Drag racing is a type of motor racing in which automobiles or motorcycles compete two at a time, to be first to cross a set finish line. The race follows a short, straight course from a standing start over a measured distance, most 1⁄4 mi, with a shorter becoming popular, as it has become the standard for Top Fuel dragsters and funny cars, where some major bracket races and other sanctioning bodies have adopted it as the standard, while the 1⁄8 mi is popular in some circles. Electronic timing and speed sensing systems have been used to record race results since the 1960s; the history of automobiles and motorcycles being used for drag racing is nearly as long as the history of motorized vehicles themselves, has taken the form of both illegal street racing, as an organized and regulated motorsport. Push starts to get engines running were necessary until the National Hot Rod Association mandated self-starters in 1976. After burnouts, cars would be pushed back by crews. Don Garlits was the first to do burnouts across the starting line, now standard practise.
Each driver backs up to and stages at the starting line. Before each race, each driver is allowed to perform a burnout, which heats the driving tires and lays rubber down at the beginning of the track, improving traction; the cars run through a "water box". Modern races are started electronically by a system known as a Christmas tree, which consists of a column of lights for each driver/lane, two light beam sensors per lane on the track at the starting line. Current NHRA trees, for example, feature one blue light three amber, one green, one red; when the first light beam is broken by a vehicle's front tire, the vehicle is "pre-staged", the pre-stage indicator on the tree is lit. When the second light beam is broken, the vehicle is "staged", the stage indicator on the tree is lit. Vehicles may leave the pre-stage beam, but must remain in the stage beam until the race starts. Once one competitor is staged, their opponent has a set amount of time to stage or they will be disqualified, indicated by a red light on the tree.
Otherwise, once both drivers are staged, the system chooses a short delay at random starts the race. The light sequence at this point varies slightly. For example, in NHRA Professional classes, three amber lights on the tree flash followed 0.4 seconds by a green light. In NHRA Sportsman classes, the amber lights illuminate in sequence from top to bottom, 0.5 seconds apart, followed 0.5 seconds by the green light. If a vehicle leaves the starting line before the green light illuminates, the red light for that lane illuminates instead, the driver is disqualified. In a handicap start, the green light automatically lights up for the first driver, the red light is only lit in the proper lane after both cars have launched if one driver leaves early, or if both drivers left early, the driver whose reaction time is worse, as a red light infraction is only assessed to the driver with the worse infraction, if both drivers leave early. If both drivers leave early, the green light is automatically lit for the driver that left last, they still may win the pass.
Several measurements are taken for each race: reaction time, elapsed time, speed. Reaction time is the period from the green light illuminating to the vehicle leaving the staging beams or breaking the guard beam. Elapsed time is the period from the vehicle leaving the starting line to crossing the finish line. Speed is measured through a speed trap covering the final 66 feet to the finish line, indicating average speed of the vehicle in that distance. Except where a breakout rule is in place, the winner is the first vehicle to cross the finish line, therefore the driver with the lowest combined reaction time and elapsed time; because these times are measured separately, a driver with a slower elapsed time can win if that driver's advantage in reaction time exceeds the elapsed time difference. In heads-up racing, this is known. In categories where a breakout rule is in effect, if a competitor is faster than his or her predetermined time, that competitor loses. If both competitors are faster than their predetermined times, the competitor who breaks out by less time wins.
