Drammen is a city in Viken, Norway. The port and river city of Drammen is centrally located in the eastern and most populated part of Norway. Drammen is located west of the Oslofjord and is situated 44 km South-west of Oslo. There are more than 68,000 inhabitants in the municipality, but the city is the regional capital of an area with more than 150,000 inhabitants. Drammen and the surrounding communities are growing more than before; the city makes good use of the river and inland waterway called Drammensfjord, both for recreation and housing. No city in the country has received as many awards for environmental and urban development as Drammen: 6 national and 2 international prizes since 2003; the Old Norse form of the city's name was Drafn, this was the name of the inner part of Drammensfjord. The fjord is, however named after the river Drammenselva, this again is derived from drǫfn f'wave'; the coat-of-arms is from modern times. They were granted on 17 November 1960; the arms are blue with a gray/silver column on top of a foundation of rocks.
A key and a Viking sword are crossed in the middle forming an x. It is based upon the old seal dating from 1723 for Bragernes, one of the central parts of Drammen; the motto for Bragernes was In Fide Et Justitia Fortitudo, the items in the seal are referring to this: key = faith, sword = justice, column on rocks = strength. The municipality of Drammen was established on 1 January 1838; the rural municipality of Skoger was merged with the municipality of Drammen on 1 January 1964 and was transferred from Vestfold county to Buskerud county at the same time. The city itself has 66 000 inhabitants, making it Norway's ninth largest. Drammen is divided into eight districts. Åssiden Austad-Fjell Bragernes Gulskogen Konnerud Skoger Strømsø-Danvik Tangen-Åskollen Rock carvings at Åskollen and Austad are 6000 to 7000 years old, are the first signs of human activity in the area. The largest rock carving at Åskollen depicts a moose. Drammen consisted of three small seaports: Bragernes and Strømsø and Tangen.
For trade purposes, small seaports were placed under market towns. Despite their geographical proximity, Bragernes was placed under Christiania and Strømsø under Tønsberg. For this reason, cooperation between the adjacent seaport towns was impossible. In 1662, a merger was proposed to unite Strømsø and Bragernes to form a market town with the name Frederiksstrøm; the proposal was rejected by Frederick III of Denmark. Bragernes received limited market town rights in 1715, merged with Strømsø to gain status as a single city on 19 June 1811, its geographical location made the city favorable for seafaring, log driving, timber trade. During the 19th century and pulp industries were developed. Large parts of the city were ruined in the great fire of 12–13 July 1866, which led to the reconstruction of the city centre, including the characteristic town square and Bragernes church; the Drammen Line opened in 1872 providing rail service between Oslo. In 1909, Drammen got the first trolleybus system in the Drammen trolleybus.
The lines ran until 1967. For many years the centre of Drammen suffered from heavy traffic. In 1970, Drammen Bridge with two lanes on European route E18 was built and in 1999 the opening of the Bragernes tunnel diverted additional traffic away from the centre of the city. In recent years, the city centre has seen the introduction of new housing, shopping facilities, restaurants and bars, as well as a public pathway along the Drammenselva river. In 2011, Drammen observed its 200th anniversary with many citywide jubilee celebrations. Drammen's district heating system was upgraded to use water-sourced heat pumps, drawing on local fjord water, to support population growth in the city. Drammen is one of the larger cities in Norway, lies about 40 kilometres from the capital of Norway, Oslo; the city centre lies at the end of a valley, on both sides of the Drammenselva river, where the river meets the Drammensfjord. Drammen is the main harbor for car and fruit import in Norway; as of 1 January 2007, the population of the urban area of Drammen is 93,006.
Drammen is the sixth largest urban area of Norway and occupies territory in five municipalities: Drammen, Nedre Eiker, Øvre Eiker, Røyken. The Øvre Sund area, situated along Drammenselva, will be regulated by the municipality in order to restore this area's character; the buildings there are from the 18th and 19th century, contribute, as well as the river and the brewery, to give the city a special identity. In 2008 Drammen won the prestigious prize for the best city development in Europe. Average at Drammen-Berskog 2005–2014 Aass Brewery is the oldest surviving brewery in Norway, has won acclaim for both its beer and its well-conserved building. Founded in 1834, the brewery's primary products are soft drinks and aquavit. Øvre Sund Bridge – crosses Drammenselva in the center of Drammen Drammen City Bridge – concrete bridge connecting the two centers of the town, built 1936 Drammen Bridge – motorway box girder bridge on E18 that crosses Drammenselva, built 1971 Ypsilon Bridge – cable-stayed pedestrian bridge over Drammenselva, built 2007 Holmen bridges – two railway bridges on the Drammen Line The Drammen Museum of Art and Cultural History includes Marienlyst, a manor house from ca.
1770, museum building from 1930 with the
Hunter Planet: The All Australian Role Playing Game is a role-playing game published by HPAC Pty. Ltd. in 1986. Hunter Planet: The All Australian Role Playing Game is a humorous science-fiction system of loose guidelines and no hard-and-fast rules. Player characters are aliens come to earth to hunt the indigenous wildlife - humans. "The All Australian Roleplaying Game" includes a rulebook, the introductory scenario "Welcome to Sindee," and a 16-page expansion module, "Exile & Arena." The set includes a GM's screen and a pad of character record sheets. The 2nd edition is revised. Hunter Planet: The All Australian Role Playing Game was designed by Dave Bruggeman, published by HPAC Pty. Ltd. in 1986 as a boxed set containing two 32-page books and a 16-page book, a cardstock screen, a 25-sheet pad. The second edition was published in 1987 as a boxed set containing two 32-page books and a 16-page book, a 25-sheet pad, a cover sheet in a cardstock folder. Casus Belli - French magazine TWERPS
8701 is the third studio album by American singer Usher. Recording was handled by several producers including The Neptunes, Jermaine Dupri, Kevin "She'kspere" Briggs, Mike City, Bryan Michael Cox, Jimmy Jam & Terry Lewis. Although intended for an October 31, 2000, release under the title All About U, the album was delayed numerous times, following the leak of several tracks onto the online music store Napster. Usher subsequently recorded new tracks and released the album under the new title, 8701, derived from Usher singing for the first time in his local church in 1987 and the album's release date of 2001. 8701 takes inspiration from multiple artists, including Donny Hathaway, Stevie Wonder, Marvin Gaye, Michael Jackson. It follows the theme of Usher's relationship experience, along with the emotions of love and heartache. Usher promoted the album by embarking on the supporting tour, Evolution 8701 Tour in 2002, to which it he performed in forty-four shows across North America, he made appearances in television shows, including Live! with Regis and Kelly and Total Request Live.
8701 produced two Billboard Hot 100 number one singles – "U Remind Me" and "U Got It Bad" stayed on top for four and five weeks, respectively. The album debuted at number four on the US Billboard 200 chart, with 210,000 copies sold in its first week, it has sold over 4.7 million copies in the United States, receiving a 4× platinum certification from the Recording Industry Association of America. 8701 received positive reviews from critics, who praised Usher's vocals and development as an artist, but were ambivalent towards some of the album's material. The album earned Usher numerous awards, including two Grammy Awards, three Billboard Music Awards and a BET Award. Usher had planned to release the album entitled All About U, as his third studio album on October 31, 2000; the album was to follow his successful My Way. On March 13, 2000, multiple tracks from the album had leaked on to online music store Napster several months prior to its release, including "T. T. P.", "U R the One" and "Pop Ya Collar".
Following the event, the album's release was delayed twice, on December 5, 2000 to July 17, 2001. During the taping of MTV Icon Janet Jackson special, Usher explained that he returned to the studios to record new songs, stating "I didn't want that to be the way my record was remembered or the way I would present that to my fans It turned out a lot better" while adding that tracks that were available for download on the site were not going to be included on the new album. With new tracks produced, Usher's publicist announced a new name for the album, under the title 8701, who claims that it is "practically a new album"; the origin of its new name was unknown, with speculation that it subsides with its US release of August 7, 2001, though Usher's publicist claimed that this was purely coincidental, was not the reasoning for the title. Usher hinted that it was derived after something significant to him, he would disclose it in the upcoming months, his spokesperson revealed that the'87' segment of the title refers to the year 1987, when Usher sang in public for the first time at his church in Atlanta, with the'01' referring to the year 2001.
8701 was recorded in the United States, in the cities of Los Angeles, New York and Atlanta. The album's production was handled by several producers including The Neptunes, Jermaine Dupri, P. Diddy—who had produced the majority of Usher's previous album, My Way—Babyface, Kevin "She'kspere" Briggs, Mike City, Bryan Michael Cox and Jimmy Jam & Terry Lewis. Both Jam and Lewis were asked by Usher's mother, manager, to contribute to 8701's production, during the 2000 MTV Music Awards. According to Jam, his mother had said "Oh my God, Usher's got this track and we thought you guys would be perfect to produce it". Several months Jam and Lewis produced the song "Separated", along with multi-platinum producers Ric Atari & Daron Jones to which the producers turned in to L. A. Reid, who liked the track, asked them to produce more. Following this, Usher asked both producers to create a song similar to their 1985 "Tender Love", performed by R&B vocal group Force MDs. Though he wanted it to be his own unique record, which contains a small similarity, to which Jam and Lewis created "Can U Help Me".
Following the completion of 8701, Jam and Lewis were sent back to the studio by Reid to revamp the album's second single "U Remind Me", explaining "we know he can dance, he's got the style and that whole thing. But I want people to just go, he can sing. In an interview with MTV, Usher commented that lyrically, 8701 represents his "soul", elaborated by explaining that he was inspired by love and heartache. There's a little bit of all of that in the album. I appreciate what music was back as well as in the early'90s when you had artists like Troop and Jodeci, Michael Jackson was in his prime." Usher explained that the album's lyrics reflect on what has been going on with his relationship. "Can U Help Me", is about a deep relationship to which Usher experienced. "U Don't Have to Call" is a hip-hop song inspired by Jackson, while "U Got It Bad" is an R&B slow-jam. About "U Got It Bad", Kyle Anderson of MTV wrote that it makes use of the acoustic guitar and a "slow-burning bassline" throughout; the album's lead single "U Remind Me" is an R&B track, its lyrics is based on meeting