Drinking horn

A drinking horn is the horn of a bovid used as a drinking vessel. Drinking horns are known from Classical Antiquity the Balkans, remained in use for ceremonial purposes throughout the Middle Ages and the Early Modern period in some parts of Europe, notably in Germanic Europe, in the Caucasus. Drinking horns remain an important accessory in the culture of ritual toasting in Georgia in particular, where they are known as kantsi. Drinking vessels made from glass, ceramics or metal styled in the shape of drinking horns are known from antiquity; the ancient Greek term for a drinking horn was keras. To be distinguished from the drinking-horn proper is the rhyton, a drinking-vessel made in the shape of a horn with an outlet at the pointed end. Both in the Greek and the Scythian sphere, vessels of clay or metal shaped like horns were used alongside actual horns from an early time. A Late Archaic Attic red-figure vase shows a satyr each holding a drinking horn. During Classical Antiquity, the Thracians and Scythians in particular were known for their custom of drinking from horns.

Xenophon's account of his dealings with the Thracian leader Seuthes suggests that drinking horns were integral part of the drinking kata ton Thrakion nomon. Diodorus gives an account of a feast prepared by the Getic chief Dromichaites for Lysimachus and selected captives, the Getians' use of drinking vessels made from horn and wood is explicitly stated; the Scythian elite used horn-shaped rhyta made from precious metal. A notable example is the 5th century BC gold-and-silver rhython in the shape of a Pegasus, found in 1982 in Ulyap, now at the Museum of Oriental Art in Moscow. M. I. Maksimova in an archaeological survey of Scythian drinking horns distinguished two basic types, a curved type, a slender type with only slight curvature; this typology became standard in Soviet-era archaeology. There are a few artistic representation of Scythians drinking from horns from the rim; the oldest remains of drinking horns or rhyta known from Scythian burials are dated to the 7th century BC, reflecting Scythian contact with oriental culture during their raids of the Assyrian Empire at that time.

After these early specimens, there is a gap with only sparse evidence of Scythian drinking horns during the 6th century. Drinking horns re-appear in the context of Pontic burials in the 5th century BC: these are the specimens classified as Scythian drinking horns by Maksimova; the 5th-century BC practice of depositing drinking horns with precious metal fittings as grave goods for deceased warriors appears to originate in the Kuban region. In the 4th century BC, the practice spreads throughout the Pontic Steppe. Rhyta of Achaemenid or Thracian import, continue to be found in Scythian burials, but they are now outnumbered by Scythian drinking horns proper. Around the midpoint of the 4th century BC, a new type of solid silver drinking horn with strong curvature appears. While the curving horn type is found throughout the Pontic Steppe, specimens of the new type have not been found in the Kuban area; the custom of depositing drinking horns as grave goods begins to subside towards the end of the 4th century BC.

The depiction of drinking horns on kurgan stelae appears to follow a different chronology, with the earliest examples dated to the 6th century BC, a steep increase in frequency during the 5th, but becoming rare by the 4th century. In the Crimean peninsula, such depictions appear somewhat from the 5th century BC, but more than elsewhere. Scythian drinking horns have been found exclusively in warrior burials; this has been taken as suggesting an association of the drinking horn with the Scythian cult of kingship and warrior ethos. In the influential interpretation due to M. I. Rostovtzeff, the Scythian ruler received the drinking horn from a deity as a symbol of his investiture; this interpretation is based on a number of depictions of a Scythian warrior drinking from a horn standing or kneeling next to a seated woman. Rolle interpreted the woman not as a goddess but as a high-ranking Scythian woman performing a ritual office. Krausse interpreted the same scenes as depicting a marriage ceremony, with the man drinking from the horn as part of an oath ritual comparable to the scenes of Scythian warriors jointly drinking from a horn in an oath of blood brotherhood.

The Scythian drinking horns are associated with the consumption of wine. The drinking horn reached Central Europe with the Iron Age, in the wider context of "Thraco-Cimmerian" cultural transmission. A number of early Celtic specimens are known, notably the remains of a huge gold-banded horn found at the Hochdorf burial. Krauße examines the spread of the "fashion" of drinking horns in prehistoric Europe, assuming it reached the eastern Balkans from Scythia around 500 BC, it is more difficult to assess the role of plain animal horns as everyday drinking vessels, because these decay without a trace, while the metal fittings of the ceremonial drinking horns of the elite are preserved archaeologically. Julius Caesar has a description of Gaulish use of aurochs drinking horns in De bello gallico 6.28: „Amplitudo cornuum et figura et species multum a nostrorum boum cornibus differt. Haec studiose conquisita ab labris argento circum

Man of Many Many Faces

Man of Many Many Faces is the sequel of Man of Many Faces. It is shown in Iran from March 21. Mehran Modiri is once again the director and main character for this TV show, it starts: Pejman Bazeghi, Reza Feiz Noroozi, Siamak Ansari and Borzoo Arjmand. Man of Many Many Faces is about Masoud Shastchi once again finding himself in situations like in Man of Many Faces; the TV show starts off with Masoud sitting with the police officer Shahin Etemadi talking about what happened that he is back in court again. It shows that Masoud goes back to Shiraz to his house to find that his parents have left and gone to a new place because they were embarrassed in front of the neighbours for their son's behaviour. After Masoud finds his parents he goes off to work to find out that his boss doesn't want him anymore, he goes to the house of Sahar and finds out she doesn't want to see him. So Masoud goes looking for a job and when he gets one as a wedding speaker, he gets assigned to go to Sahar's wedding and gets heartbroken when he sees her.

Meanwhile, a guy asks him if he can star on a TV show. Seeing what has happened he goes back to Tehran to be Mehran Modiri. After the TV Show finished he met Siamak Ansari in a restaurant and with him he went to his house, he got excited when he went in his house and met his snake. He yelled and screamed and killed the snake which the actual Mehran Modiri liked so much, he went to the studio to get filmed on a movie they were working on and when he was about to escape and go away, he met Sahar Zakaria in the doorway and couldn't go. He stays and they do filming and he doesn't do it right. After that he goes to the doctor and the doctor tells him he needs to marry someone, he thinks of Sahar Zakaria and tries to ask her but Siamak Ansari doesn't let him. Meanwhile, the real Mehran Modiri has arrived from Paris and gets puzzled that people and the doctor tell him he has been here for 2 days, he goes to his house to see what has happened and Masoud is there with Siamak Ansari but just as Mehran Modiri enters, Masoud goes to the toilet.....

Mehran Modiri as Masoud Shastchi Pejman Bazeghi as Shahin Etemadi Falamak Joneidi as Sahar Jandaghi Siamak Ansari as Siamak Ansari Sahar Zakaria as Sahar Zakaria Reza Feiz Noroozi as Mr Jandaghi Gholam Reza Nik-khah as Masoud's Father Parvin Ghaem-maghami as Masoud's Mother Mehran Modiri as Mehran Modiri Director: Mehran Modiri Head-Writer: Peyman Ghasem Khani Writers: Mehran Ghasem Khani, Amir Mahdi Jule and Khashayar Alvand Producers: Majid Agha Golian, Hamid Agha Golian Genre: Comedy Number of Episodes: 13 Release Year: March 2009

Irish Manuscripts Commission

The Irish Manuscripts Commission was established in 1928 by the newly founded Irish Free State with the intention of furthering the study of Ireland's manuscript collections and archives. Its foundation was motivated by the loss of many historical documents when the Irish Public Record Office was destroyed during the Battle of Dublin in the Irish Civil War, by the destruction of most Irish family records by the IRA at the Burning of the Custom House in 1920; the Commission publishes editions of such documents. It publishes the journal Analecta Hibernica, which provides information on the Commission's work and editions of shorter manuscripts. Since 1930 it has overseen the publication of over 140 titles; the Commission is run by a board appointed by the Irish government. The Commission's works were published by the Irish Stationery Office until 1990. Since 1991 it has published its own works; the Irish Manuscripts Commission is based at 45 Merrion Square, Dublin 2. It shares a building with the Irish Architectural Archive.

The Commission's first chairman on its foundation was Eoin MacNeill. Among its first board members was Richard Irvine Best; the current chair is James McGuire of University College Dublin. In 2008, the Government of Ireland announced its intention to amalgamate the Commission, the National Archives of Ireland and National Library of Ireland as part of a wide-ranging programme of cut-backs; the announcement proved controversial, with Fintan O'Toole and Donnchadh Ó Corráin among the most vocal opponents of the measure. This merger, in the end, did not go ahead. Official website