Bay Area Rapid Transit
Bay Area Rapid Transit is a rapid transit public transportation system serving the San Francisco Bay Area in California. The heavy rail elevated and subway system connects San Francisco and Oakland with urban and suburban areas in Alameda, Contra Costa, San Mateo counties. BART serves 48 stations along six routes on 112 miles of rapid transit lines, including a ten-mile spur line in eastern Contra Costa County which utilizes diesel multiple-unit trains and a 3.2-mile automated guideway transit line to the Oakland International Airport. With an average of 423,000 weekday passengers and 124.2 million annual passengers in fiscal year 2017, BART is the fifth-busiest heavy rail rapid transit system in the United States. BART is operated by the San Francisco Bay Area Rapid Transit District, formed in 1957; the initial system opened in stages from 1972 to 1974. As of late 2019, it is being expanded to San Jose with the Silicon Valley BART extensions; some of the Bay Area Rapid Transit system's current coverage area was once served by an electrified streetcar and suburban train system called the Key System.
This early 20th-century system once had regular transbay traffic across the lower deck of the Bay Bridge, but the system was dismantled in the 1950s, with its last transbay crossing in 1958, was superseded by highway travel. A 1950s study of traffic problems in the Bay Area concluded the most cost-effective solution for the Bay Area's traffic woes would be to form a transit district charged with the construction and operation of a new, high-speed rapid transit system linking the cities and suburbs. Formal planning for BART began with the setting up in 1957 of the Bay Area Rapid Transit District, a county-based special-purpose district body that governs the BART system; the district began with five members, all of which were projected to receive BART lines: Alameda County, Contra Costa County, the City and County of San Francisco, San Mateo County, Marin County. Although invited to participate, Santa Clara County supervisors elected not to join BART due to their dissatisfaction that the peninsula line only stopped at Palo Alto and that it interfered with suburban development in San Jose, preferring instead to concentrate on constructing freeways and expressways.
In 1962, San Mateo County supervisors voted to leave BART, saying their voters would be paying taxes to carry Santa Clara County residents. The district-wide tax base was weakened by San Mateo's departure, forcing Marin County to withdraw a month later. Despite the fact that Marin had voted in favor of BART participation at the 88% level, its marginal tax base could not adequately absorb its share of BART's projected cost. Another important factor in Marin's withdrawal was an engineering controversy over the feasibility of running trains on the lower deck of the Golden Gate Bridge, an extension forecast as late as three decades after the rest of the BART system; the withdrawals of Marin and San Mateo resulted in a downsizing of the original system plans, which would have had lines as far south as Palo Alto and northward past San Rafael. Voters in the three remaining participating counties approved the truncated system, with termini in Fremont, Richmond and Daly City, in 1962. Construction of the system began in 1964, included a number of major engineering challenges, including excavating subway tunnels in San Francisco and Berkeley.
Passenger service began on September 11, 1972 just between MacArthur and Fremont. The rest of the system opened in stages, with the entire system opening in 1974 when the transbay service through the Transbay Tube began; the new BART system was hailed as a major step forward in subway technology, although questions were asked concerning the safety of the system and the huge expenditures necessary for the construction of the network. Ridership remained well below projected levels throughout the 1970s, direct service from Daly City to Richmond and Fremont was not phased in until several years after the system opened; some of the early safety concerns appeared to be well founded when the system experienced a number of train-control failures in its first few years of operation. As early as 1969, before revenue service began, several BART engineers identified safety problems with the Automatic Train Control system; the BART Board of Directors was retaliated by firing them. Less than a month after the system's opening, on October 2, 1972, an ATC failure caused a train to run off the end of the elevated track at the terminal Fremont station and crash to the ground, injuring four people.
