SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Drinking

Drinking is the act of ingesting water or other liquids into the body through the mouth, proboscis, or elsewhere. Humans drink by swallowing, completed by peristalsis in the esophagus; the physiological processes of drinking vary among other animals. Most animals drink water to maintain bodily hydration, although many can survive on the water gained from their food. Water is required for many physiological processes. Both excessive and inadequate water intake are associated with health problems; when a liquid enters a human mouth, the swallowing process is completed by peristalsis which delivers the liquid through the esophagus to the stomach. The liquid may be poured from the hands or drinkware may be used as vessels. Drinking can be performed by acts of inhalation when imbibing hot liquids or drinking from a spoon. Infants employ a method of suction wherein the lips are pressed tight around a source, as in breastfeeding: a combination of breath and tongue movement creates a vacuum which draws in liquid.

Amphibians and aquatic animals which live in freshwater do not need to drink: they absorb water through the skin by osmosis. Saltwater fish, drink through the mouth as they swim, purge the excess salt through the gills. By necessity, terrestrial animals in captivity become accustomed to drinking water, but most free-roaming animals stay hydrated through the fluids and moisture in fresh food; when conditions impel them to drink from bodies of water, the methods and motions differ among species. Cats and ruminants all lower the neck and lap in water with their powerful tongues. Cats and canines lap up water with the tongue in a spoon-like shape. Canines lap water by scooping it into their mouth with a tongue which has taken the shape of a ladle. However, with cats, only the tip of their tongue touches the water, the cat pulls its tongue backing into its mouth which soon closes. Ruminants and most other herbivores submerge the tip of the mouth in order to draw in water by means of a plunging action with the tongue held straight.

Cats drink at a slower pace than ruminants, who face greater natural predation hazards. Many desert animals do not drink if water becomes available, but rely on eating succulent plants. In cold and frozen environments, some animals like hares, tree squirrels, bighorn sheep resort to consuming snow and icicles. In savannas, the drinking method of giraffes has been a source of speculation for its apparent defiance of gravity. Uniquely, elephants squirt it into their mouths. Most birds scoop or draw water into the buccal areas of their bills and tilting their heads back to drink. An exception is the common pigeon. Most insects obtain adequate water from their food: When dehydrated from a lack of moist food, many species will drink from standing water. Additionally, all terrestrial insects absorb a certain amount of the air's humidity through their cuticles; some desert insects have evolved to drink from nighttime fog. Like nearly all other life forms, humans require water for tissue hydration. Lack of hydration causes thirst, a desire to drink, regulated by the hypothalamus in response to subtle changes in the body's electrolyte levels and blood volume.

A decline in total body water is called dehydration and will lead to death by hypernatremia. Methods used in the management of dehydration include oral rehydration therapy. An overconsumption of water can lead to water intoxication, which can dangerously dilute the concentration of salts in the body. Overhydration sometimes occurs among athletes and outdoor laborers, but it can be a sign of disease or damage to the hypothalamus. A persistent desire to drink inordinate quantities of water is a psychological condition termed polydipsia, it is accompanied by polyuria and may itself be a symptom of Diabetes mellitus or Diabetes insipidus. A daily intake of water is required for the normal physiological functioning of the human body; the USDA recommends a daily intake of total water: not by drinking but by consumption of water contained in other beverages and foods. The recommended intake is 3.7 liters per day for an adult male, 2.7 liters for an adult female. Other sources, claim that a high intake of fresh drinking water and distinct from other sources of moisture, is necessary for good health – eight servings per day of eight fluid ounces is the amount recommended by many nutritionists, although there is no scientific evidence supporting this recommendation.

The term “drinking” is used metonymically for the consumption of alcoholic beverages. Most cultures throughout history have incorporated some number of the wide variety of "strong drinks" into their meals, ceremonies and other occasions. Evidence of fermented drinks in human culture goes back as early as the Neolithic Period, the first pictorial evidence can be found in Egypt around 4,000 BC. Alcohol consumption has developed into a variety of well-established drinking cultures around the world. Despite its popularity, alcohol consumption poses significant health risks. Alcohol abuse and the addiction of alcoholism are common maladies in developed countries worldwide. A high rate of consumption can lead to cirrhosis, gout, hypertension, various forms of cancer, num

Philippists

The Philippists formed a party in early Lutheranism. Their opponents were called Gnesio-Lutherans. Philippists was the designation applied in the latter half of the sixteenth century to the followers of Philipp Melanchthon, it originated among the opposite or Flacian party, was applied at first to the theologians of the universities of Wittenberg and Leipzig, who were all adherents of Melanchthon's distinctive views those in which he approximated to Roman Catholic doctrine on the subject of free will and the value of good works, to the Swiss Reformers' on the Lord's Supper. Somewhat it was used in Saxony to designate a distinct party organized by Melanchthon's son-in-law Caspar Peucer, with George Cracovius, Johann Stössel, others, to work for a union of all the Protestant forces, as a means to which end they attempted to break down by this attitude the barriers which separated Lutherans and Calvinists. Melanchthon had won, by his eminent abilities as a teacher and his clear, scholastic formulation of doctrine, a large number of disciples among whom were included some of the most zealous Lutherans, such as Matthias Flacius and Tilemann Heshusius, afterward to be numbered among the vehement opponents of Philippism.

As long as Luther lived, the conflict with external foes and the work of building up the Evangelical Church so absorbed the Reformers that the internal differences which had begun to show themselves were kept in the background. But no sooner was Luther dead than did the internal, as well as the external, peace of the Lutheran Church decline, it was a misfortune not only for Melanchthon but for the whole Lutheran body, that he who had stood as a teacher by the side Luther, the original leader, was now forced into the position to head not only the University of Wittenberg but the entire Evangelical Church of Germany. There was among Luther's associates, notably Nikolaus von Amsdorf, a disinclination to accept Melanchthon's leadership. When, in the negotiations between German Protestants and Catholics that resulted in the Augsburg Interim and Leipzig Interim, Melanchthon showed himself ready to yield and make concessions on matters adiaphora, he ruined his position with a large part of the Evangelical theologians.

An opposition party was formed in which the leadership was assumed by Flacius in view of his learning, controversial ability, inflexible firmness. Melanchthon, on the other hand, with his faithful followers Joachim Camerarius, Georg Major, Justus Menius, Johann Pfeffinger, Paul Eber, Caspar Cruciger the Elder, Victorinus Strigel, others saw in the self-styled genuine Lutherans nothing but a narrow and contentious class, ignoring the inherent teaching of Luther, sought to domineer over the church by letter and name, in addition to assert its own ambitious self. On the other hand, the Philippists regarded themselves as the faithful guardians of learning over against the alleged "barbarism," and as the mean between the extremes; the genuine Lutherans claimed to be representatives of the pure doctrine, defenders of orthodoxy, heirs of the spirit of Martin Luther. Personal and ecclesiastical animosities widened the breach; the actual conflict began with the controversy over the Interim and the question of Adiaphora in 1548 and the following years.

In the negotiations concerning the Leipzig Interim the Wittenberg theologians as well as Johann Pfeffinger and the intimate of Melanchthon, George of Anhalt, were on the side of Melanchthon, thus drew upon themselves the violent opposition of the strict Lutherans, under the leadership of Flacius, who now severed his connection with Wittenberg. When the Philippist Georg Major at Wittenberg and Justus Menius at Gotha put forth the proposition that good works were necessary to salvation, or as Menius preferred to say "the new obedience, the new life, is necessary to salvation," they were not only conscious of the danger that the doctrine of justification by faith alone would lead to antinomianism and moral laxity but they manifested a tendency to bring into account the necessary connection of justification and regeneration: namely, that justification as possession of forgiving grace by faith is indeed not conditioned by obedience, but neither Major nor Menius was sufficiently firm in his view to stand against the charge of denying the doctrine of justification and going over to the Roman camp, thus they were driven back to the general proposition of justification by faith alone.

The Formula of Concord closed the controversy by avoiding both extremes, but failed to offer a final solution of the question demanded by the original motive of the controversy. The synergistic controversy, breaking out about the same time sprang out of the ethical interest which had induced Melanchthon to enunciate the doctrine of free will in opposition to his previous predestinarianism. After the clash in 1555 between Pfeffinger and Amsdorf and Flacius, Strigel went deeper into the matter in 1559 and insisted that grace worked upon sinful men as upon personalities, not natural objects without a will.

Physical Research Laboratory

The Physical Research Laboratory is a National Research Institute for space and allied sciences, supported by Department of Space, Government of India. This research laboratory has ongoing research programmes in astronomy and astrophysics, atmospheric sciences and aeronomy, Earth sciences, Solar System studies and theoretical physics, it is located in Ahmedabad. Known as the cradle of space sciences in India, the Physical Research Laboratory was founded on 11 November 1947 by Dr. Vikram Sarabhai; the laboratory had a modest beginning at his residence, with research on cosmic rays. The institute was formally established at the M. G. Science Institute, with support from the Karmkshetra Educational Foundation and the Ahmedabad Education Society. Prof. Kalpathi Ramakrishna Ramanathan was the first Director of the institute; the initial focus was the properties of the upper atmosphere. Research areas were expanded to include theoretical physics and radio physics with grants from the Atomic Energy Commission.

Today PRL is involved in research, related to five major fields of science. PRL is instrumental in the PLANEX planetary science and exploration programme. In June 2018, PRL scientists discovered exoplanet EPIC 211945201b or K2-236b, located 600 light years away from the Earth; the building of the PRL was designed by Achyut Kanvinde in 1962. PRL research encompasses Solar System and cosmic radiation. Astronomy and astrophysics: Current research programmes include studies on star formation, evolution of intermediate mass stars and polarimetric studies of active galaxies and BL Lac objects and high angular resolution studies by lunar occultations, study on circumstellar structure; the astronomical observations are taken through a 1.2 m telescope, located in Mount Abu. The laboratory has undertaken solar photospheric and chromospheric studies under the Global Oscillations Network Group project at Udaipur Solar Observatory. A 12 ft SPAR telescope is being used in this project. Planetary sciences and Planex:study of planetary sciences and exploration Planetary atmospheres and aeronomy: The institute has been investigating the electric and magnetic fields, plasma instabilities and the dynamics of the upper atmosphere are being carried out by elegant radio and plasma diagnostic techniques.

The role of trace gases in the chemical and radiative properties of the Earth's atmosphere and their impact on climate and electrodynamical parameters of the middle atmosphere are a few of the topics which are being studied. Earth sciences: Studies that are related to geochronology, glaciology and palaeoclimatology are carried out in this institute. Isotope geology is one of the most researched subjects. Theoretical physics: Current research programmes include neutrino physics, physics beyond standard model and non-standard CP violation, Fermion masses, super-symmetry, phenomenology of higher-dimensional theories, QCD and quark gluon plasma, colour superconductivity, chiral symmetry breaking, study of quantum chaos in nuclear energy levels, group theoretical models and nuclear structures, study of atomic Rydberg states, stark spectroscopy of atomic levels, stability analysis of synchronised structures in coupled map networks. Quantum optics and quantum information: Production and characterisation of entangled states, cavity QED, realisation of quantum gates and networks and retrieval of quantum information and superluminal propagation of light, dynamics of Bose-Einstein condensates and cold Fermions, non-commutative field theory, optical resonators and optical fibres are studied theoretically.

Experimental study of optical vortices is pursued. The Physical Research Laboratory holds public lectures, it has a workshop, computer centre and various other laboratories. It offers a five-year doctoral programme in physics, with specialisations in theoretical physics and complex systems, outer space and atmospheric sciences, quantum optics and quantum information and astrophysics; the admission is through interview. The research institution offers national awards to scientists who have made outstanding contributions in the field of science and technology; the awards presented are: Hari Om Ashram Prerit Senior Scientist Award Hari Om Ashram Prerit Vikram Sarabhai Research Awards, PRL Award Aayushi award 1950s: Cosmic rays, atmospheric sciences 1960s: Theoretical physics, radio physics 1970s: Earth and planetary sciences infrared astronomy 1980s: Particle physics, Solar physics 1990s: Laser physics and quantum optics, non-linear dynamics and computational physics, astroparticle physics and cosmology 2000s: Quantum information, solar X-ray astronomy, submillimeter astronomy, planetary exploration 2010s: Exoplanet detection