Exquisite Corpse (novel)
Exquisite Corpse is a horror novel by American writer Poppy Z. Brite; the protagonist of the story is Andrew Compton, an English convicted homosexual serial killer and necrophiliac. Brite has described it as "a necrophilic, serial killer love story that explores the seamy politics of victimhood and disease." The novel unfolds in alternating chapters from the points of view of the four main characters. Andrew Compton, a convicted serial killer, escapes his UK prison cell in a self-induced cataleptic trance and escapes to New Orleans' French Quarter to start a new life. Seeking new victims, he instead meets Jay Byrne, a wealthy recluse, a serial killer, as well as a cannibal; the two killers at first intend to victimize one another, but upon realizing their similar proclivities, instead begin a torrid affair based on sex and murder. Meanwhile, Tran, a Vietnamese teen, has been driven out of his home after his parents learn that he is gay. Tran, who had a casual acquaintance with Jay, takes refuge at Jay's home one night.
The two have a brief sexual encounter. Jay is attracted to Tran but refuses to pursue him any further because he cannot conceive of a relationship that does not end in death; when Jay introduces the beautiful Tran to Andrew, Andrew becomes obsessed with the idea of murdering and eating him. Jay, though reluctant, agrees to Andrew's plan, in part to rid himself of the temptation of falling in love with Tran; the two kidnap Tran and begin to torture him to death. After learning that he is HIV-positive, writer Lucas Ransom reacts by rejecting all his former friends and breaking up with Tran. Embittered by his illness, Lucas vents his frustration through his alternate persona "Lush Rimbaud", host of a pirate radio program where Lucas rails at society's denial of gay men and the AIDS crisis. Soon this outlet isn't enough, Lucas, sensing that death is approaching, becomes fixated on reconciling with Tran. Soon Luke realizes that Tran has fallen into Andrew and Jay's deadly hands, the goal becomes not reuniting with Tran, but rescuing him.
Arriving too late to save Tran, Lucas murders confronts Andrew. Recognizing that Lucas is on the verge of death, Andrew refuses to kill him, instead offering him several means to commit suicide. Lucas realizes that his life, no matter how short, is still of value to him and flees, telling no one what he has seen. After consuming Jay, Andrew leaves New Orleans to continue his murderous career, while Lucas, returning home, vows to spend the remainder of his life writing a novel to try to make sense of what he has witnessed. In 1991, Brite signed a contract to write three novels for Delacorte Books, the first two being Lost Souls and Drawing Blood, with Exquisite Corpse set to be the third. In early 1995, Brite turned in the finished manuscript of Exquisite Corpse and was informed that Delacorte would be unable to publish the novel due to its violent content. Soon afterwards, Brite received word that Penguin the author's UK publisher, had declined the novel; the work bounced from publisher to publisher, who praised the novel's writing but rejected it, calling its subject matter "too nihilistic, too extreme, a bloodbath without justification".
The book was purchased by Simon & Schuster in the USA and Orion Publishing Group in the UK
A security hacker is someone who seeks to breach defenses and exploit weaknesses in a computer system or network. Hackers may be motivated by a multitude of reasons, such as profit, information gathering, recreation, or to evaluate system weaknesses to assist in formulating defenses against potential hackers; the subculture that has evolved around hackers is referred to as the computer underground. There is a longstanding controversy about the term's true meaning. In this controversy, the term hacker is reclaimed by computer programmers who argue that it refers to someone with an advanced understanding of computers and computer networks, that cracker is the more appropriate term for those who break into computers, whether computer criminal or computer security expert. A 2014 article concluded that "... the black-hat meaning still prevails among the general public". In computer security, a hacker is someone who focuses on security mechanisms of computer and network systems. While including those who endeavor to strengthen such mechanisms, it is more used by the mass media and popular culture to refer to those who seek access despite these security measures.
That is, the media portrays the'hacker' as a villain. Parts of the subculture see their aim in correcting security problems and use the word in a positive sense. White hat is the name given to ethical computer hackers. White hats are becoming a necessary part of the information security field, they operate under a code, which acknowledges that breaking into other people's computers is bad, but that discovering and exploiting security mechanisms and breaking into computers is still an interesting activity that can be done ethically and legally. Accordingly, the term bears strong connotations that are favorable or pejorative, depending on the context; the subculture around such hackers is termed network hacker subculture, hacker scene, or computer underground. It developed in the context of phreaking during the 1960s and the microcomputer BBS scene of the 1980s, it is implicated with 2600: the alt.2600 newsgroup. In 1980, an article in the August issue of Psychology Today used the term "hacker" in its title: "The Hacker Papers".