The “Fremont Flyer” led to a comprehensive redesign of the train controls and resulted in multiple investigations being opened by the California State Senate, California Public Utilities Commission, National Transportation Safety Board. Hearings by the state legislature in 1974 into financial mismanagement at BART forced the General Manager to resign in May 1974, the entire Board of Directors was replaced the same year when the legislature passed legislation leading to the election of a new Board and the end of appointed members. Before the BART system opened, planners projected several possible extensions. Although Marin county was left out of the original sys
California State University, East Bay
California State University, East Bay is a public university in Hayward, California. The university is part of the 23-campus California State University system and offers 136 undergraduate and 60 post-baccalaureate areas of study. California State University, East Bay has been designated a top-tier institution among master's–granting universities in the west by U. S. News & World Report and has been recognized as a "Best in the West" college by the Princeton Review. Founded in 1957, California State University, East Bay has a student body of 16,000. In Fall of 2013, it had 752 faculty; the university's largest and oldest college campus is located in Hayward, with additional campus-sites in the nearby cities of Oakland and Concord. The university operated on the quarter system until its conversion to the semester system in Fall 2018. In 2005, with multiple campuses across the region, the university broadened its mission to serve the East Bay region of the San Francisco Bay Area. To reflect a more widespread objective, the school changed its name from California State University, Hayward to California State University, East Bay that same year.
California State University, East Bay was ranked the most ethnically diverse college in California and the fifth most in the United States by The Chronicles of Higher Education's Almanac in 2015. The university was established as State College for Alameda County, with its primary mission to serve the higher education needs of both Alameda County and Contra Costa County, its construction was part of the California Master Plan for Higher Education as proposed by Clark Kerr and the original site for the school was Pleasanton, California. The campus was moved to Hayward before plans were finalized due to the efforts of State Assembly member Carlos Bee and other boosters from the Hayward community, including S. E. Bond Jr, E. Guy Warren, namesake of Warren Hall. At the time of its opening in 1959, classes were first held on the campus of Sunset Elementary School and Hayward High School. With the addition of the school, higher education in the San Francisco Bay Area became more accessible. To the south was San Jose State College serving the South Bay counties.
To the west was San Francisco State College serving San Francisco and San Mateo Counties. To the north is Sonoma State University, serving Marin and Sonoma counties. Chabot College, a part of the California Community College system, opened nearby in Hayward in 1961; the university has undergone numerous transitions in its history. In 1961, the school was moved to its present location in the Hayward Hills and renamed Alameda County State College. In 1963, the name was changed to California State College at Hayward; the school was granted university status in 1972, changing its name to California State University, Hayward. In 2005, the university implemented a new, broader mission to serve the eastern San Francisco Bay Area and adopted the name California State University, East Bay; the proposal to rename the campus to California State University, East Bay was approved by the California State University Board of Trustees on January 26, 2005. Leroy M. Morishita was named as interim president on April 18, 2011.
Morishita's appointment became effective July 1, 2011 when former president Mohammad Qayoumi assumed the role of president of San José State University. Qayoumi succeeded Norma S. Rees as president of the university in 2006, he is the first Afghan-American to lead a major American university. Fred F. Harcleroad Ellis E. McCune Norma S. Rees Mohammad Qayoumi Leroy M. Morishita, California State University, East Bay's main campus is located in Hayward, California, it is situated on a plateau east of the Hayward fault overlooking the southeast part of the city. CSUEB has a campus in Concord, California in Contra Costa County, a professional development center in Oakland. Continuing education programs are available at all three locations. For 40 years, Warren Hall was CSUEB's signature building. Warren Hall was rated the least earthquake-safe building in the California State University system by the CSU Seismic Review Board. In January 2013 the CSU Board of Trustees authorized $50 million to demolish the former administrative building and replace it with a new structure.
