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Downtown Phoenix

Downtown Phoenix is the central business district of the City of Phoenix, United States. It is located in Valley of the Sun. Phoenix, being the county seat of Maricopa County and the capital of Arizona, serves as the center of politics and government on the local and federal levels; the area is a major center of employment for the region, with many financial and other national and international corporations housed in a variety of skyscrapers. Major arts and cultural institutions call the area home. Downtown Phoenix is a center of major league sports activities, live concert events, is an prominent center of banking and finance in Arizona. Regional headquarters for several major banks, including JP Morgan Chase, Wells Fargo, US Bank, Bank of America, Compass Bank and Midfirst Bank are all located within or close proximity to the area; the City of Phoenix defines Downtown as the area between 7th Street and 7th Avenue, from McDowell Road on the north to Buckeye Road on the south. However, the majority of downtown development is concentrated in the smaller area surrounding the intersection of Washington St. and Central Ave.

In 1870, a meeting was held to select a town site for the influx of pioneers coming to the recognized town of Phoenix. 320 acres were purchased for $50 raised by popular subscription. This original site, the whole of the town of Phoenix in that day, encompasses what would presently be the Downtown Core, bordered by Van Buren Street south to Jackson Street, Seventh Street to Seventh Avenue. With the first survey of the new town, streets were laid out in a grid, with Washington Street as the main east-west thoroughfare; the north-south streets bore Native American tribal names, but were changed to more remembered numbers, with everything east of Center Street named as streets and everything west as avenues. The town continued to grow, was incorporated as a city on February 28, 1881, centered around downtown. Throughout the 1880s the newly incorporated city made many strides toward modernization with the construction of one of the first electric plants in the West as well as the opening of the horse-drawn streetcar line.

The Phoenix Street Railway system was electrified and expanded to several different lines that connected Downtown Phoenix to other neighborhoods and cities in the Valley. Independence Day of 1887 heralded the arrival first Southern Pacific train; this opened up the economy of the young city, as goods now flowed in and out by train as opposed to wagon. As Phoenix became the center of commerce in the territory, the capital was moved to Phoenix. After Arizona was granted statehood in 1912, the growth of Phoenix exploded from the downtown epicenter. By the 1930s, a modern skyline composed of various commercial buildings began to take shape and Downtown was a dense and pedestrian friendly city characterized by Victorian buildings and ground-floor retail. Post-World War II building focused on suburb creation, this, combined with the rise of the automobile and evaporative cooling, resulted in large population relocation outside of Downtown; as Phoenix began to recover from the Great Recession, interest in re-energizing the urban core skyrocketed.

In contrast to the pre-recession construction boom in the Phoenix area which focused on the construction of low density communities and suburban office complexes, the most recent boom has been focused on Central Phoenix, with the construction of higher density development, a renewed interest in local business, bioscience and the arts. Spurred by Arizona State University’s developing Downtown Campus and a new Convention Center, Downtown Phoenix has transformed into an attractive place for businesses. Areas such as Lower Grand and the Warehouse District have seen a massive investment in art, adaptive reuse, local restaurants. In February 2015, the Super Bowl was held in Arizona and, unlike the 2008 Super Bowl, many of the major NFL events were held on the streets of Downtown Phoenix, showcasing to the world how the city had transformed its downtown into a lively, thriving community full of creative energy and opportunity; the construction of Phoenix's light rail system has stemmed major development projects in Downtown Phoenix along the Central Avenue corridor.

Downtown Phoenix has many points of interest, including museums, sports venues, performing arts venues and a thriving art scene. Downtown's museum and cultural attractions include the Arizona Science Center, The Wells Fargo History Museum, the Phoenix Art Museum, the Rosson House Museum, the Arizona Latino Arts and Cultural Center, the Children's Museum of Phoenix and the Phoenix Center for the Arts. Arizona State University, the University of Arizona, Northern Arizona University and GateWay Community College all own buildings and have a presence in downtown. Downtown Phoenix has a large sports presence. Chase Field is home to the Arizona Diamondbacks, it was the site of the Insight Bowl from 2001 to 2005 and hosted the 2006 World Baseball Classic and international soccer games. Talking Stick Resort Arena is home to Phoenix Mercury and Arizona Rattlers; the ECHL's Phoenix RoadRunners played there from 2005 to 2009. It hosted the NBA All-Star game on February 15, 2009. Downtown Phoenix has hosted many major sporting events in recent years.

Downtown was the site of the 2015 Super Bowl XLIX Central and NFL Experience, which drew over 1 million people to the city center. In March 2017, Phoenix hosted the 2017 NCAA Final Four Championship, drawing over 400,000 people to Margaret T. Hance Park and other associated downtown

Authors' Reading Month

Authors' Reading Month is the largest Central European literary festival running annually since 2000. The organiser is the Větrné mlýny Publishers and the festival takes place every July 1–31; every day 2–3 readings take place performed by writers of the host country and writers from the festival guest country. At present, the festival takes place in 5 cities spanning 4 countries: Brno and Ostrava, Wroclaw, Košice, Lviv. For 2018 the festival guest country is Turkey. In the years 2000–2004 the main festival venue was the Kabinet múz. Since 2005 the venue has been the Husa na provázku Theatre in Brno, CZ. Since 2016 the festival runs parallel in 5 cities in 4 countries; the readings are available online at the Publishers YouTube channel, broadcast by radios. In the years 2000–2004 the festival was dedicated only to Czech writers, featuring one performing author per day. Since 2005 the festival has hosted a guest country every year, offering 2–3 readings every day, one by the homeland author and another by a foreign writer from the guest country.

The guest countries of the past years are these: 2005 Slovakia 2006 Berlin 2007 Belarus 2008 Canada 2009 Austria and Stuttgart 2010 France 2011 Poland 2012 Slovenia 2013 German-language authors 2014 Scotland (10 TV documentaries of Scottish writers were made by the Czech TV. 2015 Ukraine 2016 Spain 2017 Georgia 2018 Turkey 2019 Romania 2020 Hungary Official website

David Hay (artist)

David Ramsay Hay was a Scottish artist, interior decorator and colour theorist. David Ramsay Hay was the son of Rebekah or Rebecca Carmichael, a published poet and friend of Robert Burns, they lived at the foot of Monteith's Close off the Royal Mile in Edinburgh. After her husband died prematurely and penniless, David was educated at the expense of her brother, David Ramsay, a banker and owner of the Edinburgh Evening Courant apprenticed as a reading-boy in Ramsay's printing office in Edinburgh. Instead though, Hay moved to join Gavin Beugo a decorative artist, based on West Register Street in Edinburgh's New Town, his fellow-apprentice was the topographical artist David Roberts. In April 1820 he commenced work at Abbotsford for Walter Scott. In 1850 he decorated Holyroodhouse for Queen Victoria. In the 1920s, Queen Mary had these decorative schemes painted over, but watercolours commissioned by Victoria in 1863 give some idea of their appearance. Hay was an advocate of imitative finishes such as graining and marbling, textured paints to imitate brocade fabrics.

From 1828, he developed his theory of colour harmony over six successive editions of his book, The Laws of Harmonious Colouring Adapted to Interior Decorations. Hay wrote about his experience decorating Abbotsford for Walter Scott in the sixth edition of his Harmonious Colouring. In his final years he had exclusive premises at 90 George Street in the centre of Edinburgh's New Town, he died in Edinburgh on 10 September 1866. He is buried in Warriston Cemetery in the north of the city; the substantial tombstone stands to the south-west of the sealed eastern entrance. The monument is vandalised and the original bronze bas-relief sculpture of his profile has been stolen. See The Laws of Harmonious Colouring in House Painting The Natural Principles and Analogy of the Harmony of Form Proportion: or the Geometric Principle of Beauty Analysed First Principles of Symmetrical Beauty The Science of Beauty"A Nomenclature of Colours" National Portrait Gallery page with biography of Hay Carmichael, Poems by Miss Carmichael, Edinburgh Hay, David Ramsay, The Laws of Harmonious Colouring Adapted to Interior Decorations, 3rd edition Hay, David Ramsay, The Laws of Harmonious Colouring Adapted to Interior Decorations, 6th edition digitised by Historic Environment Scotland Hay, David Ramsay, Proportion or, The Laws of Beauty Analysed, Blackwood Hay, David Ramsay, The Principles of Beauty in Colouring Systematized, Blackwood Hay, David Ramsay, First Principles of Symmetrical Beauty, Blackwood Hay, David Ramsay, The Natural Principle of Beauty, as developed in the Human Figure, Blackwood Hay, David Ramsay, The Harmonic Law of Nature Applied to Architectural Design, Blackwood Hay, David Ramsay, The Science of Beauty: as developed in Applied Art and Nature, Blackwood

