Drum Corps International

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Drum Corps International
Drum Corps International (logo).svg
Drum Corps International logo
TypeAssociation of Drum and Bugle Corps
FoundedOctober 1971; 48 years ago (1971-10)
No. of corps45 (World & Open Class)
Chair, Board of DirectorsKathy Black
Executive DirectorDan Acheson
First championsAnaheim Kingsmen (Open Class, 1972)
Current champions

Drum Corps International (DCI) is a governing body for junior drum and bugle corps based in Indianapolis, Indiana. DCI is responsible for developing and enforcing rules of competition, and providing standardized adjudication at sanctioned competitions throughout the United States and Canada.

The competitive season traditionally begins in late-June and ends with the annual World Championship, usually the second week of August; the next World Championships is scheduled for August 8 – August 10, 2019 at the Lucas Oil Stadium in Indianapolis, Indiana. 2019 Open Class championships were hosted by Indiana Wesleyan University, in Marion, Indiana, on August 5 – August 6, 2019.

DCI is not affiliated with the similarly named Drum Corps Associates (DCA) or Drum Corps Europe (DCE), governing bodies for all-age or senior drum and bugle corps in the United States and Europe.


In 1971, at the urging of then-director of The Cavaliers, Don Warren, and Troopers director, Jim Jones, the directors from Blue Stars, Madison Scouts, and Santa Clara Vanguard, partnered with each other to form what was called the "Midwest Combine";[1] the Combine corps would market themselves to show promoters as a package.

This partnership was in reaction to perceived inflexibility of the American Legion and VFW, who were, at the time, the primary sponsors of competing drum corps, and who were also responsible for hosting the two high-prestige national championships.[2]:47 Another source of contention was low-to-nonexistent appearance fees paid for to corps. Only corps who placed high at either of the national championships were paid any fees. Local show sponsors and promoters were also less generous, many compensating the winners of each competition and no others.[2]:320

A group similar to the Combine had formed a year prior among corps based in the Northeast known as the "Alliance", or officially the United Organization of Junior Corps (UOJC); the Alliance members were: 27th Lancers, Garfield Cadets, Boston Crusaders, Blessed Sacrament Golden Knights, and Blue Rock.[1]

Despite acrimony from the veterans associations, the Combine and the Alliance remained intact for the 1970 and 1971 competitive seasons.[1] Following the 1971 VFW National Championships, the Alliance and Combine corps agreed to meet at the next American Legion Uniformed Group Rules Congress to discuss forming a new, independent, governing body;[2]:321 also invited to the meeting were the Anaheim Kingsmen, Argonne Rebels, and De La Salle Oaklands. Drum Corps International was founded by the thirteen corps on October 21, 1971.[a]

DCI Founding Members
Midwest Combine (1971) "Alliance" (1970–71) Other corps

The inaugural DCI World Championship was hosted at Warhawks Stadium on the campus of University of Wisconsin–Whitewater. In attendance were 39 corps from fifteen states and one Canadian province; the Anaheim Kingsmen was crowned the first World Champions on August 18, 1972.[3]

The Combine evolved into Drum Corps Midwest (DCM), and the Alliance into Drum Corps East (sometimes called Drum Corps Atlantic).[b] Both offered a regional circuit of competitions and regional championships prior to the "national tour" of DCI-sanctioned competitions. DCI expanded the "national" tour so it began earlier in season, and participation declined in non-DCI circuits, especially in DCM.


DCI is a 501(c)(3) organization governed by a board of directors, with an executive director responsible for day-to-day operations;[4][5] the board of directors is composed of three representatives who are directors of member corps, and three at-large members who are not affiliated with any corps.[6] The current chair of the board of directors is Kathy Black, and the current Executive Director is Dan Acheson.[7][8]

Drum Corps Associates (DCA), a governing body for all-age or senior drum corps, and DCI are not affiliated, however the two organizations are strategic partners.[9] Of note, DCI describes all-age corps as providing value to the drum corps activity, and permits all age corps to compete at sanctioned competitions.[10]


As the self-styled "Marching Music's Major League", DCI's mission is to create an environment for participating corps "to engage in education, competition, entertainment, and the promotion of individual growth." The organization also emphasizes positive life-transforming experiences for all participants.[11]


The Cavaliers, a DCI World Class member corps and seven-time World Champion.