Warren Hall was demolished by implosion on August 17, 2013. Construction for the new 67,000 square foot-building began in November 2013, doors opened in December 2015 on the completed structure. California State University, East Bay is known for its Solar Energy Project. Solar panels were installed on four campus rooftops and are used to generate supplemental power during peak periods and is one of the largest photovoltaic systems in Northern California. Since its completion in 2004 the university has received recognition on a regional and national level for the project; the 2004 Business Environmental Achievement Award from the Hayward City Council. The 2004 Green Power Leadership Award at the National Green Power Marketing Conference. A 2005 Exceptional Project Award from the Western Council of Construction Consumers. On April 8, 2010, the California Public Utilities Commission approved a fuel cell project of Pacific Gas and Electric Company allowing Cal State East Bay's Hayward campus to become one of the first college campuses in Northern Calif
Frank H. Ogawa Plaza
Frank H. Ogawa Plaza is a public square in downtown Oakland, California. Frank H. Ogawa Plaza is located where San Pablo Avenue converges with 14th Street; the west side of the plaza is the site of a city office building. Around the plaza are several Beaux-Arts styled commercial buildings from the early 20th century. New buildings have been constructed to fit visually with the older architecture; the plaza is a 160,000-square-foot public space. Most of the plaza is composed of "The Commons"; the plaza features "The Forum", or amphitheater—a space for public gatherings and performances. A portion of San Pablo Avenue which runs along the north side of the plaza has been pedestrianized and incorporated into the plaza, along with the blocks of 15th Street on either side of the plaza. An entrance to the 12th Street/Oakland City Center BART station is located at the intersection with Broadway. At the center of the plaza is a single large Coast Live Oak, the symbol of the city; the plaza is adjacent to the Oakland City Center complex, directly across 14th Street to the south.
Latham Square, a small plaza where Telegraph Avenue converges with Broadway, is one block to the northeast. In 1896, the San Francisco Chronicle reported on a young Jack London giving speeches in what was called "City Hall park"; the open space in front of the city hall was part of Oakland's Administrative Buildings project that included the redevelopment of the city center in 1994. 1998 marked the completion of the renovated plaza. Along with being the seat of government, the area has become part of the city's arts culture with the annual Art and Soul Festival and publicly commissioned art. In 2001, the city council commissioned a sculpture for the plaza from artist Bruce Beasley; the sculpture, was completed in 2002. The plaza has been the site of civil disobedience. In 1998, the Oakland City Council renamed City Hall Plaza as "Frank H. Ogawa Plaza" in honor of Frank H. Ogawa, a civil rights leader and the first Japanese American to serve on the Oakland City Council. Ogawa served on the Council from 1966 until his death in 1994.
The plaza displays a bronze bust of Ogawa. Members of Occupy Oakland used Ogawa Plaza as a main protest encampment in the fall of 2011, their presence was criticized for potential safety concerns. However, others defended the camp, presenting statistics showing that Oakland became safer during the occupation. Frank H. Ogawa Plaza was unofficially renamed as "Oscar Grant Plaza" by the Occupy Oakland protesters. Oscar Grant was a young Hayward man, shot in the back while lying on the ground by a Bay Area Rapid Transit police officer in 2009
Medical cannabis, or medical marijuana, is cannabis and cannabinoids that are prescribed by physicians for their patients. The use of cannabis as medicine has not been rigorously tested due to production and governmental restrictions, resulting in limited clinical research to define the safety and efficacy of using cannabis to treat diseases. Preliminary evidence suggests that cannabis can reduce nausea and vomiting during chemotherapy, improve appetite in people with HIV/AIDS, reduce chronic pain and muscle spasms. Short-term use increases the risk of major adverse effects. Common side effects include dizziness, feeling tired and hallucinations. Long-term effects of cannabis are not clear. Concerns include memory and cognition problems, risk of addiction, schizophrenia in young people, the risk of children taking it by accident; the Cannabis plant has a history of medicinal use dating back thousands of years in many cultures. Some medical organizations have requested removal of cannabis from the list of Schedule I controlled substances, followed by regulatory and scientific review.
Others oppose its legalization, such as the American Academy of Pediatrics. Medical cannabis can be administered through various methods, including capsules, tinctures, dermal patches, oral or dermal sprays, cannabis edibles, vaporizing or smoking dried buds. Synthetic cannabinoids are available for prescription use in some countries, such as dronabinol and nabilone. Countries that allow the medical use of whole-plant cannabis include Australia, Chile, Germany, Israel, the Netherlands, Poland and Uruguay. In the United States, 33 states and the District of Columbia have legalized cannabis for medical purposes, beginning with the passage of California's Proposition 215 in 1996. Although cannabis remains prohibited for any use at the federal level, the Rohrabacher–Farr amendment was enacted in December 2014, limiting the ability of federal law to be enforced in states where medical cannabis has been legalized. Many different cannabis strains are collectively called medical cannabis. Since many varieties of the cannabis plant and plant derivatives all share the same name, the term medical cannabis is ambiguous and can be misunderstood.
A Cannabis plant includes more than 400 different chemicals. In comparison, typical government-approved medications contain two chemicals; the number of active chemicals in cannabis is one reason why treatment with cannabis is difficult to classify and study. A 2014 review stated that the variations in ratio of CBD-to-THC in botanical and pharmaceutical preparations determines the therapeutic vs psychoactive effects of cannabis products. Medical cannabis has several potential beneficial effects. Evidence is moderate that it helps in chronic muscle spasms. Low quality evidence suggests its use for reducing nausea during chemotherapy, improving appetite in HIV/AIDS, improving sleep, improving tics in Tourette syndrome; when usual treatments are ineffective, cannabinoids have been recommended for anorexia, arthritis and glaucoma. It is recommended. Medical cannabis is somewhat effective in chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting and may be a reasonable option in those who do not improve following preferential treatment.
Comparative studies have found cannabinoids to be more effective than some conventional antiemetics such as prochlorperazine and metoclopramide in controlling CINV, but these are used less because of side effects including dizziness and hallucinations. Long-term cannabis use may cause nausea and vomiting, a condition known as cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome. A 2016 Cochrane review said that cannabinoids were "probably effective" in treating chemotherapy-induced nausea in children, but with a high side-effect profile. Less common side effects were "ocular problems, orthostatic hypotension, muscle twitching, vagueness, hallucinations and dry mouth". Evidence is lacking for both efficacy and safety of cannabis and cannabinoids in treating patients with HIV/AIDS or for anorexia associated with AIDS; as of 2013, current studies suffer from effects of bias, small sample size, lack of long-term data. A 2017 review found only limited evidence for the effectiveness of cannabis in relieving chronic pain in several conditions.
Another review found tentative evidence for use of cannabis in treating peripheral neuropathy, but little evidence of benefit for other types of long term pain. When cannabis is inhaled to relieve pain, blood levels of cannabinoids rise faster than when oral products are used, peaking within three minutes and attaining an analgesic effect in seven minutes. A 2014 review found limited and weak evidence that smoked cannabis was effective for chronic non-cancer pain. A 2015 meta-analysis found that inhaled medical cannabis was effective in reducing neuropathic pain in the short term for one in five to six patients. Another 2015 review found limited evidence that medical cannabis was effective for neuropathic pain when combined with traditional analgesics. A 2011 review considered cannabis to be safe, it appears safer than opioids in palliative care. Cannabis' efficacy is not clear in treating neurological problems, including multiple sclerosis and movement problems; the combination of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol extracts give subjective relief of spasticity, though objective post-treatment assessments do not reveal significant changes.
Evidence suggests that oral cannabis extract is effective for reducing patien
Oakland City Center
Oakland City Center is an office and hotel complex in Downtown Oakland, California. The complex is the product of a redevelopment project begun in the late 1950s, it covers twelve city blocks between Broadway on the east, Martin Luther King Jr. Way on the west, Frank H. Ogawa Plaza on 14th Street on the north side of the complex and the Oakland Convention Center and Marriott Hotel extend south to 10th Street. An hourly parking garage is located beneath the complex's shopping mall; the mall features an upscale fitness and racquet club, in addition to numerous take-out restaurants and other stores. The complex is served by the 12th Street/Oakland City Center BART station. Though not one of Oakland's neighborhoods, with only newly established condominium residences, City Center in Oakland has a owned outdoor shopping mall at its core; the mall is a textbook example of redevelopment urban land planning policies which started in the mid to late twentieth century and continue into the present. A large section of ornate Victorian and Italianate style apartment buildings, with ground-floor retail shops in the center of Downtown Oakland, was appropriated by the city through the force of eminent domain and demolished to make way for what was proposed to be an enclosed shopping mall, high-rise office buildings, a hotel, an aboveground parking structure.
In the draft Central District Plan, the Oakland Redevelopment Agency had an ambitious goal of razing 70 city blocks, but neighborhood residents and the Downtown Property Owner's Association objected, the plan was scaled back to only 12 blocks between 10th and 14th Streets on the west side of Broadway. The redevelopment plan, by William Liskamm and Rai Okamoto, won a 1966 Design Award from Progressive Architecture; as reported in the archives of the Oakland Tribune, residents were evicted from several residential hotels for purported code enforcement reasons under an aggressive plan called "Operation Padlock." Several pawnshops and Oakland's Moulin Rouge Theatre were leveled. According to Dr. Richard A. Walker, professor of geography at the University of California, the much-beloved delicatessen, Ratto's, in business since around the turn of the century, was threatened by demolition before citizen protest saved it; the first office building, at 14th and Broadway, opened on December 18, 1973.
The first skyscraper, the Clorox Building, opened next door in 1976. However, construction stalled, by the 1980s the mall still hadn't been built and most of the site was still vacant; the project was redesigned, with a smaller outdoor retail complex and new federal office building replacing the mall, a partial restoration of the original street grid. Several new buildings were completed in 1990, including the retail complex, named City Square, 1111 Broadway, the new headquarters of the global shipping company American President Lines. Economic recovery of downtown Oakland was stalled by the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake and a recession in the early 1990s, private development at City Center stopped for the next few years. Government payrolls were not affected. In December 1996, Oakland City Center, including the development rights to the remaining undeveloped parcels, was sold to Shorenstein Properties; the company planned to build four high-rise office buildings on the remaining four lots. Only one was built, 555 City Center, completed in 2002.
Shorenstein Properties sold the development rights for one of the lots back to the city, which in turn sold it to the Olson Company, building market-rate condominiums. Shorenstein Properties is now planning to build market-rate condominiums on one of the two remaining vacant parcels, an office tower on the other; the latter was approved for construction in late 2007. In June 2010 the majority of the City Center was sold to CB Richard Ellis Investors for $360 million. Chinatown Downtown Oakland Jack London Square Lakeside Apartments District Old Oakland Oaksterdam Uptown Oakland Notes Oakland City Center – official commercial site for the property
Oakland is the largest city and the county seat of Alameda County, United States. A major West Coast port city, Oakland is the largest city in the East Bay region of the San Francisco Bay Area, the third largest city overall in the San Francisco Bay Area, the eighth most populated city in California, the 45th largest city in the United States. With a population of 425,195 as of 2017, it serves as a trade center for the San Francisco Bay Area. An act to incorporate the city was passed on May 4, 1852, incorporation was approved on March 25, 1854, which made Oakland a city. Oakland is a charter city. Oakland's territory covers what was once a mosaic of California coastal terrace prairie, oak woodland, north coastal scrub, its land served as a rich resource when its hillside oak and redwood timber were logged to build San Francisco. Oakland's fertile flatland soils helped. In the late 1860s, Oakland was selected as the western terminal of the Transcontinental Railroad. Following the 1906 San Francisco earthquake, many San Francisco citizens moved to Oakland, enlarging the city's population, increasing its housing stock and improving its infrastructure.