Regardless, a red light foul is worse than a breakout, except in Junior Dragster where exceeding the absolute limit is a cause for disqualification. Most race events use a traditional bracket system, where the losing car and driver are eliminated from the event while the winner advances to the next round, until a champion is crowned. Events can range from 16 to over 100 car brackets. Drivers are
The 2005–06 Serbia and Montenegro Superliga was the fourth and last season of the Serbia and Montenegro's top-level football league before the dissolution. It was contested by 16 teams, Red Star Belgrade won the championship. Radnički Jugopetrol, Čukarički Stankom and Hajduk Beograd were relegated to the 2005–06 Serbian First League while Sutjeska was relegated to the 2005–06 Montenegrin First League after the last season for finishing last; the relegated teams were replaced by 2004–05 Serbian First League champions Budućnost Banatski Dvor and runners-up Javor Ivanjica, Rad and Voždovac. The league would join the 2004–05 Montenegrin First League champion Jedinstvo Bijelo Polje RED STAR BELGRADE Players Milan Dudić Aleksandar Luković Boško Janković Nenad Kovačević Dušan Basta Milan Purović Nikola Žigić Dejan Milovanović Vladimir Stojković Milan Biševac Vladimir Mudrinić Marko Perović Nebojša Joksimović Dragan Mladenović Milanko Rašković Nikola Trajković Nenad Milijaš signed from FK Zemun on January 12, 2006 during winter 2005/06 transfer window Dušan Đokić signed from FK Voždovac in late January 2006 during winter 2005/06 transfer window Radovan Krivokapić Ivan Ranđelović Ardian Đokaj Bojan Miladinović Takayuki Suzuki signed from Kashima Antlers on January 28, 2006 during winter 2005/06 transfer window Haminu Draman Boban Stojanović Dušan Anđelković signed from FK Voždovac in late January 2006 during winter 2005/06 transfer window Marko Pantelić sold to Hertha BSC Berlin on the last day of the 2005 summer transfer window Zoran Banović Filip Đorđević Slavoljub Đorđević Nenad Tomović Jagoš Vuković Tables and results at RSSSF
John Frederick Hertz is a California lawyer and long-time Los Angeles, California science fiction fan. Hertz came to the Los Angeles area in the late 1960s, after living in Chicago, New York City, San Francisco, Seattle, he got his baccalaureate degree at Antioch College and graduated from the Northwestern University School of Law. He has been an attorney in California since 1982. Winner of the Big Heart Award at the 61st World Science Fiction Convention, he is active in the fanzine community, publishing the fanzine Vanamonde. Four collections of his fanwriting have been published, West of the Moon and Joking, On My Sleeve, Neither Complete nor Conclusive, he was nominated for the Hugo Award for Best Fan Writer in 2006, 2007, 2009. The fanzine Argentus contains an interview with Larry Niven's fictional character, Hanville Svetz, co-authored by Hertz and Niven. At conventions, Hertz can be found moderating panels, leading Art Show tours, or judging the costume competition called the Masquerade.
He can be spotted at conventions sporting a colorful propeller beanie. He is renowned for his stewardship of Regency dance. Hertz has perpetuated the Regency dance tradition at science fiction conventions in the United States since the 1980s, with the practice continuing to the present day. Hertz instructs dance workshops and choreographs balls across the nation, in addition has written an article on Regency era dancing, included in the West of the Moon collection, he wrote The Tenor of Terpsichore: Or Dances in the Fashion of the English Regency as Done By Certain Modern Admirers of the Same. Hertz serves as one of the Rotsler Award judges, he was the 2010 Down Under Fan Fund delegate to Aussiecon 4, the fourth World Science Fiction Convention to be held in Australia. In 2007 he was sent by the one-time fund HANA to Nippon 2007, the first World Science Fiction Convention to be held in Asia, he was Fan Guest of Honor at Lunacon44 in 2001, Westercon 57 in 2004, Loscon 38 in 2011 and Special Guest at Boskone 50 in 2013.
