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Dreyfus affair

The Dreyfus Affair was a political scandal that divided the Third French Republic from 1894 until its resolution in 1906. "The Affair", as it is known in French, has come to symbolise modern injustice in the Francophone world, it remains one of the most notable examples of a complex miscarriage of justice and antisemitism. The role played by the press and public opinion proved influential in the conflict; the scandal began in December 1894. Dreyfus was a 35-year-old Alsatian French artillery officer of Jewish descent, he was sentenced to life imprisonment for communicating French military secrets to the German Embassy in Paris, was imprisoned on Devil's Island in French Guiana, where he spent nearly five years. In 1896, evidence came to light—primarily through an investigation instigated by Georges Picquart, head of counter-espionage—which identified the real culprit as a French Army major named Ferdinand Walsin Esterhazy; when high-ranking military officials suppressed the new evidence, a military court unanimously acquitted Esterhazy after a trial lasting only two days.

The Army laid additional charges based on forged documents. Subsequently, Émile Zola's open letter J'Accuse…!, stoked a growing movement of support for Dreyfus, putting pressure on the government to reopen the case. In 1899, Dreyfus was returned to France for another trial; the intense political and judicial scandal that ensued divided French society between those who supported Dreyfus, such as Sarah Bernhardt, Anatole France, Henri Poincaré and Georges Clemenceau, those who condemned him, such as Édouard Drumont, the director and publisher of the antisemitic newspaper La Libre Parole. The new trial resulted in another conviction and a 10-year sentence, but Dreyfus was pardoned and released. In 1906, Dreyfus was reinstated as a major in the French Army, he served during the whole of World War I. He died in 1935; the affair from 1894 to 1906 divided France into pro-republican, anticlerical and pro-Army Catholic "anti-Dreyfusards". It encouraged radicalisation. At the end of 1894 a French army captain named Alfred Dreyfus, a graduate of the École Polytechnique and a Jew of Alsatian origin, was accused of handing secret documents to the Imperial German military.

After a closed trial, he was sentenced to life imprisonment. He was deported to Devil's Island. At that time, the opinion of the French political class was unanimously unfavourable towards Dreyfus; the Dreyfus family his brother Mathieu, remained convinced of his innocence and worked with the journalist Bernard Lazare to prove it. In March 1896, Colonel Georges Picquart, head of counter-espionage, found evidence that the real traitor was Major Ferdinand Walsin Esterhazy; the General Staff, refused to reconsider its judgment and transferred Picquart to North Africa. In July 1897 Dreyfus' family contacted the President of the Senate Auguste Scheurer-Kestner to draw attention to the tenuousness of the evidence against Dreyfus. Scheurer-Kestner reported three months that he was convinced Dreyfus was innocent, persuaded Georges Clemenceau, a newspaper reporter and former member of the Chamber of Deputies. In the same month, Mathieu Dreyfus made a complaint about Esterhazy to the Ministry of War. In January 1898 two events raised the case to national prominence: Esterhazy was acquitted of treason charges, Émile Zola published his "J'accuse...!"

A Dreyfusard declaration that rallied many intellectuals to Dreyfus' cause. France became divided over the case, the issue continued to be hotly debated until the end of the century. Antisemitic riots erupted in more than twenty French cities and there were several deaths in Algiers. Despite covert attempts by the army to quash the case, the initial conviction was annulled by the Supreme Court after a thorough investigation. A new court-martial was held at Rennes in 1899. Dreyfus was convicted again and sentenced to ten years of hard labour, though the sentence was commuted due to extenuating circumstances. Dreyfus accepted the presidential pardon granted by President Émile Loubet. In 1906 his innocence was established by an irrevocable judgement of the Supreme Court. Dreyfus was participated in the First World War, he died in 1935. The implications of this case were affected all aspects of French public life, it was regarded as a vindication of the Third Republic, but it led to a renewal of nationalism in the military.

It slowed the reform of French republican integration of Catholics. It was during The Affair; the Affair engendered numerous antisemitic demonstrations, which in turn affected sentiment within the Jewish communities of Central and Western Europe. This persuaded Theodor Herzl, one of the founding fathers of Zionism that the Jews must leave Europe and establish their own state. In 1894, the Third Republic was twenty-four years old. Although the 16 May Crisis in 1877 had crippled the political influence of both the Bourbon and Orléanist royalists, its ministries continued to be short-lived as the country lurched from crisis to crisis: three preceding the Dreyfus Affair were the near-coup of Georges Boulanger in 1889, the Panama scandal in 1892, the anarchist threat; the elections of 1893 were focused on the "social question" and resulted in a Repub

Administrative divisions of the Sakha Republic

Cities and towns under republic's jurisdiction Yakutsk Settlements under the city's jurisdiction: Zhatay with 4 naslegs under the jurisdiction of the city. Mirny Neryungri Settlements under the town's jurisdiction: Berkakit Chulman Khani Nagorny Serebryany Bor Zolotinka with 1 nasleg under the jurisdiction of the town. Nyurba Pokrovsk Districts: Abyysky Settlements under the jurisdiction of the district: Belaya Gora with 5 naslegs under the jurisdiction of the district. Aldansky Towns under the jurisdiction of the district: Aldan Tommot Settlements under the jurisdiction of the district: Bezymyanny Bolshoy Nimnyr Lebediny Leninsky Nizhny Kuranakh Yllymakh with 3 naslegs under the jurisdiction of the district. Allaikhovsky Settlements under the jurisdiction of the district: Chokurdakh with 5 naslegs under the jurisdiction of the district. Amginsky with 14 naslegs under the jurisdiction of the district. Anabarsky with 3 naslegs under the jurisdiction of the district. Bulunsky Settlements under the jurisdiction of the district: Tiksi with 8 naslegs under the jurisdiction of the district.

Churapchinsky with 17 naslegs under the jurisdiction of the district. Eveno-Bytantaysky National with 3 naslegs under the jurisdiction of the district. Gorny with 9 naslegs under the jurisdiction of the district. Khangalassky Towns under the jurisdiction of the district: Pokrovsk Settlements under the jurisdiction of the district: Mokhsogollokh with 16 naslegs under the jurisdiction of the district. Kobyaysky Settlements under the jurisdiction of the district: Sangar with 11 naslegs under the jurisdiction of the district. Lensky Towns under the jurisdiction of the district: Lensk Settlements under the jurisdiction of the district: Peleduy Vitim with 8 naslegs under the jurisdiction of the district. Megino-Kangalassky Settlements under the jurisdiction of the district: Nizhny Bestyakh with 29 naslegs under the jurisdiction of the district. Mirninsky Towns under the jurisdiction of the district: Mirny Udachny Settlements under the jurisdiction of the district: Almazny Aykhal Chernyshevsky Svetly with 3 naslegs under the jurisdiction of the district.

Momsky with 6 naslegs under the jurisdiction of the district. Namsky with 18 naslegs under the jurisdiction of the district. Nizhnekolymsky Settlements under the jurisdiction of the district: Chersky with 3 naslegs under the jurisdiction of the district. Nyurbinsky Towns under the jurisdiction of the district: Nyurba with 18 naslegs under the jurisdiction of the district. Olyokminsky Towns under the jurisdiction of the district: Olyokminsk Settlements under the jurisdiction of the district: Torgo Zarechny with 21 naslegs under the jurisdiction of the district. Olenyoksky with 4 naslegs under the jurisdiction of the district. Oymyakonsky Settlements under the jurisdiction of the district: Artyk Ust-Nera with 5 naslegs under the jurisdiction of the district. Srednekolymsky Towns under the jurisdiction of the district: Srednekolymsk with 9 naslegs under the jurisdiction of the district. Suntarsky with 26 naslegs under the jurisdiction of the district. Tattinsky with 14 naslegs under the jurisdiction of the district.

Tomponsky Settlements under the jurisdiction of the district: Dzhebariki-Khaya Khandyga with 7 naslegs under the jurisdiction of the district. Ust-Aldansky with 21 naslegs under the jurisdiction of the district. Ust-Maysky Settlements under the jurisdiction of the district: Allakh-Yun Eldikan Solnechny Ust-Maya Yugoryonok Zvyozdochka with 5 naslegs under the jurisdiction of the district. Ust-Yansky Settlements under the jurisdiction of the district: Deputatsky Nizhneyansk Ust-Kuyga with 7 naslegs under the jurisdiction of the district. Verkhnekolymsky Settlements under the jurisdiction of the district: Zyryanka with 5 naslegs under the jurisdiction of the district. Verkhnevilyuysky with 21 naslegs under the jurisdiction of the district. Verkhoyansky Towns under the jurisdiction of the district: Verkhoyansk Settlements under the jurisdiction of the district: Batagay (Баа

Risbyholm

Risbyholm is a manor house located in Roskilde Municipality, near Havdrup, some 30 km southwest of Copenhagen, Denmark. The estate comprises the farms Solrødgård, Ørnesæde and Klarkærgård. Risby was owned by the bishops of Roskilde. After the Reformation, the area came under Roskildegård; the manor was founded as Benzonseje in 1721 when Peder Benzon, a Supreme Court justice, obtained the king's permission to merge several farms. The half-timbered main building was built the following year. In 1787, John Brown, a Scottish-born merchant and ship owner, purchased the property in auction for 60,000 Danish rigsdaler. In 1788, he sold it to his brother, David Brown, the governor of Tranquebar, who sold it again the following year. Anna Hebert, the widow after the previous owner, Christian Frederik Harald, changed the name of the property to Risbyholm in 1903; the estate has a total area of 540 hectares of which 522 hectares are farmland and six hectares are woodland. Peder Benzon Kirstine Catharine Leegaard, gift Schumacher Carl Christian Schumacher Nikolaj Frederik Schumacher John Brown David Brown Lars Larsen L. Olsen Edvard Sneedorph Hammer various owners August Busck P. A. Herbert Christian Frederik Harald Holme Anna Hebert, gift Holme N. P. Nielsen Carl G. Udsen C. G. Udsen Vagn Clausen Claus Clausen Christian Clausen Risbyholm Aps