Draped Bust dollar

The Draped Bust dollar is a United States dollar coin minted from 1795 to 1803, was reproduced, dated 1804, into the 1850s. The design succeeded the Flowing Hair dollar, which began mintage in 1794 and was the first silver dollar struck by the United States Mint; the designer is unknown, though the distinction is credited to artist Gilbert Stuart. The model is unknown, though Ann Willing Bingham has been suggested. In October 1795, newly appointed Mint Director Elias Boudinot ordered that the legal fineness of 0.892 silver be used for the dollar rather than the unauthorized fineness of 0.900 silver, used since the denomination was first minted in 1794. Due to a decrease in the amount of silver deposited at the Philadelphia Mint, coinage of silver dollars declined throughout the latter years of the 18th century. In 1804, coinage of silver dollars was halted. In 1834, silver dollar production was temporarily restarted to supply a diplomatic mission to Asia with a special set of proof coins. Officials mistakenly believed that dollars had last been minted with the date 1804, prompting them to use that date rather than the date in which the coins were struck.

A limited number of 1804 dollars were struck by the Mint in years, they remain rare and valuable. Coinage began on the first United States silver dollar, known as the Flowing Hair dollar, in 1794 following the construction and staffing of the Philadelphia Mint; the Coinage Act of 1792 called for the silver coinage to be struck in an alloy consisting of 89.2% silver and 10.8% copper. However, Mint officials were reluctant to strike coins with the unusual fineness, so it was decided to strike them in an unauthorized alloy of 90% silver instead; this caused depositors of silver to lose money. During the second year of production of the Flowing Hair dollar, it was decided that the denomination would be redesigned, it is unknown what prompted this change or who suggested it, though numismatic historian R. W. Julian speculates that Henry William de Saussure, named Director of the Mint on July 9, 1795, may have suggested it, as he had stated a redesign of the American coinage as one of his goals before taking office.

It is possible that the Flowing Hair design was discontinued owing to much public disapproval. Though the designer of the coin is unknown, artist Gilbert Stuart is acknowledged to have been its creator, it has been suggested that Philadelphia socialite Ann Willing Bingham posed as the model for the coin. Several sketches were approved by Mint engraver Robert Scot and de Saussure and sent to President George Washington and Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson to gain their approval. After approval was received, the designs were sent to artist John Eckstein to be rendered into plaster models. Eckstein, dismissed by Walter Breen as a "local artistic hack" and described by a contemporary artist as a "thorough-going drudge" due to his willingness to carry out most painting or sculptural tasks at the request of clients, was paid thirty dollars for his work preparing models for both the obverse Liberty and reverse eagle and wreath. After the plaster models were created, the engravers of the Philadelphia Mint began creating hubs that would be used to make dies for the new coins.

It is unknown when production of the new design began, as precise records relating to design were not kept at that time. R. W. Julian, places the beginning of production in either late September or early October 1795, while Taxay asserts that the first new silver dollars were struck in October. In September 1795, de Saussure wrote his resignation letter to President Washington. In his letter, de Saussure mentioned the unauthorized silver standard and suggested that Congress be urged to make the standard official, but this was not done. In response to de Saussure's letter, Washington expressed his displeasure in the resignation, stating that he had viewed de Saussure's tenure with "entire satisfaction"; as de Saussure's resignation would not take effect until October, the president was given time to select a replacement. The person chosen to fill the position was former congressman Elias Boudinot. Upon assuming his duties at the Mint on October 28, Boudinot was informed of the silver standard, used since the first official silver coins were struck.

He ordered that this practice be ceased and that coinage would begin in the 89.2% fineness approved by the Coinage Act of 1792. The total production of 1795 dollars totalled 203,033, it is estimated that 42,000 dollars were struck bearing the Draped Bust design. Boudinot soon ordered. Assayer Albian Cox died from a stroke in his home on November 27, 1795, leaving the vital post of assayer vacant. This, together with Boudinot's increased focus on smaller denominations, as well as a lull in private bullion deposits, caused a decrease in silver dollar production in 1796; the total mintage for 1796 was 79,920, which amounts to an approximate 62% reduction from the previous year's total. Bullion deposits continued to decline, in 1797, silver dollar production reached the lowest point since 1794 with a mintage of just 7,776 pieces. During this time, silver deposits decl

John Francis Reuel Tolkien

John Francis Reuel Tolkien was an English priest and the eldest son of J. R. R. Tolkien, he served as a parish priest in Oxford, Coventry and Stoke-on-Trent. He was a chaplain at the University College of North Staffordshire and to two schools. During his life time and after his death, there were a number of allegations of child sexual abuse against him: he was questioned by the police but never charged or convicted, he was born in Cheltenham on 16 November 1917. He was educated at the Dragon School and The Oratory School in Caversham, Berkshire where in his final year he decided to become a priest. On the advice of the Archbishop he decided to go to college to study English and joined Exeter College, Oxford from where he received his B. A. degree in 1939. In November 1939, he went to the English College. Due to the outbreak of World War II, the college was moved to Stonyhurst in Lancashire where John trained as a priest during the war, he was ordained as Augustine Church in North Oxford. His first position was as a curate from 1946 to 1950 at the St Mary and St Benedict Church in Coventry where he taught weekly classes to 60 children and organized the building of church schools.