It continued to grow in the 20th century with its busy port, a thriving automobile manufacturing industry. The earliest known inhabitants were the Huchiun Indians; the Huchiun belonged to a linguistic grouping called the Ohlone. In Oakland, they were concentrated around Lake Merritt and Temescal Creek, a stream that enters the San Francisco Bay at Emeryville. In 1772, the area that became Oakland was colonized, with the rest of California, by Spanish settlers for the King of Spain. In the early 19th century, the Spanish crown granted the East Bay area to Luis María Peralta for his Rancho San Antonio; the grant was confirmed by the successor Mexican republic upon its independence from Spain. Upon his death in 1842, Peralta divided his land among his four sons. Most of Oakland fell within the shares given to Antonio Vicente; the portion of the parcel, now Oakland was called Encinal—Spanish for "oak grove"—due to the large oak forest that covered the area, which led to the city's name. During the 1850s—just as gold was discovered in California—Oakland started growing and developing because land was becoming too expensive in San Francisco.
The Chinese were struggling financially, as a result of the First Opium War, the Second Opium War, the Taiping Rebellion, so they began migrating to Oakland in an effort to provide for their families in China. However, the Chinese struggled to settle because they were discriminated against by the white community and their living quarters were burned down on several occasions; the majority of the Chinese migrants lived in unhealthy conditions in China and they had diseases, so plague spread into San Francisco though the Chinese were inspected for diseases upon their arrival to San Francisco. In 1851, three men—Horace Carpentier, Edson Adams, Andrew Moon—began developing what is now downtown Oakland. In 1852, the Town of Oakland became incorporated by the state legislature. During this time, Oakland had 75-100 inhabitants, two hotels, a wharf, two warehouses, only cattle trails. Two years on March 25, 1854, Oakland re-incorporated as the City of Oakland, with Horace Carpentier elected the first mayor, though a scandal ended his mayorship in less than a year.
The city and its environs grew with the railroads, becoming a major rail terminal in the late 1860s and 1870s. In 1868, the Central Pacific constructed the Oakland Long Wharf at Oakland Point, the site of today's Port of Oakland. A number of horsecar and cable car lines were constructed in Oakland during the latter half of the 19th century; the first electric streetcar set out from Oakland to Berkeley in 1891, other lines were converted and added over the course of the 1890s. The various streetcar companies operating in Oakland were acquired by Francis "Borax" Smith and consolidated into what became known as the Key System, the predecessor of today's publicly owned AC Transit. Oakland was one of the worst affected cities in California, impacted by the plague epidemic. Quarantine measures were set in place at the Oakland ports requiring the authorities at the port to inspect the arriving vessels for the presence of infected rats. Quarantine authorities at these ports inspected over a thousand vessels per year for plague and yellow fever.
By 1908, over 5,000 people were detained in quarantine. Hunters were sent to poison the affected areas in Oakland and shoot the squirrels, but the eradication work was limited in its range because the State Board of Health and the United States Public Health Service were only allotted about $60,000 a year to eradicate the disease. During this period Oakland did not have sufficient health facilities, so some of the infected patients were treated at home; the State Board of Health along with Oakland advised physicians to promptly report any cases of infected patients. Yet, in 1919 it still resulted in a small epidemic of Pneumonic plague which killed a dozen people in Oakland; this started when a man killed a squirrel. After eating the squirrel, he fell ill four days and another household member contracted the plague; this in turn was passed on either indirectly to about a dozen others. The officials in Oakland acted by issuing death certificates to monitor the spread of plague. At the time of incorporation in 1852, Oaklan
University of California, Berkeley
The University of California, Berkeley is a public research university in Berkeley, California. It was founded in 1868 and serves as the flagship institution of the ten research universities affiliated with the University of California system. Berkeley has since grown to instruct over 40,000 students in 350 undergraduate and graduate degree programs covering numerous disciplines. Berkeley is one of the 14 founding members of the Association of American Universities, with $789 million in R&D expenditures in the fiscal year ending June 30, 2015. Today, Berkeley maintains close relationships with three United States Department of Energy National Laboratories—Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Los Alamos National Laboratory—and is home to many institutes, including the Mathematical Sciences Research Institute and the Space Sciences Laboratory. Through its partner institution University of California, San Francisco, Berkeley offers a joint medical program at the UCSF Medical Center.
