Drosophila is a genus of flies, belonging to the family Drosophilidae, whose members are called "small fruit flies" or pomace flies, vinegar flies, or wine flies, a reference to the characteristic of many species to linger around overripe or rotting fruit. They should not be confused with the Tephritidae, a related family, which are called fruit flies. One species of Drosophila in particular, D. melanogaster, has been used in research in genetics and is a common model organism in developmental biology. The terms "fruit fly" and "Drosophila" are used synonymously with D. melanogaster in modern biological literature. The entire genus, contains more than 1,500 species and is diverse in appearance and breeding habitat; the term "Drosophila", meaning "dew-loving", is a modern scientific Latin adaptation from Greek words δρόσος, drósos, "dew", φίλος, phílos, "loving" with the Latin feminine suffix -a. Drosophila species are small flies pale yellow to reddish brown to black, with red eyes; when film of lenses are removed, the drosophila brain is revealed.
Drosophila brain structure and function develop and age from larval to adult stage. Developing brain structures make. Many species, including the noted Hawaiian picture-wings, have distinct black patterns on the wings; the plumose arista, bristling of the head and thorax, wing venation are characters used to diagnose the family. Most are small, about 2–4 mm long, but some many of the Hawaiian species, are larger than a house fly. Drosophila species are found all with more species in the tropical regions. Drosophila radiated into over 800 species, they can be found in deserts, tropical rainforest, cities and alpine zones. Some northern species hibernate; the northern species D. montana is the best cold-adapted, is found at high altitudes. Most species breed in various kinds of decaying plant and fungal material, including fruit, slime fluxes and mushrooms; the larvae of at least one species, D. suzukii, can feed in fresh fruit and can sometimes be a pest. A few species have switched to being predators.
Many species can be attracted to baits of fermented bananas or mushrooms, but others are not attracted to any kind of baits. Males may congregate at patches of suitable breeding substrate to compete for the females, or form leks, conducting courtship in an area separate from breeding sites. Several Drosophila species, including D. melanogaster, D. immigrans, D. simulans, are associated with humans, are referred to as domestic species. These and other species have been accidentally introduced around the world by human activities such as fruit transports. Males of this genus are known to have the longest sperm cells of any studied organism on Earth, including one species, Drosophila bifurca, that has sperm cells that are 58 mm long; the cells are tail, are delivered to the females in tangled coils. The other members of the genus Drosophila make few giant sperm cells, with that of D. bifurca being the longest. D. melanogaster sperm cells are a more modest 1.8 mm long, although this is still about 35 times longer than a human sperm.
Several species in the D. melanogaster species group are known to mate by traumatic insemination. Drosophila species vary in their reproductive capacity; those such as D. melanogaster that breed in large rare resources have ovaries that mature 10–20 eggs at a time, so that they can be laid together on one site. Others that breed in more-abundant but less nutritious substrates, such as leaves, may only lay one egg per day; the eggs have one or more respiratory filaments near the anterior end. Larvae feed not on the vegetable matter itself, but on the yeasts and microorganisms present on the decaying breeding substrate. Development time varies between species and depends on the environmental factors such as temperature, breeding substrate, crowding. Fruit flies lay eggs in response to environmental cycles. Eggs laid at a time during which likelihood of survival is greater than in eggs laid at other times yield more larvae than eggs that were laid at those times. Ceterus paribus, the habit of laying eggs at this'advantageous' time would yield more surviving offspring, more grandchildren, than the habit of laying eggs during other times.
This differential reproductive success would cause D. melanogaster to adapt to environmental cycles, because this behavior has a major reproductive advantage. Their median lifespan is 35–45 days; the following section is based on the following Drosophila species: Drosophila simulans, Drosophila melanogaster. Courtship behavior of male Drosophila is an attractive behaviour. Females respond via their perception of the behavior portrayed by the male. Male and female Drosophila use a variety of sensory cues to initiate and assess courtship readiness of a potential mate; the cues include the following behaviours: positioning, pheromone excretion, following females, making tapping sounds with legs, wing spreading, creating wing vibrations, genitalia licking, bending the stomach, attempt to copulate, the copulatory act itself. The songs of Drosophila melanogaster and Drosophila simulans have been studied extensivel
The 1986–87 season was the 78th year of football played by Dundee United, covers the period from 1 July 1986 to 30 June 1987. United finished in third place, they reached only to lose after extra-time to St Mirren. The season is most notable for the club's run to the UEFA Cup Final, knocking out Barcelona, Borussia Mönchengladbach and Universitatea Craiova en route. United lost 2-1 on aggregate to IFK Gothenburg in the final. Dundee United played a total of 67 competitive matches during the 1986–87 season; the team finished third in the Scottish Premier Division. In the cup competitions, United lost in the final of the Scottish Cup to St Mirren and lost in the Skol Cup semi-finals. Swedish side Gothenburg defeated United in the final of the UEFA Cup over two legs. All results are written with Dundee United's score first. During the 1986–87 season, United used 29 different players comprising four nationalities. Billy Thomson was the only player to feature in every match of United's UEFA Cup run; the table below shows the number of goals scored by each player.
The shirts were sponsored by future chairman Eddie Thompson's VG Foodstores for a second season. 1986–87 in Scottish football BBC's'A Sporting Nation' review of the UEFA Cup run Glenrothes Arabs 1986–87 season review
The Conviction is a 1991 Italian drama film directed by Marco Bellocchio. It was entered into the 41st Berlin International Film Festival where it won the Silver Bear - Special Jury Prize. Vittorio Mezzogiorno as Lorenzo Colajanni Andrzej Seweryn as Giovanni Claire Nebout as Sandra Celestini Grażyna Szapołowska as Monica Paolo Graziosi Maria Schneider as La contadina Claudio Emeri Antonio Marziantonio Giorgio Panzera Fiorella Potenza Giovanni Vaccaro Tatiana Winteler The Conviction on IMDb