Maroubra Force

Maroubra Force was the name given to the ad hoc Australian infantry force that defended Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea from the Japanese, was involved in the Kokoda Track Campaign of the Pacific War, World War II. The force was established by the Allies under the codename "Maroubra", referring to the troops in the forward area, it was one of many units forming the body of the New Guinea Force, the main Allied army formation in the South West Pacific Area during 1942. Formed on 21 June 1942, it consisted of part-time Militia units and was under the command of Major General Basil Morris's New Guinea Force. Reinforced by veteran Second Australian Imperial Force units, Maroubra Force was instrumental in blunting the Japanese advance on Port Moresby, fighting it to a standstill in September, before elements of the 7th Division undertook a counter-attack in October and November 1942, which drove the Japanese back to their beachheads around Buna–Gona, the scene of heavy fighting between November 1942 and January 1943.

In mid-1942, Major General Basil Morris, commander of New Guinea Force, ordered the 39th Infantry Battalion, deployed as a garrison force around Port Moresby, was sent overland via the Kokoda Track to secure the Kokoda area and prepare to defend against a Japanese advance. The Papuan Infantry Battalion of about 300 native troops with white officers, was north of the Owen Stanley Range at the entrance of the Kokoda Track; these units were subsequently grouped together as "Maroubra Force" – named for Operation Maroubra, the Allied name for the troops in the "forward area" on the Kokoda Track – formed around the units of Brigadier Selwyn Porter's 30th Brigade, made up of part-time Militia soldiers. On 21 July 1942, the Japanese landed on the northeast coast of Papua and the Papuan Infantry Battalion was overwhelmed by the Japanese troops, the entrance was captured on 29 July 1942. Bolstered by the arrival of the 53rd Infantry Battalion in early August, Maroubra Force successfully fought to delay the Japanese advance through the Owen Stanley Range, before being reinforced by Second Australian Imperial Force troops from the 21st Brigade and halting the Japanese around Ioribaiwa.

The 25th Brigade reinforced by the 16th Brigade pursued the Japanese north from Ioribaiwa as the Japanese withdrew back to their beachheads at Buna and Sanananda on the Papuan north coast. Within sources dealing with the fighting in New Guinea, Maroubra Force remains an enigmatic entity. While authors such as Keogh, Brune and McCarthy fall silent on the formation after the Battle of Ioribaiwa in mid-September, Chant states that Maroubra Force participated in the fighting around Gona; the last mention of the Maroubra codename in the New Guinea Force Headquarters War Diary appears on 28 October. During the fighting around Buna and Gona, between in November 1942 and January 1943, Porter's 30th Brigade, withdrawn earlier, reinforced elements of the 7th Division – the 18th and 25th Brigades – and took part in the reduction of the Japanese beachhead there; the 21st Brigade took part in the fighting around the Japanese beachheads, suffering heavy casualties. An ad hoc command, Maroubra Force was variously commanded by the senior officer in the forward area of the battle, which meant that command changed hands on a number of occasions.

Major Allan Cameron took command of the formation during the fighting around Kokoda after the death of Lieutenant Colonel William Owen, while Lieutenant Colonel Ralph Honner filled the role during the brief period between Kokoda and Isurava. Brigadier Selwyn Porter and Brigadier Arnold Potts held the position. Potts was relieved of his command in controversial circumstances following actions at Isurava, Eora Creek and Templeton's Crossing, Efogi, he was replaced by Porter in early September prior to the Battle of Ioribaiwa. Maroubra Force passed to Brigadier Kenneth Eather, commander of the 25th Brigade, for the fighting around Ioribaiwa and the counter-offensive that followed. According to Chant, "at its peak strength, Maroubra Force consisted of the 39th and 53rd Infantry Battalions, the 21st Brigade; the 53rd Militia Battalion saw action during the Battle of Isurava but was defeated and subsequently withdrew demoralised after the commanding officer and many senior officers of the 53rd were killed in action".