As of October 2018, Berkeley alumni, faculty members and researchers include 107 Nobel laureates, 25 Turing Award winners, 14 Fields Medalists. They have won 9 Wolf Prizes, 45 MacArthur Fellowships, 20 Academy Awards, 14 Pulitzer Prizes and 207 Olympic medals. In 1930, Ernest Lawrence invented the cyclotron at Berkeley, based on which UC Berkeley researchers along with Berkeley Lab have discovered or co-discovered 16 chemical elements of the periodic table – more than any other university in the world. During the 1940s, Berkeley physicist J. R. Oppenheimer, the "Father of the Atomic Bomb," led the Manhattan project to create the first atomic bomb. In the 1960s, Berkeley was noted for the Free Speech Movement as well as the Anti-Vietnam War Movement led by its students. In the 21st century, Berkeley has become one of the leading universities in producing entrepreneurs and its alumni have founded a large number of companies worldwide. Berkeley is ranked among the top 20 universities in the world by the Academic Ranking of World Universities, the Times Higher Education World University Rankings, the U.
S. News & World Report Global University Rankings, it is considered one of the "Public Ivies", meaning that it is a public university thought to offer a quality of education comparable to that of the Ivy League. In 1866, the private College of California purchased the land comprising the current Berkeley campus in order to re-sell it in subdivided lots to raise funds; the effort failed to raise the necessary funds, so the private college merged with the state-run Agricultural and Mechanical Arts College to form the University of California, the first full-curriculum public university in the state. Upon its founding, The Dwinelle Bill stated that the "University shall have for its design, to provide instruction and thorough and complete education in all departments of science and art, industrial and professional pursuits, general education, special courses of instruction in preparation for the professions". Ten faculty members and 40 students made up the new University of California when it opened in Oakland in 1869.
Frederick H. Billings was a trustee of the College of California and suggested that the new site for the college north of Oakland be named in honor of the Anglo-Irish philosopher George Berkeley. In 1870, Henry Durant, the founder of the College of California, became the first president. With the completion of North and South Halls in 1873, the university relocated to its Berkeley location with 167 male and 22 female students where it held its first classes. Beginning in 1891, Phoebe Apperson Hearst made several large gifts to Berkeley, funding a number of programs and new buildings and sponsoring, in 1898, an international competition in Antwerp, where French architect Émile Bénard submitted the winning design for a campus master plan. In 1905, the University Farm was established near Sacramento becoming the University of California, Davis. In 1919, Los Angeles State Normal School became the southern branch of the University, which became University of California, Los Angeles. By 1920s, the number of campus buildings had grown and included twenty structures designed by architect John Galen Howard.
Robert Gordon Sproul served as president from 1930 to 1958. In the 1930s, Ernest Lawrence helped establish the Radiation Laboratory and invented the cyclotron, which won him the Nobel physics prize in 1939. Based on the cyclotron, UC Berkeley scientists and researchers, along with Berkeley Lab, went on to discover 16 chemical elements of the periodic table – more than any other university in the world. In particular, during World War II and following Glenn Seaborg's then-secret discovery of plutonium, Ernest Orlando Lawrence's Radiation Laboratory began to contract with the U. S. Army to develop the atomic bomb. UC Berkeley physics professor J. Robert Oppenheimer was named scientific head of the Manhattan Project in 1942. Along with the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley was a partner in managing two other labs, Los Alamos National Laboratory and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. By 1942, the American Council on Education ranked Berkeley second only to Harvard in the number of distinguished departments.
During the McCarthy era in 1949, the Board of Regents adopted an anti-communist loyalty oath. A number of faculty members led by Edward C. Tolman were dismissed. In 1952, the University of California became; each campus was give