It was an excerpt from a Stanford Bulletin Board discussion on the addictive nature of computer use. In the 1982 film Tron, Kevin Flynn describes his intentions to break into ENCOM's computer system, saying "I've been doing a little hacking here". CLU is the software. By 1983, hacking in the sense of breaking computer security had been in use as computer jargon, but there was no public awareness about such activities. However, the release of the film WarGames that year, featuring a computer intrusion into NORAD, raised the public belief that computer security hackers could be a threat to national security; this concern became real when, in the same year, a gang of teenage hackers in Milwaukee, known as The 414s, broke into computer systems throughout the United States and Canada, including those of Los Alamos National Laboratory, Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center and Security Pacific Bank. The case grew media attention, 17-year-old Neal Patrick emerged as the spokesman for the gang, including a cover story in Newsweek entitled "Beware: Hackers at play", with Patrick's photograph on the cover.
The Newsweek article appears to be the first use of the word hacker by the mainstream media in the pejorative sense. Pressured by media coverage, congressman Dan Glickman called for an investigation and began work on new laws against computer hacking. Neal Patrick testified before the U. S. House of Representatives on September 26, 1983, about the dangers of computer hacking, six bills concerning computer crime were introduced in the House that year; as a result of these laws against computer criminality, white hat, grey hat and black hat hackers try to distinguish themselves from each other, depending on the legality of their activities. These moral conflicts are expressed in The Mentor's "The Hacker Manifesto", published 1986 in Phrack. Use of the term hacker meaning computer criminal was advanced by the title "Stalking the Wily Hacker", an article by Clifford Stoll in the May 1988 issue of the Communications of the ACM; that year, the release by Robert Tappan Morris, Jr. of the so-called Morris worm provoked the popular media to spread this usage.
The popularity of Stoll's book The Cuckoo's Egg, published one year further entrenched the term in the public's consciousness. Several subgroups of the computer underground with different attitudes use different terms to demarcate themselves from each other, or try to exclude some specific group with whom they do not agree. Eric S. Raymond, author of The New Hacker's Dictionary, advocates that members of the computer underground should be called crackers. Yet, those people see themselves as hackers and try to include the views of Raymond in what they see as a wider hacker culture, a view that Raymond has harshly rejected. Instead of a hacker/cracker dichotomy, they emphasize a spectrum of different categories, such as white hat, grey hat, black hat and script kiddie. In contrast to Raymond, they reserve the term cracker for more malicious activity. According to Ralph D. Clifford, a cracker or cracking is to "gain unauthorized access to a computer in order to commit another crime such as destroying information contained in that system".
These subgroups may be defined by the legal status of their activities. A white hat hacker breaks security for non-malicious reasons, either to test their own security system, perform penetration tests, or vulnerability assessments for a
In ghostlore, a haunted house or ghosthouse is a house or other building perceived as being inhabited by disembodied spirits of the deceased who may have been former residents or were familiar with the property. Parapsychologists attribute haunting to the spirits of the dead and the effect of violent or tragic events in the building's past such as murder, accidental death, or suicide. More scientific explanations for the perception that a house is haunted include misinterpreting noises present in structures, waking dreams and the effect of toxic substances in environments that can cause hallucinations. In a 2005, Gallup poll, 37 percent of Americans, 28 percent of Canadians, 40 percent of Britons expressed the belief that houses could be "haunted". According to science writer Terence Hines, cold spots, creaking sounds, odd noises are present in any home older ones, "such noises can be mistaken for the sound of footsteps by those inclined to imagine the presence of a deceased tenant in their home."David Turner, a retired chemist, suggested that ball lightning could cause inanimate objects to move erratically.