Williams provides a contrasting assessment, stating that just prior the fighting around Ioribaiwa, following the arrival of the 25th Brigade, Maroubra Force totaled 2,957 personnel – up from 2,292 at the start of Isurava – with a combined headquarters from both the 21st and 25th Brigades, the 25th Brigade's three infantry battalions, a composite 21st Brigade infantry battalion, various supporting elements including a signals detachment, medical support and a small reconnaissance element. These forces lacked artillery support, as the Australians' limited artillery resources were concentrated around Port Moresby at the start of the campaign, due to logistical issues they were unable to move the guns forward along the track to support the infantry in the forward areas; the fighting around Kokoda and Buna–Gona resulted in heavy casualties for Maroubra Force. According to James, the fighting along the Kokoda Track left over 600 Australians dead with more than 1,600 wounded over a four-month period for the total force engaged.

The example of the 39th Infantry Battalion highlights the intensity of the fighting. By the end of the fighting in January 1943, according to


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Tree of Life web project

Helena von Lahnstein

Dr. Helena von Lahnstein is a fictional character of the German soap opera Verbotene Liebe; the character has been played by Renée Weibel since October 5, 2009. With the arrival of Sebastian von Lahnstein in November 2007, it is mentioned that he had two other siblings, they are referred to as the twins, without letting the audience know their gender. The twins get mentioned several times over two years, when Helena arrives at Castle Königsbrunn and gives one of the twins a face and a name. With her appearance it has been declared that she has a twin brother named Tristan. Before Helena comes to Königsbrunn a box with Asian art has been sent to the Lahnstein family. While wondering what is in the box, Helena opens the door and is welcomed by her brother Sebastian and younger sister Rebecca; when the butler of the aristocratic family looks a little bit lost at the situation Elisabeth von Lahnstein is the first to introduce Helena as Sebastian and Rebecca's sibling. Helena is described as a happy and cheerful person.

She studies archeology at the University of Heidelberg and comes after a long time abroad to meet her siblings at Königsbrunn. From the beginning it is mentioned that she is close to her twin brother Tristan and cannot be anywhere long without him; the relationship between brother and sister seems incestuous. It is mentioned by Rebecca that Tristan and Helena can not be without each other and that they forget the world around them when they are together. Not long after Helena's arrival she has to call Tristan and tell him that she misses and loves him; when it is mentioned that Tristan is spending time with Tanja, Helena seems jealous and tells Rebecca that it will not last for long anyway. Helena was born to Ludwig von Lahnstein and is one of his five children. Ludwig married a maid, which upset his father deeply; this leads to Ludwig being disowned and his brother Johannes becoming the heir to the Lahnstein fortune. Ludwig, his wife and his children leave Königsbrunn, while Johannes tries to stop his brother and giving him his heritage.

But an angry Ludwig leaves and breaks off contact with his family. It has been mentioned that Ludwig and his family moved abroad; when Ludwig and his wife both die, Ludwig's good friend Adrian Degenhardt takes care of his children. He finances their education and becomes a surrogate father to them. Helena and Tristan travel abroad, while Sebastian and Rebecca have been staying in the United States, before the family reunite after years at Castle Königsbrunn. Helena has not been to Königsbrunn since she was a little girl. She's welcome by Rebecca and Sebastian, wants to spend as much time as possible with her sister since it has been a long time since they last saw each other. Helena discovers that Rebecca has been lying about her job, she has money troubles and is unemployed. Helena tries to comfort Rebecca, when Elisabeth mentions an article about Helena's latest success in her career. Helena falls in love with Andi Fritzsche and they become a couple, their relationship survives several tests, behind of most of, Tristan, who can't accept that his sister is close to another man.

However, they break up for good after Helena discover Andi had a drunk one-night stand with Jessica Stiehl, who had accused him of rape trying to break them up. Helena hits Philipp zu Hohenfelden with her car and is sentenced to do community service in a Düsseldorf hospital, where she meets Andi's brother Daniel, they start a relationship. After several months, Daniel falls in love with Jessica and breaks up with Helena, who decides to return to Cambodia and resume her archaeological studies. It's been hinted that after Daniel breaks up with Jessica and leaves Düsseldorf they reunite in Cambodia