SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Drivetrain

The drivetrain of a motor vehicle is the group of components that deliver power to the driving wheels. This excludes the motor that generates the power. In contrast, the powertrain is considered to include both the drivetrain; the function of the drivetrain is to couple the engine that produces the power to the driving wheels that use this mechanical power to rotate the axle. This connection involves physically linking the two components, which may be at opposite ends of the vehicle and so requiring a long propeller shaft or drive shaft; the operating speed of the engine and wheels are different and must be matched by the correct gear ratio. As the vehicle speed changes, the ideal engine speed must remain constant for efficient operation and so this gearbox ratio must be changed, either manually, automatically or by an automatic continuous variation; the precise components of the drivetrain vary, according to the type of vehicle. Some typical examples: Flywheel Dual mass flywheel still rare Clutch Gearbox Overdrive Only fitted Propeller shaft Rear axle Final drive Differential Torque converter Transmission Propeller shaft Rear axle spool Differential Clutch Transaxle Gearbox Final drive Differential Drive shafts and constant-velocity joints to each wheel Clutch Gearbox Transfer box Transmission brake Propeller shafts, to front and rear Front and rear axles Final drive Locking differential Portal gear Two-wheel drive Four-wheel drive 6×4 Six-wheel drive Eight-wheel drive H-drive Continuous track Hybrid vehicle drivetrain, the drivetrain of hybrid vehicles Powertrain, the drivetrain plus engine

Simon of Trent

Simon of Trent known as Simeon, was a boy from the city of Trent, Prince-Bishopric of Trent, whose disappearance and murder was blamed on the leaders of the city's Jewish community, based on his dead body being found in the cellar of a Jewish family's house, the confessions of Jews obtained under judicial torture. The story of Simon of Trent takes place during the reign of Prince-Bishop Johannes IV Hinderbach, an Austrian noble, under the jurisdiction of Holy Roman Emperor Frederick III. Shortly before Simon went missing, Bernardine of Feltre, an itinerant Franciscan preacher, had delivered a series of sermons in Trent in which he vilified the local Jewish community; the Jewish community in Trent was composed of the three households of Samuel and Engel. With Samuel as a moneylender and Tobias as a physician, the Jews remained distinctly separate not only due to their profession, but to their apparent wealth in a community of artisans and sharecroppers in Trent. Prince-Bishop Hinderbach granted the Jewish community permission to reside and practice their professions in Trent.

This dependence on the protection of the authorities forced the Jews, upon discovery of Simon's body, to report the incident. By 24 March 1475, there was "great outcry among the Christians on account of the missing child". Simon's body was discovered by Seligman, a cook, in the cellar of Samuel on Easter Sunday 1475; the exact place where the boy's body was found seems to be unclear. According to the Catholic historian Cölestin Wolfsgrüber, the body was found in a ditch. According to historian Ronnie Po-chia Hsia, the cellar was used for ritual bathing and was supplied with water from the ditch; the consequences, are well documented. The entire Jewish community were forced to confess under torture. Not only were they coerced to admit to the crime of murdering the child, but to blood libel, or the accusation that due to Jewish contempt for Christianity, Jews murder Christian children in order to use their blood for rituals. Ronnie Po-chia Hsia argues that "the narrative imperative, the official story of ritual murder, the trial record of 1475-76, represents nothing less than a Christian ethnography of Jewish rites".

Fifteen of the Jews, including Samuel, the head of the community, were sentenced to death and burnt at the stake. The Jewish women were accused as accomplices, but argued their gender in the domestic sphere did not allow them to participate in the rituals which were masculine matters, they were freed from prison in 1478 due to papal intervention. One Jew, was allowed to convert to Christianity for a short while, but was arrested again as a result of other Jews confessing he was part of the Passover Seder and after a long period of torture was sentenced to death on 19 January; the widespread trial at Trent inspired a rise in Christian violence towards Jews within the surrounding areas of Veneto and Tirol, as well as accusations of ritual murder, culminating with the prohibition of Jewish money lending in Vicenza in 1479 and the expulsion of Jews in 1486. Pope Sixtus IV commanded Bishop Hinderbach on 3 August to again suspend proceedings, until the arrival of the papal representative, Bishop Giovanni Battista dei Giudici of Ventimiglia, jointly with the Bishop of Trent, would conduct the investigation.

After making an investigation, the papal agent denied the martyrdom of the child Simon and disputed the occurrence of a miracle at his grave. When the Bishop of Ventimiglia demanded the immediate release of the Jews, he was denounced by Hinderbach and assailed by the mob, withdrew to Rovereto. Thence, he summoned the podestà to answer for their conduct. Instead of appearing, Bishop Hinderbach answered by a circular, directed to all churchmen, describing the martyrdom of Simon, justifying his own share in the proceedings, denouncing the work of the Bishop of Ventimiglia as pro-Jewish. While the papal commissary was taking Enzelin, the supposed actual murderer, to Rome for trial, the Bishop of Trent and the podestà continued their proceedings against the Jews. Pope Sixtus appointed a commission of six cardinals to investigate the proceedings in 1475; the head of the commission was a close friend of Bernardinus. Two envoys were sent to Rome by Hinderbach in order to update the Prince-Bishop on the papal opinion.

Through endless defense of the martyrdom of Simon and obtaining the support of various clergy, on 20 June 1478, the commission concluded that the trial had been conducted in keeping with legal procedures and Sixtus IV released a papal bull stating the innocence of Hinderbach, but reasserted papal protection of Jews and the unlawfulness of ritual murder trials. Centuries historian Ariel Toaff, in his book Pasque Di Sangue, hypothesized that there may be some historical truth to the accusations in Trent; the book was criticized for giving credence to testimony obtained during torture and was pulled from circulation and redacted by its author. Meanwhile, Simon became the focus of attention for the local Catholic Church; the local bishop, Hinderbach of Trent, tried to have Simon canonized, producing a large body of documentation of the event and its aftermath. Over one hundred miracles were directly attributed to Saint Simon within a year of his disappearance, his cult spread across Italy and Germany.

However, there was initial skepticism, Pope Sixtus IV sent the Bishop of Ventimiglia, a learned member of the Dominican Order, to investigate. The veneration was reinvigorated in 1588 by the Franciscan Pope Sixtus V, who appr

Hal Lashwood

Harold Francis "Hal" Lashwood, was an Australian vaudeville performer, radio entertainer, television personality, quiz host and councillor He was born Harold Francis Davies in Paddington in Sydney to British-born vaudeville actor John Richard Davies and Australian Christina Margaret Colreavy. He was a dancer with a theatrical company from the age of sixteen, becoming a speciality dancer and early alumni with theatre company J. C. Williamson became an actor with a travelling variety show. In 1941 he transitioned into the theatre, appearing on stage in The Man Who Came to Dinner in 1941 and The Patsy, The Wind and the Rain and The Squall, he worked in radio, becoming well known as Mister Lasho on Calling the Stars, Australia's most listened-to program. He married Mollie Jean Mackay, née Crothers, on 10 March 1947, spent some time in Maitland, where he was fined by the dean of Newcastle for organising a dance on a Sunday. Lashwood was monitored by the Australian Security Intelligence Organisation due to his links with left-wing groups in the 1950s.

In 1951 he became president of the Actors and Announcers Equity Association of Australia, a position he held until 1976. In 1955 he contested the federal election as an independent candidate for the safe Liberal seat of Wentworth, campaigning on the issue of increased Australian content on television. In the late 1950s he compered Shower of Stars, The Quiz Kids and Beat the Brains, hosted his own variety shows, Hal Lashwood's Alabama Jubilee and Hal Lashwood's Minstrels. In 1963 he was appointed the inaugural chairman of the Australian National Television Council. In 1973 Lashwood was the first appointment to the board of the Australian Broadcasting Corporation by the Whitlam Labor government; when his term ended in 1976, he was not re-appointed by the Fraser government. In 1977 he won a seat on Waverley Council for the Labor Party, a seat he held until 1987, he served three years as deputy mayor. He was awarded the Medal of the Order of Australia in 1982. Lashwood died from cancer in 1992 at Darlinghurst