Skeptical investigator Joe Nickell writes that in most cases he investigated, he found plausible explanations for haunting phenomena, such as physical illusions, waking dreams, the effects of memory. According to Nickell, the power of suggestion along with confirmation bias plays a large role in perceived hauntings, he states that as a house, inn, or other place becomes thought of as haunted and more ghostly encounters are reported and that when people are given to expect paranormal events, they tend to notice those conditions that would confirm their expectations. Toxicologist Albert Donnay believes that chronic exposure to substances such as carbon monoxide and formaldehyde can lead to hallucinations of the type associated with haunted houses. Donnay speculates on the connection between the prevalence of gas lamps during the Victorian era and start of the 20th century stories of ghost sightings and hauntings, describing it as the "Haunted House Syndrome". Donnay says that carbon monoxide poisoning has been linked to haunted houses since at least the 1920s, citing a 1921 journal article published about a family who suffered headaches, auditory hallucinations, fatigue and other symptoms associated with haunted houses.
Michael Persinger, Jason Braithewaite, others, suggested that perceived apparitions, cold spots, ghostly touches are perceptual anomalies caused by variations in occurring or man-made magnetic fields. However, a study by psychologist Chris French and others that attempted to replicate Persinger's findings found no link. Psychology Professor Frank McAndrew explains what environmental psychologists call "legibility - the ease with which a place can be recognized, organized into a pattern and recalled" and how a typical haunted house may have a confusing layout and be quite the opposite of legibility; the concept of the haunted house was capitalized on as early as 1915 with the Orton and Spooner Haunted House in Hollycombe Steam Collection, by the 1970s, commercial haunted houses had sprung up all over the United States in cities like Louisville and Cincinnati, Ohio. By 2005, an estimated 3,500 to 5,000 professional haunted attractions operated in the United States. In addition, around the time of Hallowtide, many Christian churches run a type of haunted house known as a hell house, which while being a haunted house promotes their interpretation of the Christian gospel message.
According to USA Today, in hell houses, "participants walk through several'scenes' depicting the consequences of things like abortion and drunkenness." In the case Stambovsky v. Ackley, the Supreme Court of New York, Appellate Division ruled in 1991 that a seller must disclose that a house has a reputation for being haunted when there is a fiduciary relationship or in cases of fraud or misrepresentation, because such a reputation impairs the value of the house: In the case at bar, defendant seller deliberately fostered the public belief that her home was possessed. Having undertaken to inform the public at large, to whom she has no legal relationship, about the supernatural occurrences on her property, she may be said to owe no less a duty to her contract vendee. Legends about haunted houses have long appeared in literature; the earliest surviving report of a haunted house comes from a letter written by Pliny the Younger to his patron Lucias Sura, in which he describes a haunted villa in Athens.
Nobody would live in the house. He was undeterred by the house's reputation so he moved in; the ghost, an old man bound with chains, appeared to Athenodrus during the first night, beckoned to the philosopher. The apparition vanished once it reached the courtyard, Athenodrus marked the spot; the following morning he requested the magistrate to have the spot dug up, where the skeleton of an old man bound with chains was discovered. The ghost never appeared again. Stories of haunted houses are included in the Arabian Nights, as in the tale of "Ali the Cairene and the Haunted House in Baghdad". Haunting is used as a plot device in gothic or horror fiction or, more paranormal fiction. Notable works of fiction featuring haunted houses include: The Castle of Otranto by Horace Walpole A Sicilian Romance by Ann Radcliffe The Mysteries of Udolpho by Ann Radcl
OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Incorporated d/b/a OCLC is an American nonprofit cooperative organization "dedicated to the public purposes of furthering access to the world's information and reducing information costs". It was founded in 1967 as the Ohio College Library Center. OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat, the largest online public access catalog in the world. OCLC is funded by the fees that libraries have to pay for its services. OCLC maintains the Dewey Decimal Classification system. OCLC began in 1967, as the Ohio College Library Center, through a collaboration of university presidents, vice presidents, library directors who wanted to create a cooperative computerized network for libraries in the state of Ohio; the group first met on July 5, 1967 on the campus of the Ohio State University to sign the articles of incorporation for the nonprofit organization, hired Frederick G. Kilgour, a former Yale University medical school librarian, to design the shared cataloging system.
Kilgour wished to merge the latest information storage and retrieval system of the time, the computer, with the oldest, the library. The plan was to merge the catalogs of Ohio libraries electronically through a computer network and database to streamline operations, control costs, increase efficiency in library management, bringing libraries together to cooperatively keep track of the world's information in order to best serve researchers and scholars; the first library to do online cataloging through OCLC was the Alden Library at Ohio University on August 26, 1971. This was the first online cataloging by any library worldwide. Membership in OCLC is based on use of services and contribution of data. Between 1967 and 1977, OCLC membership was limited to institutions in Ohio, but in 1978, a new governance structure was established that allowed institutions from other states to join. In 2002, the governance structure was again modified to accommodate participation from outside the United States.
As OCLC expanded services in the United States outside Ohio, it relied on establishing strategic partnerships with "networks", organizations that provided training and marketing services. By 2008, there were 15 independent United States regional service providers. OCLC networks played a key role in OCLC governance, with networks electing delegates to serve on the OCLC Members Council. During 2008, OCLC commissioned two studies to look at distribution channels. In early 2009, OCLC negotiated new contracts with the former networks and opened a centralized support center. OCLC provides bibliographic and full-text information to anyone. OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat—the OCLC Online Union Catalog, the largest online public access catalog in the world. WorldCat has holding records from private libraries worldwide; the Open WorldCat program, launched in late 2003, exposed a subset of WorldCat records to Web users via popular Internet search and bookselling sites.
In October 2005, the OCLC technical staff began a wiki project, WikiD, allowing readers to add commentary and structured-field information associated with any WorldCat record. WikiD was phased out; the Online Computer Library Center acquired the trademark and copyrights associated with the Dewey Decimal Classification System when it bought Forest Press in 1988. A browser for books with their Dewey Decimal Classifications was available until July 2013; until August 2009, when it was sold to Backstage Library Works, OCLC owned a preservation microfilm and digitization operation called the OCLC Preservation Service Center, with its principal office in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. The reference management service QuestionPoint provides libraries with tools to communicate with users; this around-the-clock reference service is provided by a cooperative of participating global libraries. Starting in 1971, OCLC produced catalog cards for members alongside its shared online catalog. OCLC commercially sells software, such as CONTENTdm for managing digital collections.
It offers the bibliographic discovery system WorldCat Discovery, which allows for library patrons to use a single search interface to access an institution's catalog, database subscriptions and more. OCLC has been conducting research for the library community for more than 30 years. In accordance with its mission, OCLC makes its research outcomes known through various publications; these publications, including journal articles, reports and presentations, are available through the organization's website. OCLC Publications – Research articles from various journals including Code4Lib Journal, OCLC Research, Reference & User Services Quarterly, College & Research Libraries News, Art Libraries Journal, National Education Association Newsletter; the most recent publications are displayed first, all archived resources, starting in 1970, are available. Membership Reports – A number of significant reports on topics ranging from virtual reference in libraries to perceptions about library funding. Newsletters – Current and archived newsletters for the library and archive community.
Presentations – Presentations from both guest speakers and OCLC research from conferences and other events. The presentations are organized into five categories: Conference presentations, Dewey presentations, Distinguished Seminar Series, Guest presentations, Research staff
A computer hacker is any skilled computer expert that uses their technical knowledge to overcome a problem. While "hacker" can refer to any skilled computer programmer, the term has become associated in popular culture with a "security hacker", someone who, with their technical knowledge, uses bugs or exploits to break into computer systems. Reflecting the two types of hackers, there are two definitions of the word "hacker": an adherent of the technology and programming subculture. Someone, able to subvert computer security. If doing so for malicious purposes, the person can be called a cracker. Today, mainstream usage of "hacker" refers to computer criminals, due to the mass media usage of the word since the 1980s; this includes what hacker slang calls "script kiddies", people breaking into computers using programs written by others, with little knowledge about the way they work. This usage has become so predominant that the general public is unaware that different meanings exist. While the self-designation of hobbyists as hackers is acknowledged and accepted by computer security hackers, people from the programming subculture consider the computer intrusion related usage incorrect, emphasize the difference between the two by calling security breakers "crackers".
The controversy is based on the assertion that the term meant someone messing about with something in a positive sense, that is, using playful cleverness to achieve a goal. But it is supposed, the meaning of the term shifted over the decades and came to refer to computer criminals; as the security-related usage has spread more the original meaning has become less known. In popular usage and in the media, "computer intruders" or "computer criminals" is the exclusive meaning of the word today. In the computer enthusiast community, the primary meaning is a complimentary description for a brilliant programmer or technical expert. A large segment of the technical community insist; the mainstream media's current usage of the term may be traced back to the early 1980s. When the term was introduced to wider society by the mainstream media in 1983 those in the computer community referred to computer intrusion as "hacking", although not as the exclusive definition of the word. In reaction to the increasing media use of the term with the criminal connotation, the computer community began to differentiate their terminology.
Alternative terms such as "cracker" were coined in an effort to maintain the distinction between "hackers" within the legitimate programmer community and those performing computer break-ins. Further terms such as "black hat", "white hat" and "gray hat" developed when laws against breaking into computers came into effect, to distinguish criminal activities from those activities which were legal. However, network news use of the term pertained to the criminal activities, despite the attempt by the technical community to preserve and distinguish the original meaning, so today the mainstream media and general public continue to describe computer criminals, with all levels of technical sophistication, as "hackers" and do not make use of the word in any of its non-criminal connotations. Members of the media sometimes seem unaware of the distinction, grouping legitimate "hackers" such as Linus Torvalds and Steve Wozniak along with criminal "crackers"; as a result, the definition is still the subject of heated controversy.
The wider dominance of the pejorative connotation is resented by many who object to the term being taken from their cultural jargon and used negatively, including those who have preferred to self-identify as hackers. Many advocate using the more recent and nuanced alternate terms when describing criminals and others who negatively take advantage of security flaws in software and hardware. Others prefer to follow common popular usage, arguing that the positive form is confusing and unlikely to become widespread in the general public. A minority still use the term in both senses despite the controversy, leaving context to clarify which meaning is intended. However, because the positive definition of hacker was used as the predominant form for many years before the negative definition was popularized, "hacker" can therefore be seen as a shibboleth, identifying those who use the technically-oriented sense as members of the computing community. On the other hand, due to the variety of industries software designers may find themselves in, many prefer not to be referred to as hackers because the word holds a negative denotation in many of those industries.
A possible middle ground position has been suggested, based on the observation that "hacking" describes a collection of skills and tools which are used by hackers of both descriptions for differing reasons. The analogy is made to locksmithing picking locks, a skill which can be used for good or evil; the primary weakness of this analogy is the inclusion of script kiddies in the popular usage of "hacker," despite their lack of an underlying skill and knowledge base. Sometimes, "hacker" is used synonymously with "geek": "A true hacker is not a group person. He's a person who loves to stay up all night, he and the machine in a love-hate relationship... They're kids who tended to be brilliant but not interested in conventional goals It's a term of derision and al
Disco 2000 (anthology)
Disco 2000 is a 1998 collection of original short stories edited by music journalist Sarah Champion. The stories in the collection are set in the last hours of 1999, while the authors featured are known for their science fiction work, not every story is of that genre; the collection is a follow up to Champion's previous collection, Disco Biscuits, which took the British club scene as its topic. "Witnessing the Millennium" - Pat Cadigan "English Astronaut" - Nicholas Blincoe "I'm a Policeman" - Grant Morrison "Identity" - Jonathan Brook "Vine of the Soul" - Poppy Z. Brite "The Millennium Loop" - Charlie Hall "A Short Archeology of the Chemical Age" - Doug Hawes "Mama Told Me Not to Come" - Paul Di Filippo "Gigantic" - Steve Aylett "Let's Grind, or How K2 Plant Hire Ltd Went to Work" - Bill Drummond "Radiant Flower of The Divine Heavens" - Margaret Millar "Game On" - Helen Mead "Piece Of My Mind" - Courttia Newland "Is Everybody Here?" - Douglas Rushkoff "Pavlovs Bitch and Yoga Cow Reach 2000" - Tanya Glyde "Retoxicity" - Steve Beard "Crunch" - Neal Stephenson "Dali's Clocks" - Robert Anton Wilson "Fire At The Ativan Factory" - Douglas Coupland A companion album entitled Disco 2000 and released in 1998, according to the book's afterword, "futuristic music for the end of the millennium recorded as a companion to this book."
The album includes contributions from, among others, two of the writers featured in the book, Bill Drummond and Grant Morrison. Disco 2000 has received positive reviews, holds a three star rating on Goodreads. A review on LibraryThing refers to it as "essential reading for anyone with an interest in the cultural musings from 1990's folk, as they pondered the millenium", another on Amazon.com states that it spans "the entire spectrum of subcultural discourse from science fiction to cyberpunk to frustrated romance. The gritty experiences of contemporary youth technoculture saturate every selection with brilliant poetry and prose; these are the voices of club kids past and future...an absolute must read for people who have experienced the journey into the techno-underworld."
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti