part and parcel of the local village community."
"The deity of the Tarsa Church was referred to the tevar. An important offering to the tevar was the sacred oil lamp as in the case of contemporary Brahmanical temples, is an indication to the fact that their conception of religion was shaped by local culture." Narayanan would have been carried away by the works of some Christian writers when he wrote "Cultural Symbiosis"that local converts were'just Nampoothiri Vaishnavites". How could Christians become vaishnavites when the Bible categorically states that Christians should not worship pagan gods? Moreover, Persian missionaries. Vaishnava Vishnu worship was alien to the Persians missionaries and to the local converts converted by them.. Most western writers were misled by the claim of parochial writers. Logan writes: " The final Brahman immigration seems to have occurred in or about the eighth century A. D. and Christian colonies had arrived in the country long before that time.: Narayanan wanted to show the existence of various religious cultures in the Chera
India known as the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh largest country by area and with more than 1.3 billion people, it is the second most populous country as well as the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives, while its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia; the Indian subcontinent was home to the urban Indus Valley Civilisation of the 3rd millennium BCE. In the following millennium, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism began to be composed. Social stratification, based on caste, emerged in the first millennium BCE, Buddhism and Jainism arose. Early political consolidations took place under the Gupta empires. In the medieval era, Zoroastrianism and Islam arrived, Sikhism emerged, all adding to the region's diverse culture.
Much of the north fell to the Delhi Sultanate. The economy expanded in the 17th century in the Mughal Empire. In the mid-18th century, the subcontinent came under British East India Company rule, in the mid-19th under British Crown rule. A nationalist movement emerged in the late 19th century, which under Mahatma Gandhi, was noted for nonviolent resistance and led to India's independence in 1947. In 2017, the Indian economy was the world's sixth largest by nominal GDP and third largest by purchasing power parity. Following market-based economic reforms in 1991, India became one of the fastest-growing major economies and is considered a newly industrialised country. However, it continues to face the challenges of poverty, corruption and inadequate public healthcare. A nuclear weapons state and regional power, it has the second largest standing army in the world and ranks fifth in military expenditure among nations. India is a federal republic governed under a parliamentary system and consists of 29 states and 7 union territories.
A pluralistic and multi-ethnic society, it is home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats. The name India is derived from Indus, which originates from the Old Persian word Hindush, equivalent to the Sanskrit word Sindhu, the historical local appellation for the Indus River; the ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi, which translates as "The people of the Indus". The geographical term Bharat, recognised by the Constitution of India as an official name for the country, is used by many Indian languages in its variations, it is a modernisation of the historical name Bharatavarsha, which traditionally referred to the Indian subcontinent and gained increasing currency from the mid-19th century as a native name for India. Hindustan is a Middle Persian name for India, it was introduced into India by the Mughals and used since then. Its meaning varied, referring to a region that encompassed northern India and Pakistan or India in its entirety; the name may refer to either the northern part of India or the entire country.
The earliest known human remains in South Asia date to about 30,000 years ago. Nearly contemporaneous human rock art sites have been found in many parts of the Indian subcontinent, including at the Bhimbetka rock shelters in Madhya Pradesh. After 6500 BCE, evidence for domestication of food crops and animals, construction of permanent structures, storage of agricultural surplus, appeared in Mehrgarh and other sites in what is now Balochistan; these developed into the Indus Valley Civilisation, the first urban culture in South Asia, which flourished during 2500–1900 BCE in what is now Pakistan and western India. Centred around cities such as Mohenjo-daro, Harappa and Kalibangan, relying on varied forms of subsistence, the civilization engaged robustly in crafts production and wide-ranging trade. During the period 2000–500 BCE, many regions of the subcontinent transitioned from the Chalcolithic cultures to the Iron Age ones; the Vedas, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism, were composed during this period, historians have analysed these to posit a Vedic culture in the Punjab region and the upper Gangetic Plain.
Most historians consider this period to have encompassed several waves of Indo-Aryan migration into the subcontinent from the north-west. The caste system, which created a hierarchy of priests and free peasants, but which excluded indigenous peoples by labeling their occupations impure, arose during this period. On the Deccan Plateau, archaeological evidence from this period suggests the existence of a chiefdom stage of political organisation. In South India, a progression to sedentary life is indicated by the large number of megalithic monuments dating from this period, as well as by nearby traces of agriculture, irrigation tanks, craft traditions. In the late Vedic period, around the 6th century BCE, the small states and chiefdoms of the Ganges Plain and the north-western regions had consolidated into 16 major oligarchies and monarchies that were known as the mahajanapadas; the emerging urbanisation gave rise to non-Vedic religious movements, two of which became independent religions. Jainism came into prominence during the life of Mahavira.
Buddhism, based on the teachings of Gautama Buddha, attracted followers from all social classes excepting the middle
Dutch Malabar known by the name of its main settlement Cochin, was the title of a commandment of the Dutch East India Company on the Malabar Coast between 1661 and 1795, is part of what is today collectively referred to as Dutch India. Dutch presence in the region started with the capture of Portuguese Quilon, ended with the occupation of Malabar by the British in 1795, they possessed military outposts in 11 locations: Alleppey, Chendamangalam, Ponnani, Cranganore, Cannanore and Quilon. The Kingdom of Cochin was an ally of the Dutch East India Company; the Dutch enlarged the Royal Palace built by the Portuguese at Mattancheri for the King of Cochin, which from on became known as the "Dutch Palace". In 1744, an impressive palace called Bolgatty Palace, was erected on Bolghatty Island for the Dutch Governors; the Dutch contributed a monumental work called Hortus Indicus Malabaricus on the medicinal properties of Malabar plants. In Cochin, the Dutch established an orphanage for poor European children and a leper asylum on Vypin.
Although motivated by the lucrative pepper trade on Malabar, the primary aim for the Dutch in capturing the coast from the Portuguese was to secure Dutch Ceylon from Portuguese invasions. After failed attempts to capture the main Portuguese fort of Goa in 1604 and 1639, the Dutch decided to aim for the secondary Portuguese trading posts on the Malabar Coast. In 1650s the Dutch possessed only the unfortified factories at Cannanore, they took Quilon on 29 December 1658, but it was reconquered by the Portuguese on 14 April 1659. On February 10, 1661 the Dutch commander of Ceylon, Adriaan van der Meyden, came to Malabar with the intention of displacing the Portuguese, at Ayyacotta he had an interview with the Calicut prince, it was agreed that Calicut, the most powerful ruler in Malabar and an enemy of the Portuguese, was to conduct an attack on the Portuguese fort at Cranganore by land backed up by the Dutch Navy. According to the treaty between the two parties, Fort Cranganore was to be made over to Calicut after its successful capture.
Van der Meyden dispersed a Nair detachment sent to stop his advance on the way and appeared before Fort Palliport on February 16 1661. The Portuguese fled by the backwaters. On March 21, Rijckloff Van Goens signed a treaty with the local chief of Paliyam on a ship anchored off the coast. Dutch forces soon attacked the palace of the queen at Mattanceri. Subsequently, the queen was taken as a prisoner. In December 1661, Portuguese Quilon was captured by a Dutch expedition under Rijckloff Van Goens; this is regarded as the beginning of the Dutch presence in Malabar. On January 3, 1662 Van Goens was joined by the Calicut army in a siege of Fort Cranganore in the tropical heat. After a fortnight, the fort surrendered, the Dutch demolished the structure with the exception of the bastion, where they stationed a garrison. A new treaty was now signed between Van der Meyden. Calicut agreed to cede Fort Cranganore and Vypin to the Dutch after the capture of the Portuguese fort at Cochin; the allies moved towards Cochin and marched upon the palace of the Raja on 5 February 1662.
The raja was killed in the subsequent battle along with two of his juniors. The Dutch proceeded to besiege the Portuguese fort. Cochin and the chief of Paliyam provided supplies to the Dutch, who faced heroic Portuguese resistance during the prolonged siege; the Native rulers of Porca and Cembakasseri kept the besieged supplied with provisions. Though disrupted by monsoon rains and the deaths of the ruler of Calicut and important Dutch officers, the garrison capitulated on January 8, 1663; the terms of the capitulation were that all the unmarried Portuguese residents were returned to Europe, all married Portuguese and Mestiços were transferred to Goa. The last governor of Portuguese Cochin was Inácio Sarmento, it was said that about four thousand people were banished and decades of Portuguese supremacy in Malabar came to an end. Fort Cochin now became the primary trading post of the Dutch colony; the alliance between Calicut and the Dutch had no chance of crystallizing into a long lasting friendship.
The Zamorin of Calicut had sought Dutch cooperation so that he might once more recover his hold on the Cochin Raja. Hence his stipulation for the cession of Vypin and reduction of the Cochin Raja to the position of a Calicut tributary in the treaty of 1662, but the Dutch, having established themselves in Cochin and Calicut, asked them to fulfill their treaty obligations. It was in these circumstances, Calicut welcomed the British and allowed them to establish a factory at Calicut in 1664; the Dutch authorities in Amsterdam were alarmed and wrote to their officers in India to "spare no pains" to secure the expulsion of the British from Calicut. The Dutch attacked Cranganore; the Dutch at once summoned their allies, Thekkumkur, Paravur and Mangatt. Calicut forces, including Moplahs and supported by a Portuguese named Pacheco, were at first successful. After a year of desultory fighting the Calicut forces withdrew, the Dutch destroyed the Fort Round and built a bastion near Cranganore. In 1669, Dutch Malabar became a separate commandment of the Dutch East India Company.
In 1670, the Zamorin of Calicut ruler was persuaded by his prince to go to Cranganore to encourage the Nairs. But, the Dutch m