Silver is a chemical element with symbol Ag and atomic number 47. A soft, lustrous transition metal, it exhibits the highest electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, reflectivity of any metal; the metal is found in the Earth's crust in the pure, free elemental form, as an alloy with gold and other metals, in minerals such as argentite and chlorargyrite. Most silver is produced as a byproduct of copper, gold and zinc refining. Silver has long been valued as a precious metal. Silver metal is used in many bullion coins, sometimes alongside gold: while it is more abundant than gold, it is much less abundant as a native metal, its purity is measured on a per-mille basis. As one of the seven metals of antiquity, silver has had an enduring role in most human cultures. Other than in currency and as an investment medium, silver is used in solar panels, water filtration, ornaments, high-value tableware and utensils, in electrical contacts and conductors, in specialized mirrors, window coatings, in catalysis of chemical reactions, as a colorant in stained glass and in specialised confectionery.
Its compounds are used in X-ray film. Dilute solutions of silver nitrate and other silver compounds are used as disinfectants and microbiocides, added to bandages and wound-dressings and other medical instruments. Silver is similar in its physical and chemical properties to its two vertical neighbours in group 11 of the periodic table and gold, its 47 electrons are arranged in the configuration 4d105s1 to copper and gold. This distinctive electron configuration, with a single electron in the highest occupied s subshell over a filled d subshell, accounts for many of the singular properties of metallic silver. Silver is an soft and malleable transition metal, though it is less malleable than gold. Silver crystallizes in a face-centered cubic lattice with bulk coordination number 12, where only the single 5s electron is delocalized to copper and gold. Unlike metals with incomplete d-shells, metallic bonds in silver are lacking a covalent character and are weak; this observation explains the low high ductility of single crystals of silver.
Silver has a brilliant white metallic luster that can take a high polish, and, so characteristic that the name of the metal itself has become a colour name. Unlike copper and gold, the energy required to excite an electron from the filled d band to the s-p conduction band in silver is large enough that it no longer corresponds to absorption in the visible region of the spectrum, but rather in the ultraviolet. Protected silver has greater optical reflectivity than aluminium at all wavelengths longer than ~450 nm. At wavelengths shorter than 450 nm, silver's reflectivity is inferior to that of aluminium and drops to zero near 310 nm. High electrical and thermal conductivity is common to the elements in group 11, because their single s electron is free and does not interact with the filled d subshell, as such interactions lower electron mobility; the electrical conductivity of silver is the greatest of all metals, greater than copper, but it is not used for this property because of the higher cost.
An exception is in radio-frequency engineering at VHF and higher frequencies where silver plating improves electrical conductivity because those currents tend to flow on the surface of conductors rather than through the interior. During World War II in the US, 13540 tons of silver were used in electromagnets for enriching uranium because of the wartime shortage of copper. Pure silver has the highest thermal conductivity of any metal, although the conductivity of carbon and superfluid helium-4 are higher. Silver has the lowest contact resistance of any metal. Silver forms alloys with copper and gold, as well as zinc. Zinc-silver alloys with low zinc concentration may be considered as face-centred cubic solid solutions of zinc in silver, as the structure of the silver is unchanged while the electron concentration rises as more zinc is added. Increasing the electron concentration further leads to body-centred cubic, complex cubic, hexagonal close-packed phases. Occurring silver is composed of two stable isotopes, 107Ag and 109Ag, with 107Ag being more abundant.
This equal abundance is rare in the periodic table. The atomic weight is 107.8682 u. Both isotopes of silver are produced in stars via the s-process, as well as in supernovas via the r-process. Twenty-eight radioisotopes have been characterized, the most stable being 105Ag with a half-life of 41.29 days, 111Ag with a half-life of 7.45 days, 112Ag with a half-life of 3.13 hours. Silver has numerous nuclear isomers, the most stable being 108mAg, 110mAg and 106mAg. All of the remaining radioactive isotopes have half-lives of less than an hour, the majority of these have half-lives of less than three minutes. Isotopes of silver range in relative atomic mass from 92.950 u
Beer glassware comprises the drinking vessels made of glass designed or used for drinking beer. Different styles of glassware exist for a number of reasons: they may reflect national traditions. Several kinds of beer glassware have a stem which serves to prevent the body heat of the drinker's hand from warming the beer; some countries require fill lines on glasses to ensure customers receive the full volume of beer ordered. Beer glasses are made from a variety of materials not limited to glass, including stoneware, earthenware and wood. A pilsner glass is used for many types including pale lager or pilsner. Pilsner glasses are smaller than a pint glass in 200 millilitres, 250 ml, 300 ml, 330 ml or 400 ml sizes. In Europe, 500 ml glasses are common, they are tall and tapered. The slender glass reveals the colour, carbonation of the beer, the broad top helps maintain a beer head. Weizen glasses are sometimes mistakenly called pilsner glasses because they are somewhat similar in appearance, but true pilsner glasses have an taper without any amount of curvature.
The definition of a pint differs by country, thus a pint glass will reflect the regular measure of beer in that country. In the UK, law stipulates. Half-pint glasses of 10 imp fl oz are smaller versions of pint glasses. Quarter-pint glasses of 5 imp fl oz exist, are popular in Australia, where they are known as a "pony"; these may be smaller pint glasses, or may be a special pony glass. In the US, a pint is 16 US fl oz, but the volume is not regulated and glasses may vary somewhat. Glasses of 500 ml are called pints in American parlance; the common shapes of pint glass are: Conical glasses are shaped, as the name suggests, as an inverted truncated cone around 6 inches tall and tapering by about 1 inch in diameter over its height. The nonic, a variation on the conical design, where the glass bulges out a couple of inches from the top; the term "nonic" derives from "no nick". Jug glasses, or "dimple mugs", are shaped more like a large mug with a handle, they are moulded with a grid pattern of thickened glass on the outside, somewhat resembling the segmentation of a WWII-era hand grenade.
The dimples prevent the glass slipping out of the fingers in a washing-up bowl, the design of the glass emphasises strength to withstand frequent manual washing. These design features became less important when manual washing was superseded by machine washing from the 1960s onwards. Dimpled glasses are regarded as more traditional; this sort of glass is known as a "Handle" due to the handle on the glass. They are popular with the older generation and people with restricted movement in their hands which can make holding a usual pint glass difficult, they have started to make a renaissance in northern Britain. Beer connoisseurs sometimes invest in special, non-traditional glassware to enhance their appreciation. An example was the range marketed by Michael "Beer Hunter" Jackson. Used for serving brandy and cognac, a snifter is ideal for capturing the volatiles of aromatic beers such as Double/Imperial IPAs, Belgian ales, barley wines and wheat wines; the shape helps trap the volatiles, while allowing swirling to agitate them and produce an intense aroma.
Glasses holding 1/3 of a pint or less may be used to: Try a beer in a pub or café before purchasing a full measure Split a bottle of rare or strong beer between friends Sample multiple beers without becoming inebriated. For instance a brewpub might provide a sampler of three different brews in 1⁄3 pint measures. Plastic beer vessels are shaped in imitation of whichever glasses are usual in the locality, they are used as a substitute for glass vessels where breakages would be problematic or for instance at outdoor events. A weizen glass is used to serve wheat beer. Originating in Germany, the glass is narrow at the bottom and wider at the top, it tends to be taller than a pint glass, holds 500 ml with room for foam or "head". In some countries, such as Belgium, the glass may be 250 330 ml. Wheat beers tend to foam a lot if poured quickly. In pubs, if the bottle is handed to the patron for self pouring, it is customary for the glass to be taken to the patron wet or with a bit of water in the bottom to be swirled around to wet the entire glass to keep the beer from foaming excessively.
A beer stein or simply'stein' is an English neologism for either traditional beer mugs made out of stoneware, or ornamental beer mugs that are sold as souvenirs or collectibles. Such steins may be made out of stoneware, porcelain, or silver, wood or crystal glass.
Orienteering is a group of sports that require navigational skills using a map and compass to navigate from point to point in diverse and unfamiliar terrain whilst moving at speed. Participants are given a topographical map a specially prepared orienteering map, which they use to find control points. A training exercise in land navigation for military officers, orienteering has developed many variations. Among these, the oldest and the most popular is foot orienteering. For the purposes of this article, foot orienteering serves as a point of departure for discussion of all other variations, but any sport that involves racing against a clock and requires navigation with a map is a type of orienteering. Orienteering is included in the programs of world sporting events including the World Games and World Police and Fire Games. Orienteering sports combine significant navigation with a specific method of travel; because the method of travel determines the needed equipment and tactics, each sport requires specific rules for competition and guidelines for orienteering event logistics and course design.
International Orienteering Federation, the governing body of the sport sanctions the following four disciplines as official disciplines in the sport of orienteering: Foot orienteering Mountain bike orienteering Ski orienteering Trail orienteering Moreover, International Amateur Radio Union sanctions the following orienteering sport: Amateur radio direction finding Other orienteering disciplines include, but are not limited to: Canoe orienteering Car orienteering Mountain marathoning Mounted orienteering Rogaining SportLabyrinth – micro orienteeringAdventure racing is a combination of two or more disciplines, includes orienteering as part of the race. At international level, the International Orienteering Federation defines rules and guidelines which govern four orienteering sports: foot orienteering, mountain bike orienteering, ski orienteering, trail orienteering, it is based in Finland and it claims on its website to aim to "spread the sport of orienteering, to promote its development and to create and maintain an attractive world event programme."
Since 1977 the IOF has been recognised by the IOC There are governing bodies for most of the individual nations that are represented in the sport of orienteering. These national bodies are the rule-making body for that nation. For example, the British Orienteering Federation is the national governing body for the United Kingdom; the federation was founded in 1967 and it is made up of 13 constituent associations. For the United States, the national governing body is Orienteering USA. Most nations have some form of regional governing bodies; these are not rule-making bodies but are there to assist in coordinating clubs within that region, e.g. they may allocate dates so that clubs do not clash with their events. Clubs are formed at a local level and affiliated to their national governing body, it is clubs who put on events open to all-comers. Clubs may put on practice and social events. Open clubs are open to anyone and there is no restriction on joining them. Closed clubs restrict their membership to specific groups.
For example, BAOC has restrictions on, principally British Army personnel. The International Rogaining Federation governs rogaining. Separate organizations govern; the International Amateur Radio Union governs amateur radio direction finding. Orienteering terms vary within English speaking countries, in other countries where English is the de facto international language of orienteering. Variations are set out in table below; the history of orienteering begins in the late 19th century in Sweden, the actual term "orientering" was first used in 1886 at the Swedish Military Academy Karlberg and meant the crossing of unknown land with the aid of a map and a compass. In Sweden, orienteering grew from military training in land navigation into a competitive sport for military officers for civilians; the name is derived from a word root meaning to find the location. The first civilian orienteering competition open to the public was held in Norway in 1897 back when Norway was still part apart of the Swedish union.
From the beginning, locations selected for orienteering have been chosen in part for their beauty, natural or man-made. For the first public orienteering competition in Sweden, in 1901, control points included two historic churches, Spånga kyrka and Bromma kyrka. With the invention of inexpensive yet reliable compasses, the sport gained popularity during the 1930s. By 1934, over a quarter million Swedes were participants, orienteering had spread to Finland, the Soviet Union, Hungary. Following World War II, orienteering spread throughout Europe and to Asia, North America and Oceania. In Sweden in 1959, an international orienteering conference was held. Representatives from 12 countries participated. In 1961, orienteering organizations representing 10 European nations founded the International Orienteering Federation. Since IOF has supported the founding of many national orienteering federations. By 2010, 71 national orienteering federations were member societies of the International Orienteering Federation.
These federations enabled the develop
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 12th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity. Following this period was the beginning of the Early Middle Ages and the Byzantine era. Three centuries after the Late Bronze Age collapse of Mycenaean Greece, Greek urban poleis began to form in the 8th century BC, ushering in the Archaic period and colonization of the Mediterranean Basin; this was followed by the period of Classical Greece, an era that began with the Greco-Persian Wars, lasting from the 5th to 4th centuries BC. Due to the conquests by Alexander the Great of Macedon, Hellenistic civilization flourished from Central Asia to the western end of the Mediterranean Sea; the Hellenistic period came to an end with the conquests and annexations of the eastern Mediterranean world by the Roman Republic, which established the Roman province of Macedonia in Roman Greece, the province of Achaea during the Roman Empire. Classical Greek culture philosophy, had a powerful influence on ancient Rome, which carried a version of it to many parts of the Mediterranean Basin and Europe.
For this reason, Classical Greece is considered to be the seminal culture which provided the foundation of modern Western culture and is considered the cradle of Western civilization. Classical Greek culture gave great importance to knowledge. Science and religion were not separate and getting closer to the truth meant getting closer to the gods. In this context, they understood the importance of mathematics as an instrument for obtaining more reliable knowledge. Greek culture, in a few centuries and with a limited population, managed to explore and make progress in many fields of science, mathematics and knowledge in general. Classical antiquity in the Mediterranean region is considered to have begun in the 8th century BC and ended in the 6th century AD. Classical antiquity in Greece was preceded by the Greek Dark Ages, archaeologically characterised by the protogeometric and geometric styles of designs on pottery. Following the Dark Ages was the Archaic Period, beginning around the 8th century BC.
The Archaic Period saw early developments in Greek culture and society which formed the basis for the Classical Period. After the Archaic Period, the Classical Period in Greece is conventionally considered to have lasted from the Persian invasion of Greece in 480 until the death of Alexander the Great in 323; the period is characterized by a style, considered by observers to be exemplary, i.e. "classical", as shown in the Parthenon, for instance. Politically, the Classical Period was dominated by Athens and the Delian League during the 5th century, but displaced by Spartan hegemony during the early 4th century BC, before power shifted to Thebes and the Boeotian League and to the League of Corinth led by Macedon; this period saw the Greco-Persian Wars and the Rise of Macedon. Following the Classical period was the Hellenistic period, during which Greek culture and power expanded into the Near and Middle East; this period ends with the Roman conquest. Roman Greece is considered to be the period between Roman victory over the Corinthians at the Battle of Corinth in 146 BC and the establishment of Byzantium by Constantine as the capital of the Roman Empire in AD 330.
Late Antiquity refers to the period of Christianization during the 4th to early 6th centuries AD, sometimes taken to be complete with the closure of the Academy of Athens by Justinian I in 529. The historical period of ancient Greece is unique in world history as the first period attested directly in proper historiography, while earlier ancient history or proto-history is known by much more circumstantial evidence, such as annals or king lists, pragmatic epigraphy. Herodotus is known as the "father of history": his Histories are eponymous of the entire field. Written between the 450s and 420s BC, Herodotus' work reaches about a century into the past, discussing 6th century historical figures such as Darius I of Persia, Cambyses II and Psamtik III, alluding to some 8th century ones such as Candaules. Herodotus was succeeded by authors such as Thucydides, Demosthenes and Aristotle. Most of these authors were either Athenian or pro-Athenian, why far more is known about the history and politics of Athens than those of many other cities.
Their scope is further limited by a focus on political and diplomatic history, ignoring economic and social history. In the 8th century BC, Greece began to emerge from the Dark Ages which followed the fall of the Mycenaean civilization. Literacy had been lost and Mycenaean script forgotten, but the Greeks adopted the Phoenician alphabet, modifying it to create the Greek alphabet. Objects with Phoenician writing on them may have been available in Greece from the 9th century BC, but the earliest evidence of Greek writing comes from graffiti on Greek pottery from the mid-8th century. Greece was divided into many small self-governing communities, a pattern dictated by Greek geography: every island and plain is cut off from its neighbors by the sea or mountain ranges; the Lelantine War is the earliest documented war of the ancient Greek period. It was fought between the important poleis of Chalcis and Eretria over the fertile Lelantine plain of Euboea. Both cities seem to have suffered a decline as result of the long war, though Chalcis was the nominal victor.
A mercantile class arose in the first half of the 7th century BC, shown by the introduction of coinage in about 680 BC. This
A pub crawl is the act of drinking in multiple pubs or bars in a single night. Many European cities have public pub crawls that serve as social gatherings for local expatriates and tourists, they enable participants to become acquainted with new bars in a strange city. In the UK, pub crawls are spontaneous nights out in which the participants arrange to meet somewhere and decide over drinks where to drink next. Structured routes with regular stops are rare. Most drinking sessions based around a special occasion such as a birthday or a leaving celebration will involve a pub-crawl with the group splitting up but agreeing on meeting at the next location, it is a common sight in UK towns to see several groups orbiting the various drinking locations with little apparent coherence or structure. In the north of Spain, around the Basque Country, the tradition for groups of male friends crawling pubs and drinking a short glass of wine at each pub, singing traditional songs, is known as txikiteo or chiquiteo, can be held at night or day.
By the end of the 20th century, it was extended to women, when it involves a wider variety of drinks, it is more called poteo. The SantaCon pub crawl originated in San Francisco in 1994 and has since spread to 300 cities in 44 countries, including New York City. London, Vancouver and Moscow; the New York SantaCon is the largest, with an estimated 30,000 people participating in 2012. Other events were more subdued, with 30 participating in Spokane, Washington. In New York City, where it has taken place since 1997, it has come under widespread criticism for rowdiness by participants, with drunken behavior that has disrupted parts of Manhattan and Brooklyn, led to calls for the event to be ended and for participant misbehavior to be curbed. Former Police Commissioner Raymond Kelly said that despite "some rowdy actions by a small handful of people in the past," SantaCon was "an event that we support. It’s what makes New York New York." During the New York City SantaCon in 2012, participants "left a trail of trouble" through Hell's Kitchen, Midtown Manhattan, the East Village and Williamsburg.
Residents complained revelers fought with each other. In London, the London Santa Pub Crawl has been held each December since 2004; the event sees participants dress up as Santa Claus, visit a selection of London pubs along a pre-planned route. From just 25 participants in its first year, the event now sees more than 300 Santas take to the streets to enjoy the festivities. Participants are asked to donate to support the event's nominated charity, more than £5,000 has been raised over the years for the British Red Cross and St Christopher's Hospice; the 2014 London Santa Pub Crawl will take place on Saturday 13 December 2014. In Brisbane, the Christmas Pub Crawl runs each year on the first Saturday following the end of the school year in December; this event has been running annually since 1982 and is now "the world's longest running pub crawl". Santa-themed pub crawls take place each December in the towns of Wollongong and Grafton, with proceeds donated to charity. In 2015 local police were opposed by the mayor.
A pub crawl is run annually by The Adelaide University Engineering Society. The event attracts students from all over South Australia to as many as 34 local clubs. In 2015 the event had 6000 participants while 2013 both had 5000 participants; the Mining and Metallurgy Association at the University of Queensland have been awarded the Brisbane City Council and University of Queensland Union Award for Social Activities of the Year due to their well-known Pub Crawl. A pub crawl held annually in Maryborough, Australia, attracted 4,718 participants on 14 June 2009. An annual St. Patrick's Day bar crawl, LepreCon, takes place in New Jersey; the 2016 event, held in the evening 5–6 March, degenerated into a violent brawl. Fifteen people were arrested and 35 hospitalized, including two police officers; the officers were injured. Hoboken police responded to 432 calls from service during the event and issued 54 tickets for public drinking; the 2015 event resulted in 11 arrests. The 2016 LepreCont cost the City of Hoboken $110,000 in police overtime.
Two hundred officers were deployed for the event. Hoboken's police chief, Ken Ferrante, said he was "disturbed by the repeated behavior, occurring on these types of themed events," and said he "will not tolerate having any of our officers injured, for the purposes of a few to make a financial profit at the expense of our residents."Running A Tab Pub Run takes place monthly in San Antonio, is hosted by WeRunSanAntonio. The original Running A Tab Pub Run covered 5 miles in downtown San Antonio; the starting point was the historic Sunset Station and finished at the Blue Star Brewery and Art Complex. The event is held in conjunction with San Antonio's First Friday Art Walk. In 2009 the route was modified to accommodate the more than 500 participants every month. Running A Tab now consists of a 3-mile downtown loop and 5 bars/restaurants. A theme is selected every month and participants dress in costume in accordance with the theme; the event is open to the public. In Charlotte, North Carolina, there is a yearly pub crawl on Saint Patrick's Day.
In 2012 the pub crawl had more than 15,000 participants 6000 more than the previous year which had 8987. In Louisville, the "Bambi Walk" has been underway since the 1980s. In Minneapolis, Minnesota, a zombie-themed pub crawl commenced in 2005 and had gr
Unter (playing card)
The Unter called the Wenzel or Wenz, the Under, is a court card in the German and Swiss-suited playing cards, which corresponds to the Jack in French decks. The name Unter comes from the fact that the suit sign is located in the lower part of the card as opposed to the higher ranking Ober whose suit sign is located on the top of the card. Unters were described soon after the introduction of playing cards in Europe. In 1377, Johannes of Rheinfelden wrote that the lowest court card was a marshal who held his suit sign hanging down, it is that the horses were dropped to simplify production in the late 14th or early 15th centuries. In the Spanish deck, jacks are known as sota which means "under", a vestigial remnant of their common origin; the most common motifs used to depict the Unter are simple knights or farmers. Decks of four Unters are used in card games such as Skat, Mau Mau, Bavarian Tarock and Schafkopf, while decks used in games such as Gaigel and Doppelkopf use eight Unters. In Skat games using the German style cards, in German Schafkopf the Unters are the highest trump cards
Kottabos was a game of skill played at ancient Greek and Etruscan symposia in the 5th and 4th centuries BC. The game is played by flinging wine lees at targets; the player would utter the name of the object of his affection. The game appears to have been of Sicilian origin, but it spread through Greece from Thessaly to Rhodes, was fashionable at Athens. Writers including Dionysius Chalcus, Anacreon, Bacchylides, Sophocles, Euripides and Antiphanes make frequent and familiar allusion to the practice, it appears on vases from the era. References to the practice by the writers of the Roman and Alexandrian periods show that the fashion had died out. In Latin literature it is entirely unknown; the object of the player was to cast a portion of wine left in his drinking cup, in such a way that it doesn't break bulk in its passage through the air, towards a bronze "lamp stand" with a tiny statuette on top with outstretched arms delicately holding a small disc called a plastinx. Halfway down the stand was a larger disc called the manes.
To be successful the player had to knock off the plastinx in such a way that it would fall to the manes and make a bell like sound. Both the wine thrown and the noise made; the thrower, in the ordinary form of the game, was expected to retain the recumbent position, usual at table, and, in flinging the kottabos, to make use of his right hand only. To succeed in the aim of the game dexterity was required, unusual ability in the game was rated as high as corresponding excellence in throwing the javelin. Not only was the kottabos the ordinary accompaniment of the festal assembly, but, at least in Sicily, a special building of a circular form was sometimes erected so that the players might be arranged round the basin, follow each other in rapid succession. Like all games in which the element of chance found a place, it was regarded as more or less ominous of the future success of the players in matters of love – and the excitement was sometimes further augmented by some object of value being staked on the event.
Various modifications of the original principle of the game were introduced, but for practical purposes we may reckon two varieties: In Kottabos with an oxybaphon, shallow saucers were floated in a basin or mixing-bowl filled with water. The competitor who sank the greatest number was considered victorious, received the prize, which consisted of cakes or sweetmeats. Sunken kottabos is not so simple; the apparatus involved consisted of the rhabdus, the plastinx, the lecanis, the manes. The discovery in Etruscan burial sites of two sets of actual apparatus in Umbria, near Perugia, as well as various representations on Greek vases help explain the somewhat obscure accounts of how cottabus was played; the rhabdus had a flat base, the main structure tapered towards the top, with a blunt end. The plastinx had a hole near the edge and was concave in the middle. About two-thirds of the way down, the rhabdus was encircled by the lecanis. A socket near the top of the rhabdus held the manes; the manes was in the shape of a man, with his right arm and leg uplifted, sometimes holding a drinking horn.
According to Helbig, three games were played with this apparatus: The plastinx was fixed on top of the rhabdus, with the lecanis below. The players tried to fill the plastinx with enough wine to tip it over onto the lecanis. Played the same as method No. 1, except that the plastinx was supposed to hit the manes on the way down to the lecanis. Played the same as method No. 1, except that the manes was fixed on top of the rhabdus, it was at this that the wine was thrown. List of drinking games This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Cottabus". Encyclopædia Britannica. 7. Cambridge University Press; this article in turn cites: Sartoris, C. Das Kottabos-Spiel der alten Griechen. 1893. A complete treatise on the subject with a full bibliography of ancient and more modern authorities. Higgins, A. “Recent Discoveries of the Apparatus used in playing the Game of Kottabos.” Archaeologia, li. 1888. Daremberg and Saglios. “Kottabos.” Dictionnaire des antiquités de Fouquières, L. Becq.
Les Jeux des anciens. 1873. Helbig, Wolfgang. Mitteilungen des Deutschen Archäologischen Instituts. Römische Abteilung i. 1886. Smith, Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities