Lagunitas-Forest Knolls, California
Lagunitas-Forest Knolls is a census-designated place, composed of two unincorporated areas in the western half of the San Geronimo Valley in Marin County, United States. The population was 1,819 at the 2010 census; the two towns are locally seen as separate, geographically divided by narrow points in the San Geronimo Valley, each with its own small commercial center. Both are residential. Lagunitas' ZIP code is 94938, while that of Forest Knolls is 94933. Lagunitas-Forest Knolls is located at 38°0′54″N 122°41′38″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 11.0 square kilometers, all land. San Geronimo Creek runs through both towns, one of few remaining spawning grounds for Coho Salmon; the Lagunitas Creek Watershed is home to the largest-remaining wild run of coho salmon in Central California. These coho are part of the "Central California Coast Evolutionarily Significant Unit," or CCC ESU, are listed as "endangered" at both the state and federal level; the towns line the western end of the San Geronimo Valley, extending into the forested south ridges and into the grassier northern ones.
Lagunitas is on the eastern border of Samuel P. Taylor State Park. Like the park, Lagunitas-Forest Knolls and the surrounding environs are lushly vegetated with large areas of coniferous forests. Hiking and horseback riding are popular in the hills above the towns; the 2010 United States Census reported that Lagunitas-Forest Knolls had a population of 1,819. The population density was 428.3 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Lagunitas-Forest Knolls was 1,658 White, 26 African American, 11 Native American, 11 Asian, 1 Pacific Islander, 43 from other races, 69 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 133 persons; the Census reported that 99.5% of the population lived in households and 0.5% lived in non-institutionalized group quarters. There were 817 households, out of which 213 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 354 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 86 had a female householder with no husband present, 40 had a male householder with no wife present.
There were 57 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 10 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 259 households were made up of individuals and 45 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.22. There were 480 families; the population was spread out with 342 people under the age of 18, 94 people aged 18 to 24, 339 people aged 25 to 44, 808 people aged 45 to 64, 236 people who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 48.9 years. For every 100 females, there were 94.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.5 males. There were 897 housing units at an average density of 211.2 per square mile, of which 66.7% were owner-occupied and 33.3% were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 1.6%. 71.4% of the population lived in owner-occupied housing units and 28.1% lived in rental housing units. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,835 people, 745 households, 475 families residing in the CDP; the population density was 430.5 people per square mile.
There were 776 housing units at an average density of 182.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the CDP in 2010 was 87.0% non-Hispanic White, 1.4% non-Hispanic African American, 0.2% Native American, 0.5% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 0.5% from other races, 3.0% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 7.3% of the population. There were 745 households out of which 35.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.1% were married couples living together, 12.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 36.2% were non-families. 26.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 3.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.43 and the average family size was 2.87. In the CDP, the population was spread out with 24.2% under the age of 18, 5.2% from 18 to 24, 29.6% from 25 to 44, 35.4% from 45 to 64, 5.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females, there were 97.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.5 males.
The median income for a household in the CDP was $55,917, the median income for a family was $72,411. Males had a median income of $60,035 versus $40,625 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $31,504. About 4.1% of families and 6.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 3.4% of those under age 18 and 2.0% of those age 65 or over
Inverness Park, California
Inverness Park is a small unincorporated community in Marin County, California. It is located 1 mile west-southwest of Point Reyes Station, at an elevation of 148 feet. Inverness Park is located between the communities of Point Reyes Inverness; the community uses Point Reyes Station's post office. It stretches for the three or four miles from Limantour Road, north along Sir Francis Drake Boulevard, hugging the western edge of Tomales Bay, it is adjacent to the Point Reyes National Seashore. Development began in 1909. Original population included many Portuguese and Italian immigrants. At least two fish hatcheries existed in the area until about 50 years ago. A few isolated houses, Inverness Park expanded in the 1950s as a failed developer's pipe dream called Noren Estates. A more successful housing expansion in the steep hills called Paradise Ranch Estates more than doubled the population. A product of David Adams Real Estate, Paradise Ranch Estates sold parcels with views of the Pacific Ocean and Tomales Bay.
Paradise Ranch Estates was plagued by availability of water. As the Adams family moved out of ownership, residents assumed the task of road improvement and maintenance. After the floods of January 4, 1982, a municipal water supply was hooked up. In the fires of October 1995, forty-eight homes on the ridges of Paradise Ranch Estates burned, including that of singer Jesse Colin Young
Nicasio Reservoir is a shallow, artificial reservoir in the Nicasio Valley region of Marin County, United States. It sits in a 35.9 square miles drainage basin. It was created by the construction of Seeger Dam on the Nicasio Creek in 1961. Seeger Dam is a 115-foot tall, 400-foot long earthen dam owned by the Marin Municipal Water District; the construction in the dam aroused much controversy among longtime residents of the area. The Water District forced the displacement of many farms, including the McIsaac family farm and the Tomasini Ranch, on which the majority of the reservoir sits; the controversy stems from the fact the water from the reservoir is used by the Water District, that the broad and shallow nature of the reservoir leads to quick evaporation, that the dam has blocked valuable spawning areas for endangered coho salmon and threatened steelhead trout. Construction of Seeger Dam wiped out the salmon population in Nicasio Creek; the District attempted to trap salmon below the dam and transport them by truck further up Nicasio Creek and Halleck Creek.
