Drill cuttings

Drill cuttings are the broken bits of solid material removed from a borehole drilled by rotary, percussion, or auger methods and brought to the surface in the drilling mud. Boreholes drilled in this way include oil or gas wells, water wells, holes drilled for geotechnical investigations or mineral exploration; the drill cuttings are examined to make a record of the subsurface materials penetrated at various depths. In the oil industry, this is called a mud log. Drill cuttings are produced as the rock is broken by the drill bit advancing through the rock or soil. Drill cuttings can be separated from liquid drilling fluid by shale shakers, by centrifuges, or by cyclone separators, the latter being effective for air drilling. In cable-tool drilling, the drill cuttings are periodically bailed out of the bottom of the hole. In auger drilling, cuttings are carried to the surface on the auger flights. One drilling method that does not produce drill cuttings is core drilling, which instead produces solid cylinders of rock or soil.

Drill cuttings carried by mud are retrieved at the surface of the platform where they go through shakers or vibrating machines to separate the cuttings from the drilling fluid, this process allows the circulating fluid to renter the drilling process. Samples from the cuttings are studied by mud loggers and wellsite geologist. In the Oil and Gas industry the operator will require a set of samples for further analysis in their labs. Many national regulations stipulate that for any well drilled a set of samples must be archived with a national body. For example, in the case of the UK with the British Geological Survey; the bulk of the cuttings require disposal. The methodology is dependent on the type of drilling fluid use. For water based drilling fluid with no particular dangerous additives, the cuttings can be dumped overboard. If however an oil based drilling fluid is used the cuttings must be processed before disposal. Either in skips and transported to a dedicated facility, or now there are mobile plants that can process them at the rigsite burning off the drilling fluid contamination.

This saves the logistics and cost of transporting such quantities of cuttings. Although thought of as an uninteresting topic, if in a skip and ship scenario, the dependency on crane operations to move skips can lead to situations whereby bad weather halts drilling as the cuttings handling cannot continue. Burial is the placement of waste such as pits or landfills. Burial is the most common onshore disposal technique used for disposing of drilling wastes; the solids are buried in the same pit used for collection and temporary storage of the waste mud and cuttings after the liquid is allowed to evaporate. Pit burial is a low-cost, low-tech method that does not require wastes to be transported away from the well site, therefore, is attractive to many operators. Burial may be the misapplied disposal technique. Pushing the walls of the reserve pit over the drilled cuttings is not acceptable; the depth or placement of the burial cell is important. A moisture content limit should be established on the buried cuttings, the chemical composition should be determined.

Onsite pit burial may not be a good choice for wastes that contain high concentrations of oil, biologically available metals, industrial chemicals, other materials with harmful components that could migrate from the pit and contaminate usable water resources. In some oil field areas, large landfills are operated to dispose of oil field wastes from multiple wells. Burial results in anaerobic conditions, which limits any further degradation when compared with wastes that are land-farmed or land-spread, where aerobic conditions predominate; the objective of applying drilling wastes to the land is to allow the soil's occurring microbial population to metabolize and assimilate waste constituents in place. Land application is a form of bioremediation. Several terms are used to describe this waste management approach, which can be considered both treatment and disposal. In general, land farming refers to the repeated application of wastes to the soil surface, whereas land spreading and land treatment are used interchangeably to describe the one-time application of wastes to the soil surface.

Some practitioners do not follow the same terminology convention, may interchange all three terms. Readers should focus on the technologies rather than on the specific names given to each process. Optimal land application techniques balance the additions of waste against a soil's capacity to assimilate the waste constituents without destroying soil integrity, creating subsurface soil contamination problems, or causing other adverse environmental impacts; the exploration and production industry has used land farming to treat oily petroleum industry wastes for years. Land farming is the controlled and repeated application of wastes to the soil surface, using microorganisms in the soil to biodegrade hydrocarbon constituents and attenuate metals, transform and assimilate waste constituents. Land farming can be a low-cost drilling waste management approach; some studies indicate that land farming does not adversely affect soils and may benefit certain sandy soils by increasing their water-retaining capacity and reducing fertilizer losses.

Inorganic compounds and metals are diluted in the soil, may be incorporated into the matrix (th

Carl Meinhof

Carl Friedrich Michael Meinhof was a German linguist and one of the first linguists to study African languages. Meinhof was born in Barzwitz near Rügenwalde in the Province of Pomerania, he studied at the University of Greifswald. In 1905 he became professor at the School of Oriental Studies in Berlin. On 5 May 1933 he became a member of the Nazi Party, his most notable work was developing comparative grammar studies of the Bantu languages, building on the pioneering work of Wilhelm Bleek. In his work, Meinhof looked at the common Bantu languages such as Swahili and Zulu to determine similarities and differences. In his work, Meinhof looked at noun classes with all Bantu languages having at least 10 classes and with 22 classes of nouns existing throughout the Bantu languages, though his definition of noun class differs from the accepted one, considering the plural form of a word as belonging to a different class from the singular form. While no language has all 22 classes active, Venda has 20, Lozi has 18, Ganda has 16 or 17.

All Bantu languages have a noun class for humans. Meinhof examined other African languages, including groups classified at the time as Kordofanian, Bushman and Hamitic. Meinhof developed a comprehensive classification scheme for African languages, his classification was the standard one for many years. It was replaced by those of Joseph Greenberg in 1955 and in 1963. In 1902, Meinhof made recordings of East African music; these are among the first recordings made of traditional African music. In 1912, Carl Meinhof published Die Sprachen der Hamiten, he used the term Hamitic. Meinhof's system of classification of the Hamitic languages was based on a belief that "speakers of Hamitic became coterminous with cattle herding peoples with Caucasian origins, intrinsically different from and superior to the'Negroes of Africa'." However, in the case of the so-called Nilo-Hamitic languages, it was based on the typological feature of gender and a "fallacious theory of language mixture." Meinhof did this in spite of earlier work by scholars such as Lepsius and Johnston demonstrating that the languages which he would dub "Nilo-Hamitic" were in fact Nilotic languages with numerous similarities in vocabulary with other Nilotic languages.

Carl Meinhof was the great-uncle of Ulrike Meinhof, a founding member of the German Red Army Faction, a left-wing militant group, which operated in West Germany in the 1970s and 1980s. Ernst Dammann and Nazi, employed by Meinhof Greenberg, Joseph H. 1955. Studies in African Linguistic Classification. New Haven: Compass Publishing Company. Greenberg, Joseph H. 1963. The Languages of Africa. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. Meinhof, Carl. 1906. Grundzüge einer vergleichenden Grammatik der Bantusprachen. Berlin: Reimer. Pugach, Sara. 2004. "Images of race and redemption: The Protestant missionary contribution to Carl Meinhof's Zeitschrift für Kolonialsprachen", Le Fait Missionaire: Social Sciences and Missions 15, 59-96. Newspaper clippings about Carl Meinhof in the 20th Century Press Archives of the ZBW

Mahindra World City, New Chennai

Mahindra World City, Chennai is India's first operational Special Economic Zone and India's first integrated business city. It is a public–private partnership promoted by the Mahindra Group and TIDCO. Mahindra World City is located outside Chennai city and was inaugurated on 21 September 2002 by the Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu J. Jayalalitha. Built on the model of sustainable urbanisation Mahindra World City grew from a bed of business and sustainable practices before evolving into a integrated city within a decade of its inauguration. Situated on the NH 45, Mahindra World City is located 50 km from Chennai city, it is one of the largest integrated business cities on the Golden Quadrilateral spread over 1,500 acres. It is surrounded by a reserve forest and natural lakes. Several engineering colleges and technical institutions are located along this corridor around MWC, Chennai; the core purpose of the city was building a source of livelihood from which social infrastructure and residential would evolve.

It has drawn businesses from different parts of the globe to set up facilities in India. Mahindra World City is now a mature business district with leading companies such as Infosys, BMW, Braun, TTK Group, Njmestronics, Renault-Nissan, Tech Mahindra, Wabco, NTN, Lincoln Electric, Timken, cyber vole and TVS Group, parker among others having set up within its premises. Being one of the largest IT parks in the area along with a host of other industries, more than 25,000 employees have found employment in this zone. BMW's latest vehicle the 3 Series Gran Turismo was rolled out of their plant in MWC Chennai; the layout of the city is broken up in to Zones by the utility of the land. There are 3 sector-specific Special Economic Zones - IT, Auto Ancillaries and Apparel and Fashion Accessories, a Domestic Tariff Area and a Residential / Social zone. Spread across 285 acres, the Residential zone has been planned to provide living spaces supported by modern social infrastructure to over 6,000 families across diverse segments.

The MWC administration operates as the municipal corporation for the city with responsibility for the provision and maintenance of the infrastructure and other facilities. Mahindra World City is well connected by both road and rail links, with Paranur railway station on site, it is 35 km away from 55 km from Chennai Seaport. Paranur railway station is a public private partnership initiative between Mahindra World City and Southern Railways, it is the first railway station to be maintained by the corporate sector. Mahindra World School opened in June 2008; the coeducational school based on the CBSE syllabus is functional from classes kindergarten to standard Xll, with 843 students and 65 teachers. The school will cater both to the schooling needs of the children of Mahindra World City employees/residents as well as of those residing in surrounding areas. Designed by the architect, the school is spread over a 5-acre campus nestled amidst sylvan surroundings; the school has received the National School Sanitation Award in 2012.

Mahindra Research Valley, the key research wing of the Mahindra Group is housed on 125 acres at the Mahindra World City, Chennai, MRV has been designed by Padma Vibhushan, Shri Charles Correa. It is home to over 2500 engineers and designers working in one of the most modern automobile and tractor R&D facilities in India. There is a mosque constructed by United Islamic Welfare Association inside Mahindra city situated in Blossom avenue besides Downtown stay in the road opposite to Canopy; this mosque is called as Mahindra City Mosque or Masjid-E-Mubarak. The Mahindra Group has plans to replicate this model of an integrated business city with industrial and social infrastructure at Gummidipoondi in north part of Chennai; the Gummidipoondi facility will cover 1,000 acres abutting NH5 will focus on Domestic Tariff Area. It will have a logistics park and a residential park