High Five (Columbus)
High Five was a 2010 marketing effort to create a national identity for Columbus, Ohio by linking the five most distinct districts along 5 miles of historic High Street. The Ohio State University has one of the largest campuses in the nation. With over 50,000 students in Columbus alone, the district provides sporting events, concerts and a vibrant night life; the Short North is a collection of galleries and boutiques at the artistic heart of Ohio. With arches lining the street, this district provides everything from historic architecture and creative art, to a bohemian setting to enjoy shopping and dining in what is labelled as a "must see" destination by many travel magazines; the Arena District is a 75 acres development project, home to numerous housing and dining options, along with one-of-a-kind concert and sporting venues. With a large presence of Nationwide Insurance, the district hosts the Columbus Blue Jackets at Nationwide Arena and the Columbus Clippers at Huntington Park. Home to the Ohio Statehouse, downtown produces a mix of pleasure.
Headquarters of multiple industries are located here, including Huntington Bank and Nationwide Insurance. Parks such as Columbus Commons and the Scioto Mile provide a daily refuge while historic theaters are within walking distance. German Village is a historic neighborhood south of Downtown Columbus. With a number of signature shops and destinations, this area adds a small town feel to an otherwise urban space. High Five Columbus
Italian Village is a mixed land use neighborhood in Columbus, that contains an array of residential and industrial buildings. It is a designated historic district, known for its cultural preservation; the building types and architecture reflect Italian influence. With its parks and preserved historic homes, Italian Village has the highest home value appreciation in Columbus. Italian Village is part of the Short North area; the neighboring Downtown District provides access to major employers and learning institutions, entertainment venues. Italian Village is located in the north side of Columbus, Ohio just north of Downtown and adjacent to the central business district; the area is bounded by Interstate 670 on the south, Fifth Avenue on the north, North High Street on the west, the Conrail railroad tracks to the east. N. Fourth Street, E. Fifth Avenue, E. Second Avenue serve as primary corridors within the neighborhood's street system, which remains a grid street configuration. N. Fourth Street is one of the primary routes through downtown while E.
Fifth Avenue crosses both Olentangy Rivers. Both N. Fourth Street and E. Fifth Avenue contain residential, commercial and industrial buildings. Eighty percent of the buildings are residential, including single family homes, double houses and row houses. Most residential uses are low density and located in the northwest as well as along the area's major corridors. Ten percent of the buildings are commercial, which are concentrated along N. Fourth Street and E. Fifth Avenue; this is a higher land use than directed by its zoning code. The zoning code calls for more than two thirds manufacturing, though industrial buildings are scattered throughout the area. Most manufacture uses are concentrated east of N. Sixth Street and north of E. Second Avenue, while others are found along N. Fourth Street and E. Fifth Avenue. Italian Village was one of Columbus' first suburbs; the land was uninhabited until the Columbus-Worthington Pike was built in 1823 and provided access to the area. With this road stimulating residential growth, the Italian Village area was annexed to Columbus in 1862.
The North Columbus Street Railway Company, along with the progression of street car service, helped to develop Italian Village. By 1899, transportation had enabled a street system with extensive alleys that serviced horse stables behind residences. Entering the early 1900s, the Italian Village was a stable middle-class residential community, its proximity to downtown ensured access to goods and recreational facilities and provided employment opportunities. Electric trolleys carried residents to places. Italian Village was once an immigrant neighborhood, named for its high concentration of Italian immigrants in its earliest days. However, the Italians were not the only ethnic group to occupy the Italian Village, nor were they the first. From around 1850–1870, the Irish resided in the southern part of the village as well as around Naughten Street, nicknamed ‘Irish Broadway.’ The Irish community left the area, which made room for other residents. African immigrants moved to the Italian Village area for work prospects, which consisted of railroad machinery and iron works.
A small group of African Americans settled in the northeast section of the village and established the Bethany Baptist Colored Church in 1882. On, Italians were attracted to the neighborhood by employment opportunities that were within walking distance. In the 1890s, the first Italian immigrants moved from Flytown to the nearby Italian Village area and worked in stone quarries, construction trades and local businesses on High Street; the quality of the Italian Village's buildings as well as its character can be attributed to Italian craftsmen. In 1896, St. John the Baptist Italian Catholic Church was founded and helped to form the Italian-American community. Additionally, the Great Depression brought attention to Italian cuisine because the home grown food was much less expensive; this food was sold locally at restaurants like Presutti's Villa Restaurant on West Fifth Avenue in Grandview and small groceries throughout Italian Village such as Salvatore's Grocery. At the height of employment there were 6,000 job opportunities in walking distance from the historic Italian Catholic Church.
The Jeffrey Manufacturing Company, located at 274 East First Avenue, was a producer of coal mining equipment. At one point in time, Jeffrey's had the distinction of being the largest single employer in Columbus with 3,400 employees; the Clark Grave Vault/Clark Auto Equipment Company, located at 375 East Fifth Avenue, had 1,200 employees. On Fourth Street near Goodale Street was the Smith Brothers Hardware Company employing 500 people; the Berry Bolt Works at 30 East First Avenue had 240 employees. South of Jeffrey's factories, at Fourth and Warren Streets, was the Case Crane, Kilbourne & Jacobs Company with 200 employees; the Radio Cab Company on Fourth Street and the Columbus Burlap Bag Company next door had a combined total of 200 employees. Directly across the street from Radio Cab, Producer's Oil sold gas for 16 cents a gallon. There were numerous other smaller businesses. Although the Italian Village flourished in the 1940s, it began to decline after World War II. Society's mobility increased- original residents moved to the suburbs and lower-income families moved into Italian Village, some after being displaced from other neighborhoods.
Large single family homes were converted into multiple family dwellings. Along with residential decline came a decrease in commercial vitality.
The Underground Railroad was a network of secret routes and safe houses established in the United States during the early to mid-19th century, used by African-American slaves to escape into free states and Nova Scotia with the aid of abolitionists and allies who were sympathetic to their cause. The term is applied to the abolitionists, both black and white and enslaved, who aided the fugitives. Various other routes led to Mexico or overseas. An earlier escape route running south toward Florida a Spanish possession, existed from the late 17th century until Florida became a United States territory in 1821. However, the network now known as the Underground Railroad was formed in the late 1700s, it ran north to the free states and Canada, reached its height between 1850 and 1860. One estimate suggests that by 1850, 100,000 slaves had escaped via the "Railroad". British North America, where slavery was prohibited, was a popular destination, as its long border gave many points of access. Most former slaves settled in Ontario.
More than 30,000 people were said to have escaped there via the network during its 20-year peak period, although U. S. Census figures account for only 6,000. Numerous fugitives' stories are documented in the 1872 book The Underground Railroad Records by William Still, an abolitionist who headed the Philadelphia Vigilance Committee. At its peak, nearly 1,000 slaves per year escaped from slave-holding states using the Underground Railroad – more than 5,000 court cases for escaped slaves were recorded – many fewer than the natural increase of the enslaved population; the resulting economic impact was minuscule, but the psychological influence on slave holders was immense. Under the original Fugitive Slave Act of 1793, officials from free states were required to assist slaveholders or their agents who recaptured runaway slaves, but and governments of many free states ignored the law, the Underground Railroad thrived. With heavy lobbying by southern politicians, the Compromise of 1850 was passed by Congress after the Mexican–American War.
It stipulated a more stringent Fugitive Slave Law. Because the law required sparse documentation to claim a person was a fugitive, slave catchers kidnapped free blacks children, sold them into slavery. Southern politicians exaggerated the number of escaped slaves and blamed these escapes on Northerners interfering with Southern property rights; the law deprived suspected slaves of the right to defend themselves in court, making it difficult to prove free status. In a de facto bribe, judges were paid a higher fee for a decision that confirmed a suspect as a slave than for one ruling that the suspect was free. Many Northerners who might have ignored slave issues in the South were confronted by local challenges that bound them to support slavery; this was a primary grievance cited by the Union during the American Civil War, the perception that Northern States ignored the fugitive slave law was a major justification for secession. The escape network was not underground nor a railroad, it was figuratively "underground" in the sense of being an underground resistance.
It was known as a "railroad" by way of the use of rail terminology in the code. The Underground Railroad consisted of meeting points, secret routes and safe houses, personal assistance provided by abolitionist sympathizers. Participants organized in small, independent groups. Escaped slaves would move north along the route from one way station to the next. "Conductors" on the railroad came from various backgrounds and included free-born blacks, white abolitionists, former slaves, Native Americans. Church clergy and congregations played a role the Religious Society of Friends, Congregationalists and Reformed Presbyterians, as well as certain sects of mainstream denominations such as branches of the Methodist church and American Baptists. Without the presence and support of free black residents, there would have been no chance for fugitive slaves to pass into freedom unmolested. To reduce the risk of infiltration, many people associated with the Underground Railroad knew only their part of the operation and not of the whole scheme.
"Conductors" transported the fugitives from station to station. A conductor sometimes pretended to be a slave. Once a part of a plantation, the conductor would direct the runaways to the North. Slaves traveled at about 10 -- 20 miles to each station, they rested, a message was sent to the next station to let the station master know the runaways were on their way. They would stop at the so-called "stations" or "depots" during the rest; the stations were located in barns, under church floors, or in hiding places in caves and hollowed-out riverbanks. The resting spots where the runaways could sleep and eat were given the code names "stations" and "depots", which were held by "station masters". "Stockholders" gave money or supplies for assistance. Using biblical references, fugitives referred to Canada as the "Promised Land" or "Heaven" and the Ohio River as the "River Jordan", which marked the boundary between slave states and free states. Although the fugitives sometimes traveled on boat or train, they traveled
East Broad Street Historic District (Columbus, Ohio)
The East Broad Street Historic District in Columbus, Ohio is a historic district, listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1987. The district includes the section of East Broad Street from Ohio Avenue on the west to Monypenny Street on the east, it includes some converted to offices. It includes the Old Governor's Mansion, separately listed on the NRHP; the Kappa Gamma National Headquarters, a High Victorian-style two-and-a-half-story mansion with a cupola, built in 1852, is salient in the district
Downtown Columbus, Ohio
Downtown Columbus is the Central Business District of Columbus, United States. The area centers on the intersection of Broad and High streets, with the northeast corners being known simple as Broad & High by the surrounding businesses and media. Downtown as a whole encompasses all the area inside the inner belt and is home to most of the largest buildings in Columbus; the State Capitol is located in Capitol Square. Downtown is home to Columbus State Community College, Franklin University, Columbus College of Art and Design, Grant Medical Center, Capital University Law School, as well as the main branch of the Columbus Metropolitan Library, the Main Street Bridge and many parks. Downtown has many neighborhoods or "districts", but it can be separated into three main areas; the Short North, Italian Village, Victorian Village are directly north of Downtown. Olde Towne East, the historic King-Lincoln District are directly east, while the Brewery District and German Village are directly south of Downtown.
Franklinton is to the west of Downtown. In the northwest area is the Arena District, a mixed-use development centered on Nationwide Arena, the home of the Columbus Blue Jackets; the Arena District includes the baseball stadium Huntington Park and the Lifestyle Communities Pavilion. Over 87,000 people are employed Downtown, more than 25,000 students attend school at one of the many institutions of higher education located there. Downtown is home to over 8,600 residents; the city of Columbus began development in 1812 with the purpose of being the state's new capital. Laid out by Lucas Sullivant as the town of Franklinton, the original settlement lay west of the Scioto River. However, Sullivant laid out plans to expand east of the river for what we now know as downtown Columbus. Development began and by 1814 significant buildings included a penitentiary, the first school, the statehouse, the first newspaper, the first church. By 1816, Columbus was incorporated as an official town, in 1824 Columbus became the official seat of the county and elected its first mayor, John Brooks, in 1834 after being elevated to "city" status.
The city of Columbus has spread out and around from the original 10 acres plot surrounding the Statehouse, making downtown the literal center of the city. Another pivotal element of downtown Columbus is the Scioto River, which snakes directly through downtown; the downtown of Columbus has changed roles since its founding, going from a government center, to an industrial and commercial center, to what it is as the major commercial hub of central Ohio. The first skyscraper to adorn downtown Columbus' skyline is the LeVeque Tower, built in 1927. Many other high rises and skyscrapers have been added since the LeVeque Tower, fitting a variety of uses from commercial to residential. In the early 1950s, major cities began revitalization projects of slums and blighted areas in their communities. Assisted by federal and state funding, these were intended to clear major slums in an effort to revitalize that area for the overall welfare of the city. In January 1952, the Department of Development for the city of Columbus began commissioning task forces in an effort for urban renewal in the blighted areas.
The efforts of these task forces are evident in numerous older communities and districts, including Market Mohawk and German Village. Before this intervention in Market Mohawk, the annual tax return was $84,000. After revitalization efforts were made, the annual tax return was greater than $514,000. Columbus' location was chosen based on its central location within the state of Ohio along with the confluence of the Scioto River and Olentangy River being right next to it; the area, now Columbus was to be allotted to those displaced from Nova Scotia during the American Revolution, the original settlement lay about a mile west of the Scioto River and the current downtown area. The center of downtown Columbus is focused on the intersection of High Street; the City of Columbus includes an area of around 225 square miles, but downtown is referred to as the area within the Scioto River, Interstate 70, Interstate 71, Interstate 670. The last of these major highways, I-70, was completed in 1992. Downtown Columbus is bordered to the north by The Short North, to the northwest by Grandview Heights, to the southwest by Franklinton, to the south by German Village, to the east by King-Lincoln Bronzeville.
Downtown Columbus has five major neighborhoods. The Arena District sits on the northwest side of downtown Columbus, with its borders being Nationwide Arena to the north, Front Street to the east, Spring Street to the south, the Olentangy River to the west; the district is home to a few defining buildings, including Nationwide Arena, Huntington Park, the LC Pavilion. Nationwide Arena is the home of the Columbus Blue Jackets, as well as a venue for a variety of other sporting and special events; the Ohio State University men's and women's basketball teams will use the facility to host special games. Nationwide first began hosting concerts and hockey games in early 2000. Huntington Park is the home of the Columbus Clippers, a minor league affiliate team of the Cleveland Indians. Huntington Park was opened for games in spring 2009. Huntington Park sits directly west of Nationwide Arena; the LC Pavilion is the first dual indoor and outdoor concert venue in the country. The "LC", as it is known locally, as as 2013, was ranked by Billboard Magazine as 24th on their list of Hottest Small
Franklinton, Columbus, Ohio
Franklinton is a neighborhood in Columbus, Ohio. Franklinton is the first American settlement in Ohio; as the city of Columbus grew, the city annexed and incorporated the existing settlement and today it exists as a neighborhood west of downtown. The neighborhood gets its nickname of "The Bottoms" because much of the land is subject to flooding from the Scioto and Olentangy rivers, a floodwall is required to contain the rivers and protect the area from floods; the low-lying bottom land was well suited for farming, with the river serving as a direct connection to the Ohio River. In 1795 Lucas Sullivant was employed by the Commonwealth of Virginia to survey the Central Ohio portion of the Virginia Military District. Sullivant, along with 20 men surveyed the western side of the Scioto River at the confluence of the Olentangy and Scioto Rivers; as payment for his work, Sullivant was given 6000 acres in the Refugee Tract reserved for those who aided the American Revolution. Sullivant, after surveying the land, returned to Kentucky where he courted Sarah Starling, the daughter of his mentor Colonel William Starling.
In 1797, Sullivant returned to the Ohio and laid out a village of 220 lots in Franklin County, which he named Franklinton in honor of the deceased Benjamin Franklin. This original settlement was abandoned in 1798, a year when a flood submerged most of the town. Sullivant relocated the town less than a mile away, off of the banks of the Scioto River; the replatted town was laid out in blocks that contained four lots in a square, with each lot measuring 99’ wide by 115’ deep. To encourage people to move to the new settlement, Sullivant offered free land for anyone willing to build a house along Gift Street, near the eastern edge of his plat. Along with platting and settling the town, Sullivant built several structures out of brick and glass from Philadelphia; these buildings included a courthouse, a brick home to impress Starling, a brick church and the first bridge across the Scioto River. The town of Franklinton was made the County Seat of Franklin County in 1803, when Franklin County was created from Ross County.
The population and town grew during the War of 1812, as Franklinton served as a staging point for General William Henry Harrison’s army. Following the war, the community continued to grow with the expansion of the country's railway system along with the construction of a new state capital, Columbus, on the opposite side of the Scioto River. Columbus’s growth led to it being named county seat in 1824 and Franklinton was annexed by the city in 1859. In 1846, traveler Henry Howe had this to say about Franklinton: "Franklinton lies on the west side of the Scioto, opposite Columbus, it was the first town laid off in the Scioto valley N. of Chillicothe. From the formation of the county, in 1803, it remained its seat of justice until 1824, when it was removed to Columbus. During the late war, it was a place of general rendezvous for the N. W. army, sometimes from one to three thousand troops were stationed there. In those days, it was a place of considerable note: it is now a small village, containing, by the census of 1840, 394 inhabitants."
He visited again in 1886. It has changed less than any part of the city so near the centre, preserves to this day many of its old style village features, it is a quiet spot, but cannot much longer so remain in the rapid progress of improvements." During the last half of the nineteenth century, four railroads were established in Franklinton and brought commercial and industrial growth. In 1850, the Columbus and Xenia Railroad Company was chartered to build and operate a railroad that ran from Columbus, Ohio to Xenia, Ohio; this railroad was the first to run into central Franklinton. The growth of local railroads and governmental action in the United States, including Abraham Lincoln’s Pacific Railway Act, caused railroads to become a major form of transportation in the twentieth century. By 1902, the popularity of the railroads forced Ohio canals into retirement; the need for interurban travel created Columbus interurban railways. Franklinton transformed from a farming based community to an urban society known for its railroad cars and horse-drawn buggies.
The railroad service and industrial development drew people from the southwest part of the state and West Virginia. Many of these people chose to reside in the East Franklinton area to be closer to the industrial activity. Although Franklinton continued to grow as an industrial center, the frequent flooding near most of the industrial development proved to be problematic. Franklinton experienced multiple minor floods, which ravaged the west side in 1834, 1847, 1852, 1859, 1860, 1862, 1866,1868,1869,1870,1881, 1883. In 1889, the city spent $50,000 to construct massive levees along the banks of the Scioto; the majority of the current houses in Franklinton were built after the completion of these levees. On September 14, 1897, Columbus held a three day Centennial celebration for Franklinton. Local and notable guests were invited to speak at the celebration. Though the speeches praised Lucas Sullivant's courage and hard work, many agreed that, in retrospect, the flood-prone area had been unfit for settlement.
The original neighborhood design had not included alleys. The town Franklinton experienced extreme flooding when the wooden levees, holding the Scioto River, collapsed on March 25, 1913; the Great Flood of 1913 engulfed the neighborhood of Franklinton with 7 to 17 feet of water. Police officers in horse-drawn carriages traveled the flooded streets, warning residents to head to the higher ground of the adjacent Hillt
Glen Echo, Columbus, Ohio
Glen Echo is a neighborhood located in the far northern part of the University District in Columbus, Ohio. The area was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1997; the name Glen Echo refers to Glen Echo Ravine, which runs along the northern edge of the neighborhood. Principal streets in the area are Glen Echo Drive, Summit Street, Glenmawr Avenue, North Fourth Street, Cliffside Drive, more. One street, Parkview Drive, was platted in the ravine basin, but was abandoned; the district originated in 1909 when the Columbus Real Estate and Improvement Company platted 47 acres as "Indianola Park View" for a planned residential subdivision and a part of the Glen Echo Ravine was delineated as a park, the first such donation to the city of Columbus by a real estate developer. The wooded Glen Echo Ravine influenced the original layout and overall character of the district; the neighborhood's developer was involved with the development of Walhalla Ravine and Eastgate. Prior to its development, the area was considered for a major hospital.
A 1909 Ohio State publication described the new north side park as a place of beauty where large oak and elm trees shaded a wading pond, five small lakes connected by a single stream, rustic benches, foot bridges and springs lined with cobblestones. Glen Echo's picturesque environs hosted picnic dinners and motorists who enjoyed this oasis of greenery. In 1910 the development was annexed to the City of Columbus and in 1912 Glen Echo Park was dedicated to the city. Most of the homes in the Glen Echo neighborhood were built between 1909 and 1943 and include American Craftsman style bungalows, Shingle Style, Tudor Revival and Colonial Revival, many with front and/or sleeping porches. Most homes, however are not "high style" structures, would be classified as either traditional American Foursquare or American Vernacular in style; the homes are a mix of double units with a high home-owner occupancy rate. Grassy boulevards are features of North Fourth Street. Stone stanchions and street furniture are a hallmark of Glenmawr Avenue.
The 1997 listing of the neighborhood on the National Register of Historic Places was made based on the neighborhood's overall fabric as a middle class development, rather than as a collection of high style architecture. Homes in the neighborhood are kept in good repair. Residents have attempted to distance themselves from the now defunct Glen Echo South Civic Association. A move by some residents put the question of the neighborhood's leaving the University District up for discussion; the neighborhood is working on creating an active civic association. Monthly GENCA governance meetings open to the public are held at 4pm on the Second Saturday of every month at the Glen Echo Presbyterian Church on Cliffside Drive; the three interpretive signs located in Glen Echo Park along the vacated Parkview Drive provide walkers with insights into the history of the park. Each year, Glen Echo Neighborhood is featured on Columbus Landmarks Foundation Walking Tour. University Area Commission, Ohio University District Organization, Ohio Glen Echo Neighborhood, University District Glen Echo Park Friends of the Ravines Columbus Landmarks Foundation Lower Olentangy Urban Arboretum University District, Ohio