Russell Kenneth Alexander Martin is a football coach and former professional player, the manager of League One club Milton Keynes Dons. Martin played as a defender for Wycombe Wanderers, Peterborough United, Norwich City and Walsall and Milton Keynes Dons, he played in 29 internationals for Scotland. Starting his career with Brighton, for whom he did not feature in a league match, Martin established himself at Wycombe Wanderers, for whom he made over 100 appearances. Following a brief spell with Peterborough United, Martin joined Norwich City in 2010 and played an important part in the team's rise to the Premier League. Born in Brighton, East Sussex, Martin was educated at Brighton, he played for Woodingdean Youth FC before joining the Hove youth set up. He left Brighton & Hove Albion's youth team by mutual consent in early 2004, finishing the season at Isthmian League Division One South side Lewes. Russell attended the Charlton Athletic Development Centre in East Grinstead, run by Academy Coach Aaron Jacob, for two seasons.
Following a trial at Charlton Athletic, Martin joined Wycombe Wanderers on a non-contract basis. He made his debut in a 2–1 home victory over Cambridge United on 7 August 2004 went on to make ten more appearances during the 2004–05 season. During the 2005–06 season, he made appearances at left-back, right-back, centre-half and in midfield, as well as winning the Goal of the Season award. In the summer of 2006, he signed a new two-year contract with the club, in 2006–07, he was a regular starter at right-back. In the 2007–08 season, he played every game in Wycombe's League Two campaign as they reached the play-offs, he played in both legs of the semi-final against Stockport County, which Wycombe lost 2–1 on aggregate. Martin was out of contract at the end of the 2008–09 season, on 29 May 2008, he moved to Peterborough United, who had just been promoted to League One, he signed a three-year contract. On 28 September, Martin was announced as the new captain of Peterborough United, taking over from Craig Morgan.
He played every match in his first season with the club as they gained promotion to the Football League Championship. Following Mark Cooper's appointment as a replacement for Darren Ferguson in November 2009, Martin joined Norwich City on loan. On 4 January 2010, his transfer was made permanent and he joined Norwich on a 2 1⁄2-year contract. Martin played in the majority of games for Norwich for the remainder of the season at right back, he scored his first goal for Norwich in the 3–1 defeat to Doncaster Rovers, with a diving header on 14 September 2010. He scored the only goal in a 1–0 victory over Championship league leaders Queens Park Rangers on 1 January 2011, a last-minute equaliser against Cardiff City, leading fans to dub him "the Cafu of the Championship" or "the Norfolk Cafu", in honour of Cafu. Martin scored his fifth Norwich goal in the 5–1 victory over Ipswich Town on 21 April 2011. On 7 May 2011, he was the runner up for the Norwich City Player of the Year award to winner Grant Holt, in a season where he played every minute of each game.
On 29 December 2012, Martin scored two goals against Manchester City in a 4–3 home defeat. After an impressive first season in the Premier League with Norwich, filling in well at centre back during some games, Martin signed a new three-year deal in June 2012. In an interview with The Canary Magazine, published April 2013, Martin revealed his desire to take up management after the end of his playing career, stating, "I would love to come and manage Norwich." On 9 July 2013, Martin agreed a new three-year deal with the club. This contract will keep him at the club until 2016; when asked about the new deal he told the club's official website: "in delighted, everybody knows how I feel about playing for this football club. Since I first arrived here it's gone unbelievably well and I feel settled in the area. I'm happy playing for this club and I've got a great relationship with the players and the supporters, I'm just delighted to be here for another 3 years." On 10 August 2013, he was named the club captain.
On 23 November 2014, Martin made his 200th appearance for Norwich against his hometown club Brighton & Hove Albion. He scored Norwich's second goal in a 3–3 draw. Norwich were promoted to the Premier League in 2014/15 via the playoffs, but were relegated after just one season back in the top division. Martin made his 300th appearance for Norwich on 21 April 2017, in a 2–0 win against Brighton & Hove Albion, he signed a new contract with Norwich City in July 2017, but had few first team appearances during the 2017–18 season. Martin left Norwich City on 31 August 2018, he made 309 appearances for Norwich. In January 2018, Martin moved on loan to Scottish Premiership club Rangers, he made his competitive debut for the club on 24 January, in a 2–0 win against Aberdeen. Martin was one of four players to make their first appearance for Rangers in that game, he scored his first goal for Rangers in a 2–0 win against Hearts on 24 February 2018. Martin signed for League One club Walsall in October 2018 in a player-coach role.