From 1950 to 1957, he was a curate at the English Martyrs Church in Birmingham. Thereafter he moved to North Staffordshire, where he was the chaplain of University College of North Staffordshire, now Keele University and at two grammar schools, St Joseph's College, Trent Vale and St Dominic's High School, Hartshill, he was parish priest at Knutton Roman Catholic Church from 1957 to 1966. In 1966, he became the parish priest at Our Lady of the Angels and St Peter in Chains Church, Stoke-on-Trent, he held the position until 1987 and there oversaw the building of a new school. He was chairman of governors at Bishop Bright School, chaplain to the North Staffordshire Catholic Teachers Association and area chaplain to the Young Christian Students, he moved back to Oxford in 1987, settling in Eynsham where he was the parish priest at St. Peter's Catholic Church till his retirement in 1994. Father Tolkien served in parishes in Oxford and Warwickshire, he is one of four Catholic priests in Birmingham included as part of a wider investigation into the Catholic church by the Independent Inquiry into Child Sexual Abuse.

There was no conviction or civil finding against Fr John Tolkien. There was no finding of fact before either the civil or criminal courts. Allegations, which were never proven in a court of law and denied. Allegations were first put to him by the Sunday Mercury in November 2000. Due to dementia and lack of evidence Tolkien's solicitors were successful in seeking a high court injunction and the Sunday Mercury was unable to publish until after Tolkien's death to avoid risk of defamation liability. After Tolkien's death the PCC ruled in Tolkien’s favour, upheld the complaint and ordered the newspaper to print its adjudication. Vincent Nichols Archbishop of Birmingham, authorised a payment of £15,000 in an out-of-court settlement without admission of liability to Christopher Carrie who claimed in 1994 that he had been abused when he was 12 and claimed in 2003 he had been abused by Tolkien when he was 11; the enquiry suggested, but could not prove that Diocesan documents showed that Nichols was aware of previous incidents involving Tolkien, however Nichols denied a cover up.

He said he had pressure from lawyers acting for the Tolkien family, who said Father Tolkien was by in such poor health that he could not defend himself. One allegation was made at the Inquiry that in the 1950s when Tolkien was based in Sparkhill, he made a group of scouts strip naked; the exact circumstances were not explained. Although he denied this until he died a note made by Archbishop Couve de Murville during an investigation in 1993 showed that a complaint had been made to the archdiocese in 1968 that he abused two boys and he was sent for therapy; however the note no longer exists and the inquiry were not able to assess it. Since the Archbishop was long since dead, he could not be questioned; the allegations were first reported to the police in 1994. The West Midlands Police appealed for Tolkien victims to come forward in 2000 after Carrie contacted them, he was questioned in 2001 and a file sent to the Crown Prosecution Service who determined that there was no realistic prospect of prosecution and that any action would not be in the public interest.

The archdiocese solicitors had found allegations by two people and advised Nichols that "Carrie is to satisfy the court, Fr Tolkien abused him in the manner he alleges." Evidence was submitted from a deceased former altar boy who could not to swear an oath or be subject to cross examination or perjury that Tolkien was a regular visitor to the school and was treated like royalty. Tolkien chose him to be an altar boy at Our Lady of the Angels and St Peter in Chains Church, Stoke-on-Trent, he was invited to Tolkien's house, next door, on Saturday morning for reading lessons. Tolkien said he was going to do a special ceremony for which he had been chosen where he had to kneel on a cushion stool and take his shorts down, he was promised that this would see him anointed by Christ. This happened at least twice in 1970, he blames Tolkien, the failure of the church to take effective action, for ruining his life. In 2019, The Observer reported that Tolkien had said, in a tape-recorded conversation with Carrie, that he was sexually abused by at least one of his father's friends as a child.

Child sexual abuse in the Roman Catholic Church. Tolkien family

1959–60 British Home Championship

The 1959–60 British Home Championship football tournament was played by the British Home Nations throughout the 1959–60 season and was shared between three of the competing teams at the expense of Ireland. Football at the United Kingdom was at a low point in 1959 and 1960, following the failure of the national sides, to perform well in the 1958 FIFA World Cup two years before. A part of the problem involved the deaths of senior members of all four national sides at the Munich air disaster in early 1958. England had suffered a further loss of confidence following poor form in a pre-season tour of the Americas, losing three games in a row to Brazil, Peru 4–1 and Mexico. An 8–1 victory over a weak United States in the final match did little to raise their spirits; the title was shared between three teams who were unable to beat each other but all managed a victory over the hapless Irish. The Scots started well, with a 4–0 drubbing of their opponents in Belfast whilst the English and Welsh played out a tame draw.

This set the tone for the tournament, with the Irish losing their subsequent matches with more respectable scorelines but still unable to gain a point. The Scots could not capitalise on their good start and were held by England and Wales in their subsequent matches whilst the Welsh took their draws and narrowly beat Ireland in their last match to claim their own third share of the title. Goal difference was not at this stage used to differentiate between the teams. If it had been, Scotland would have won with Wales and England again tied for second