However, the effort proved unsuccessful. A river otter was collected by the Museum of Vertebrate Zoology at the southwest corner of Nicasio Reservoir in January, 2008; the reservoir is used for recreational purposes. Largemouth bass and catfish are caught in the lake. There are problems with illegal poaching; the California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment has developed a safe eating advisory for fish caught in Nicasio Reservoir based on levels of mercury or PCBs found in the fish species. List of lakes in California List of lakes in the San Francisco Bay Area
Olema is an unincorporated community in Marin County, California. It is located on Olema Creek 2.25 miles south-southeast of Point Reyes Station, at an elevation of 69 feet. Olema is along State Route 1 at its intersection with Sir Francis Drake Boulevard, on the eastern edge of the Point Reyes Peninsula in the western part of Marin County. "Olema-loke" is Miwok Indian for little coyote. Olema was once thought to be the epicenter of the 1906 San Francisco earthquake due to the huge fault rifts still visible via a nearby hiking path. There are historical references to this including at shops and restaurants. However, more recent evidence suggests that a location near Daly City is more the epicenter. Olema was the title subject of the late-1960s country-rock song, "Hippie from Olema", The Youngbloods' rejoinder to Merle Haggard's "Okie from Muskogee"; the Olema post office opened in 1859, closed in 1860, re-opened in 1864. Olema has a few shops, two restaurants, a lodge, several bed and breakfasts.
Nearby is a large campground and a large retreat for the Vedanta Society. The Bear Valley Visitor Center, a quarter-mile from town on Bear Valley Road, provides a standard starting point for a visit to the Point Reyes National Seashore. Inside the center are exhibits and books for sale. Outside are picnic tables, a Morgan horse ranch, Kule Loklo, a reconstructed Miwok village. In the state legislature, Olema is in the 6th Assembly District. Federally, Olema is in California's 2nd congressional district, represented by Democrat Jared Huffman
National Historic Landmark
A National Historic Landmark is a building, object, site, or structure, recognized by the United States government for its outstanding historical significance. Of over 90,000 places listed on the country's National Register of Historic Places, only some 2,500 are recognized as National Historic Landmarks. A National Historic Landmark District may include contributing properties that are buildings, sites or objects, it may include non-contributing properties. Contributing properties may or may not be separately listed. Prior to 1935, efforts to preserve cultural heritage of national importance were made by piecemeal efforts of the United States Congress. In 1935, Congress passed the Historic Sites Act, which authorized the Interior Secretary authority to formally record and organize historic properties, to designate properties as having "national historical significance", gave the National Park Service authority to administer significant federally owned properties. Over the following decades, surveys such as the Historic American Buildings Survey amassed information about culturally and architecturally significant properties in a program known as the Historic Sites Survey.
Most of the designations made under this legislation became National Historic Sites, although the first designation, made December 20, 1935, was for a National Memorial, the Gateway Arch National Park in St. Louis, Missouri; the first National Historic Site designation was made for the Salem Maritime National Historic Site on March 17, 1938. In 1960, the National Park Service took on the administration of the survey data gathered under this legislation, the National Historic Landmark program began to take more formal shape; when the National Register of Historic Places was established in 1966, the National Historic Landmark program was encompassed within it, rules and procedures for inclusion and designation were formalized. Because listings triggered local preservation laws, legislation in 1980 amended the listing procedures to require owner agreement to the designations. On October 9, 1960, 92 properties were announced as designated NHLs by Secretary of the Interior Fred A. Seaton; the first of these was a political nomination: the Sergeant Floyd Monument in Sioux City, Iowa was designated on June 30 of that year, but for various reasons, the public announcement of the first several NHLs was delayed.
NHLs are designated by the United States Secretary of the Interior because they are: Sites where events of national historical significance occurred. More than 2,500 NHLs have been designated. Most, but not all, are in the United States. There are the District of Columbia. Three states account for nearly 25 percent of the nation's NHLs. Three cities within these states all separately have more NHLs than 40 of the 50 states. In fact, New York City alone has more NHLs than all but five states: Virginia, Pennsylvania and New York. There are 74 NHLs in the District of Columbia; some NHLs are in U. S. commonwealths and territories, associated states, foreign states. There are 15 in Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, other U. S. territories. S.-associated states such as Micronesia. Over 100 ships or shipwrecks have been designated as NHLs. About half of the National Historic Landmarks are owned; the National Historic Landmarks Program relies on suggestions for new designations from the National Park Service, which assists in maintaining the landmarks.
A friends' group of owners and managers, the National Historic Landmark Stewards Association, works to preserve and promote National Historic Landmarks. If not listed on the National Register of Historic Places, an NHL is automatically added to the Register upon designation. About three percent of Register listings are NHLs. American Water Landmark List of U. S. National Historic Landmarks by state List of churches that are National Historic Landmarks in the United States Listed building, a similar designation in the UK National Historic Sites and Persons, similar designations in Canada National Natural Landmark United States Memorials United States National Register of Historic Places listings Official National Historic Landmarks Program website A History of the NHL Program List of National Historic Landmarks National Historic Landmarks: Archaeological Properties Historical Landmarks - United States Lighthouses
North America is a continent within the Northern Hemisphere and all within the Western Hemisphere. It is bordered to the north by the Arctic Ocean, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the west and south by the Pacific Ocean, to the southeast by South America and the Caribbean Sea. North America covers an area of about 24,709,000 square kilometers, about 16.5% of the earth's land area and about 4.8% of its total surface. North America is the third largest continent by area, following Asia and Africa, the fourth by population after Asia and Europe. In 2013, its population was estimated at nearly 579 million people in 23 independent states, or about 7.5% of the world's population, if nearby islands are included. North America was reached by its first human populations during the last glacial period, via crossing the Bering land bridge 40,000 to 17,000 years ago; the so-called Paleo-Indian period is taken to have lasted until about 10,000 years ago. The Classic stage spans the 6th to 13th centuries.
The Pre-Columbian era ended in 1492, the transatlantic migrations—the arrival of European settlers during the Age of Discovery and the Early Modern period. Present-day cultural and ethnic patterns reflect interactions between European colonists, indigenous peoples, African slaves and their descendants. Owing to the European colonization of the Americas, most North Americans speak English, Spanish or French, their culture reflects Western traditions; the Americas are accepted as having been named after the Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci by the German cartographers Martin Waldseemüller and Matthias Ringmann. Vespucci, who explored South America between 1497 and 1502, was the first European to suggest that the Americas were not the East Indies, but a different landmass unknown by Europeans. In 1507, Waldseemüller produced a world map, in which he placed the word "America" on the continent of South America, in the middle of what is today Brazil, he explained the rationale for the name in the accompanying book Cosmographiae Introductio:... ab Americo inventore... quasi Americi terram sive Americam.
For Waldseemüller, no one should object to the naming of the land after its discoverer. He used the Latinized version of Vespucci's name, but in its feminine form "America", following the examples of "Europa", "Asia" and "Africa". Other mapmakers extended the name America to the northern continent, In 1538, Gerard Mercator used America on his map of the world for all the Western Hemisphere; some argue that because the convention is to use the surname for naming discoveries, the derivation from "Amerigo Vespucci" could be put in question. In 1874, Thomas Belt proposed a derivation from the Amerrique mountains of Central America. Marcou corresponded with Augustus Le Plongeon, who wrote: "The name AMERICA or AMERRIQUE in the Mayan language means, a country of perpetually strong wind, or the Land of the Wind, and... the can mean... a spirit that breathes, life itself." The United Nations formally recognizes "North America" as comprising three areas: Northern America, Central America, The Caribbean.
This has been formally defined by the UN Statistics Division. The term North America maintains various definitions in accordance with context. In Canadian English, North America refers to the land mass as a whole consisting of Mexico, the United States, Canada, although it is ambiguous which other countries are included, is defined by context. In the United States of America, usage of the term may refer only to Canada and the US, sometimes includes Greenland and Mexico, as well as offshore islands. In France, Portugal, Romania and the countries of Latin America, the cognates of North America designate a subcontinent of the Americas comprising Canada, the United States, Mexico, Greenland, Saint Pierre et Miquelon, Bermuda. North America has been referred to by other names. Spanish North America was referred to as Northern America, this was the first official name given to Mexico. Geographically the North American continent has many subregions; these include cultural and geographic regions. Economic regions included those formed by trade blocs, such as the North American Trade Agreement bloc and Central American Trade Agreement.
Linguistically and culturally, the continent could be divided into Latin America. Anglo-America includes most of Northern America and Caribbean islands with English-speaking populations; the southern North American continent is composed of two regions. These are the Caribbean; the north of the continent maintains recognized regions as well. In contrast to the common definition of "North America", which encompasses the whole continent, the term "North America" is sometimes used to refer only to Mexico, the United States, Greenland; the term Northern America refers to the northern-most countries and territories of North America: the United States, Bermuda, St. Pierre and Miquelon and Greenland. Although the term does not refer to a unifie