He left by mutual consent in January 2019, for family reasons, having made twelve appearances for the club. On 15 January 2019, Martin joined League Two club Milton Keynes Dons on a short term deal until the end of the season, played a key role in the club clinching promotion on the final day of the season. Following the departure of manager Paul Tisdale on 2 November 2019, Martin was appointed as his successor in his first managerial position the following day and announced his retirement as a player to concentrate on the role. Mart
Proactive communications is a customer relationship lifecycle strategy used to increase customer loyalty. It is related to the organizational psychology term proactivity, which states that individuals should act based on anticipatory behavior rather than reacting to situations; the strategy is used to provide customer care and build credibility through personalized customer management to anticipate common inquiries. It is used to reduce customer frustration and mitigate customer service issues before having the ability to happen. Proactive communications include opt-in notifications and chats, social media responsiveness and multi-channel contact; the strategy is used during each phase of the customer lifecycle. The goal of proactive customer communications is to anticipate and streamline all interactions to be efficient and personalized for each customer. According to Direct Marketing News, there are three steps to improve customer loyalty through the use of proactive communications: Develop an understanding of the target audience and provide options for opt-in communications Tailored communications based on the individual customer's needs Customer control options for contact Proactivity Strategic Communication for Sustainable Organizations: Theory and Practice.
Quote: "This chapter focuses on proactive communication: Proactivity has come to refer to a more or less unspecified set of nondefensive or nonreactive practices through which organizations handle their relations with the external world." "Doctor Proactive Communication, Return-to-Work Recommendation, Duration of Disability After a Workers’ Compensation Low Back Injury". Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Pp. 515–525. "Toward a theory for multiparty proactive communication in agent teams". International Journal of Cooperative Information Systems. "A decision-theoretic approach for designing proactive communication in multi-agent teamwork". SAC'04 Proceedings of the 2004 ACM symposium on Applied computing. Pp. 64–71. "Multiparty Proactive Communication: A Perspective for Evolving Shared Mental Models". College of Information Sciences & Technology. Pennsylvania State University. Pp. 685–690. "Modeling cooperation by observation in agent team". Systems and Cybernetics, 2005 IEEE International Conference.
"Proactive Communications in Agent Teamwork". Pp. 271–. The New Handbook of Organizational Communication: Advances in Theory and Methods
Events from the year 1673 in France Monarch – Louis XIV 17 May – Jesuit missionary Jacques Marquette joins Louis Jolliet on his expedition to explore the northern Mississippi River. 7 June – First Battle of Schooneveld: In a sea battle of the Third Anglo-Dutch War, fought off the Netherlands coast, the Dutch Republic fleet defeats the allied Anglo-French fleet, commanded by Prince Rupert of the Rhine. 14 June – The Dutch fleet again defeats the combined Anglo-French fleet in the Second Battle of Schooneveld. 6 July – French troops conquer Maastricht. 21 August – Battle of Texel: The Dutch fleet again defeats the combined Anglo-French fleet. 30 August – Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor, Spain and the Lutherans form an anti-French covenant. France begins its expedition against Ceylon. 10 February – The première of Molière's comédie-ballet The Imaginary Invalid takes place in Paris. During the fourth performance, the playwright, playing the title rôle, collapses on stage, dying soon after. 27 April? – Jean-Baptiste Lully's first opera, Cadmus et Hermione, is premièred.
Marquise de Caylus, noblewoman 17 February – Molière, playwright and actor 10 March – Henriette de Coligny de La Suze, writer 18 June – Jeanne Mance, nurse 29 November – Armand de Gramont, Comte de Guiche, nobleman 6 December – Guillaume Le Vasseur de Beauplan, cartographer