To become a DCI member, or to maintain membership, a corps must pass an evaluation by the board of directors; the evaluation requires corps to submit data on their financial health, fund raising capacity and income, participants, staffing, and explanations of their administrative structure. All corps are required to be 501(c)(3) organizations.

Once approved by the board, a new corps must achieve certain competitive requirements, such as attending World Championships; the corps must then be approved by a majority of other members at a meeting following World Championships, usually the annual rules congress later in the year.[11]

All-age corps are ineligible for membership, but they may be qualify as a "touring" corps during a competitive season.[10] International corps, or corps based outside the United States and Canada, are also ineligible for membership. However, an international corps that adopts DCI's regulations, specifically instrumentation and participant age limits, may also qualify as a touring corps in either Open or World Class.

Age limit[edit]

DCI limits the age of participants to "21 years of age and younger." A participant who is 22 years before June 1 would be unable to compete.[12] Some European and Asian drum corps associations have no age limit. Corps from those associations are allowed to compete at sanctioned competitions, and at World Championships in International Class.

Corps are allowed to set their own age limit to be younger than 21 years, such as Shadow, from Oregon, Wisconsin. Shadow limits its participants to high school students (18 years and younger).[13]

Marketing and broadcasts[edit]

Individual drum corps derive a large part of their revenues from marketing their product, specifically memorabilia and souvenir sales. DCI derives income from ticket sales, and is the sole distributor of official media, such as championship DVDs and audio CDs. DCI is also the exclusive producer of all broadcasts of sanctioned competitions, including online streaming.

Edited versions of World Championship Open Class finals were televised by PBS from 1975 until 2005.[14][c] In 2006 and 2007, a two-hour highlights program of was broadcast by ESPN2, and then ESPN.

Since 2004, World Championship World Class prelims have been broadcast to movie theaters by Fathom Events under the title Big, Loud & Live.[15][d] In 2011, Fathom Events added the DCI Tour Premiere. DCI previously livestreamed a number of competitions throughout the season, including the entirety of World Championship, via the former "FanNetwork".[16] FloSports engaged in a multi-year agreement to livestream select competitions via the FloMarching platform.[17]

Frequent hosts of the broadcasts and streaming events have been former WWAY news anchor Steve Rondinaro, and percussionist Dennis DeLucia.[18]

Other programs[edit]

In 2013, DCI launched two new competitive musical activities for small groups: SoundSport and DrumLine Battle; these activities are not restricted by an age limit, nor do they have the same competitive requirements as drum corps. BANDtastic! began in 2014.


The stated goal of SoundSport is to provide a competitive performance experience in a low-cost, local setting. Musical ensembles of more than five members, using any musical instruments, perform a 5-7 minute marching music show in an area measuring 30 yards (27 m) × 20 yards (18 m).[19]

Two SoundSport teams Guardians and Watchmen became an Open Class corps in the 2014.[20] Southwind, inactive from 2007 to 2013, competed as a SoundSport team in 2014, and returned to competition an Open Class corps in 2015.[21]

DrumLine Battle[edit]

Intended for drumlines, or battery percussion ensembles with no wheeled percussion. Competing drumlines are staged in two competitive zones opposite each other, with each demonstrating their skills as an ensemble in alternating rounds of two minutes each. Adjudicators do not restrict their evaluation to technical proficiency, and include showmanship and audience reaction.[22]

In 2014, E-Sarn from Thailand, competed in the DrumLine Battle held during World Championship week, defeating fifteen other competitors.[23] River City Rhythm, from Anoka, Minnesota, also competed in 2014, becoming a touring corps in 2015.[21]


BANDtastic is a program of middle school honor bands sponsored by DCI;[24] the program originated in 2013 with the Indiana "INpact" honor band, organized in conjunction with World Championships.[25] Similar groups have since been organized in Georgia, Tennessee, Texas, Florida, and most recently Minnesota.[26][24]

The activities are held in conjunction with a local DCI competition, and World Class corps partner.[27]

Active corps[edit]

Classification and adjudication[edit]

DCI utilizes a single adjudication handbook with corps subdivided by size, and not skill level. A multi-tier classification and adjudication system was in use prior to 2008, with Division I and Division II / III utilizing different handbooks, while also being subdivided by size.

Current classes[edit]

The Madison Scouts, a DCI World Class corps and two-time World Champion

Currently, DCI groups corps from the US and Canada into two classes based on competitive level. Corps from Europe, Asia, Latin America, and anywhere other than the US and Canada are grouped into the International Class. Corps from all classes compete together but are ranked separately. In the past, classes have been fully or partially determined by the number of marching members in each corps; at present, all corps may march up to a maximum of one hundred fifty four (154) members.

World Class (formerly Division I) corps are the groups that have chosen to compete at the highest level and have proven to DCI leadership they have the ability to survive at this level both competitively and financially. The higher a corps is ranked at the DCI Championships, the higher the performance fees they will earn for the following season's performances.

Open Class (formerly Divisions II & III) corps are committed to a lesser competitive level and are generally smaller, although several corps have marched with maximum membership. In September 2007, DCI combined the former Divisions II and III into this new division.[28][29]

International Class is for corps based outside the US and Canada who wish to compete at sanctioned competitions. Corps in this class are allowed to follow the guidelines of their national governing body, such as no age restrictions, and the use of woodwind instruments. International corps which abide by DCI rules would be eligible to compete as Open Class corps.

Historic classes and divisions[edit]


1972–1974 1975–1982 1983–1984 1985–1988 1988–1991 1992–2007 2008–present
Open Class Open Class Open Class Open Class Open Class Division I World Class
Class A Class A Class A Class A Division II Open Class
All-Girl Class A60 Class A60 Division III
1972–1988 1988–present
International Class


Source:[citation needed]

  • Open Class (1972–92) had a membership limit of 128.
  • Class A generally had 90 members or fewer although the limit was 128.
  • All-Girl Class was restricted to girls only: there was no equivalent all-boy class; the membership limit was 128.
  • Class A60, and the later Division III, had a maximum of 60 members; a minimum of 30 members was added later.
  • Division II had the same membership limit as Division I, but a generally lower level of competitive expertise.[30]
  • Prior to 2003, Division I was increased from 128 to 135.
  • World Class, the current Open Class, and International Class all had a membership limit of 150 from 2007 through 2017.[31]
  • In 2018, the membership limit was increased to 154.[32]


DCI's Adjudication Manual is based on three broad categories, Visual, Music and Effect.[33] Visual and Music categories are further subdivided into three analysis captions. If more than one adjudicator is utilized in any caption, their scores are averaged before being factored.

Category Caption + Caption + Caption = Points
Music Analysis (20) / 2 + Brass (20) / 2 + Percussion (20) / 2 = 30.00
Visual Analysis (20) / 2 + Proficiency (20) / 2 + Color Guard (20) / 2 = 30.00
Effect General Effect 1 (20) + General Effect 2 (20) = 40.00
Sub-Total : 100.00
Timing & Penalties : - 0.00
TOTAL : 100.00

All-age corps may request to be adjudicated using scoring sheets provided by DCA. Many All-age corps may compete exclusively at DCI sanctioned competitions prior to attending DCA World Championships, which is traditionally hosted Labor Day weekend.

World Championships[edit]

DCI World Championships were historically held the third week of August. However, the second week of August has been the preferred date due to changes in academic schedules.[e]

The week-long championship have been hosted at college or professional sports arenas in eighteen U.S cities and Montreal. Since 2009, World Class Championships have been hosted at Lucas Oil Stadium in Indianapolis, Indiana. On August 6, 2015, it was announced that the World Championships would remain in Indianapolis through 2028.[34]

In 2009 and 2010, the Open Class preliminary competition was held at Ames Field in Michigan City, Indiana with Semifinals and Finals moving to Lucas Oil Stadium. In 2011, the entire Open Class competition moved to Ames Field, where it remained through 2018. In 2019, Open Class will relocate to the new (opened 2018) Wildcat Stadium at Indiana Wesleyan University in Marion, Indiana.[35]

DrumLine Battle and SoundSport were added to the week's activities in 2014.

Individual & Ensemble[edit]

The Individual & Ensemble (I&E) festival is also hosted near the championship site. Participants from all member corps are eligible to compete demonstrating their ability on their preferred instrument, or as part of a small ensemble or instrument choir. Color guard and dance categories are also available.

In the 2005, I&E was expanded to include woodwind and vocal categories.

Past champions[edit]

Below is a list of all World Championship winners by class.[i]


Year World Class (2008–present)
Division I (1992–2007)
Open Class (1972–1991)
Open Class (2008–present)
Division II (1992–2007)
Class A (1974–1991)
All-Girl (1975–1982) Division III (1992–2007)
Class A60 (1985–1991)
1972 Anaheim Kingsmen
1973 Santa Clara Vanguard
1974 Santa Clara Vanguard (2)
1975 Madison Scouts
Cadets of Greece
(New York)
St. Ignatius
(New York)
1976 Blue Devils
Wausau Story
St. Ignatius (2)
1977 Blue Devils (2) Bengal Lancers
St. Ignatius (3)
1978 Santa Clara Vanguard (3) Black Watch[iii]
Les Châtelaines
1979 Blue Devils (3) Black Watch
(New Jersey)
1980 Blue Devils (4) Ventures[iv]
1981 Santa Clara Vanguard (4) Southernaires
Les Châtelaines (2)
1982 Blue Devils (5) Dutch Boy
Les Châtelaines (3)
1983 Garfield Cadets
(New Jersey)
Les Châtelaines
1984 Garfield Cadets (2) Florida Wave
1985 Garfield Cadets (3) Ventures (2) St. Francis Xavier Sancians
1986 Blue Devils (6) Canadian Knights
St. Francis Xavier Sancians (2)
1987 Garfield Cadets (4) Ventures (3) Mandarins
1988 Madison Scouts (2) L'Insolites
Mandarins (2) British Crusaders[v]
 United Kingdom
1989 Santa Clara Vanguard (5) Ventures (4) Blue Stars
1990 Cadets of Bergen County (5)
(Formerly the Garfield Cadets)
Ventures (5) Academie Musicale
West Coast Cadets
 United Kingdom
1991 Star of Indiana
1992 The Cavaliers
Southwind (2) Mandarins (3) SGI Fuji
1993 Cadets of Bergen County (6) Carolina Crown
(North Carolina)
Blue Stars (2) Phoenix Regiment
1994 Blue Devils (7) Pioneer
Americanos Pride of Bristol
 United Kingdom
1995 The Cavaliers (2) Pioneer (2) Academie Musicale
Bay Max
1996 Blue Devils (8)
Phantom Regiment
Les Etoiles Dorion Vaudreuil
Mandarins (4) Yokohama Scouts
1997 Blue Devils (9) Spartans
(New Hampshire)
Mandarins (5) Pride of SOKA
1998 Cadets of Bergen County (7) East Coast Jazz
Spartans (2)
Mandarins (6)
1999 Blue Devils (10)
Santa Clara Vanguard (6)
(New York)
Mandarins (7) Yokohama Scouts (2)
2000 Cadets of Bergen County (8)
The Cavaliers (3)
Vanguard Cadets
Seattle Cascades
Taipei Yuehfu
2001 The Cavaliers (4) Mandarins
Blue Stars (3) Taipei Yuehfu (2)
2002 The Cavaliers (5) Magic of Orlando
Taipei Yuehfu (3)
2003 Blue Devils (11) Esperanza
Blue Stars (4)
2004 The Cavaliers (6) Spartans[vi] (3) Oregon Crusaders
2005 The Cadets (9)
(Formerly the Cadets of Bergen County)
Spartans (4)
East Coast Jazz[vii]
(New Jersey)
Taipei Yuehfu (4)
2006 The Cavaliers (7) The Academy
2007 Blue Devils (12) Spartans (5) Memphis Sound
Yokohama Scouts (3)
2008 Phantom Regiment (2) Vanguard Cadets (2) Beatrix (2)
2009 Blue Devils (13) Blue Devils B
2010 Blue Devils (14) Blue Devils B (2) Strängnäs
2011 The Cadets (10) Blue Devils B (3) Yokohama Scouts (4)
2012 Blue Devils (15) Oregon Crusaders
2013 Carolina Crown
(South Carolina)
Vanguard Cadets (3) Taipei Yuehfu (5)
2014 Blue Devils (16) Blue Devils B (4) Patria
2015 Blue Devils (17) Vanguard Cadets (4) Jubal (2)
2016 Bluecoats
Blue Devils B (5)
2017 Blue Devils (18) Vanguard Cadets (5) The Company
 United Kingdom
2018 Santa Clara Vanguard (7) Vanguard Cadets (6) Jubal (3)
2019 Blue Devils (19) Spartans (6)
  1. ^ DCI does not announce de facto champions for classes not in competition.
  2. ^ Prior to 1988, corps from outside North America competed against other Open or A class corps even if they did not meet the age limit requirements.
  3. ^ The 1978 Class A Champions Black Watch was also known as Black Watch Highland Regiment.
  4. ^ Ventures won the combined Class A / All-Girl Championship in 1980.
  5. ^ In 1988, DCI co-sponsored the US tour of the Dagenham Crusaders, from Dagenham, United Kingdom. The corps competed in Open Class as the British Crusaders, due to the inclusion of participants from other British drum corps; the Crusaders were announced as the 1988 International Class Champions ahead of the Blue Eagles from Basildon, United Kingdom, who competed in Class A the same year.
  6. ^ In 2004 and 2005, DCI hosted a combined Division II / III Grand Championship. Intended for the twelve highest scoring corps in Divisions II and III. Spartans won both the 2004 Division II Championship and Division II / III Grand Championship.
  7. ^ In 2005, Spartans were Division II Champions, and East Coast Jazz were Division II / III Grand Champions.

Corps with multiple championships[edit]

Corps Total World Class[α]
Division I
Open Class[β]
Division II
All-Girl Division III[γ] International
Blue Devils 19 19 (2 ties)
The Cadets 10 10[f] (1 tie)
Mandarins 8 1 7
The Cavaliers 7 7 (1 tie)
Santa Clara Vanguard 7 7 (1 tie)
Vanguard Cadets 6 6
Spartans 6 6 (1 tie)
Ventures Canada 6 5 1
Blue Devils B 5 5
Taipei Yeuhfu Taiwan 5 5
Blue Stars 4 4
Les Chatelaines Canada 4 1 3
Yokohama Scouts Japan 4 4
Jubal Netherlands 3 3
Pioneer 3 2 1
St. Ignatius 3 3
Carolina Crown 2 1 1
East Coast Jazz 2 1 (1 tie) + 1[δ]
Madison Scouts 2 2
Phantom Regiment 2 2 (1 tie)
Southwind 2 2
Beatrix Netherlands 2 2
St. Francis Xavier Sancians 2 2
  1. ^ Includes World Class (2008–present), Division I (1992–2007), and Open Class (1972–1991).
  2. ^ Includes: Open Class (2008–present), Division II (1992–2007), Division II / III Grand Championships (2004–05), and Class A (1974–1991).
  3. ^ Includes: Division III (1992–2007), and Class A60 (1985–1991).
  4. ^ East Coast Jazz won 1998 Division II Championship, tied with the Spartans. Jazz also won the 2005 Division II / III Grand Championship.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ The American Legion Uniformed Groups Rules Congress was likely simultaneous with a meeting of the National Executive Committee, October 20–21, 1971. Several primary sources list the date as "November 1971", others disagree saying "October 1971".
  2. ^ Drum Corps Midwest (DCM) was an independent association of drum corps, while Drum Corps East was operated by DCI.
  3. ^ World Championship Open Class finals from 1975 to 1991, and Division I finals from 1992 to 2005.
  4. ^ Prior to 2011, Open Class quarterfinals performances were broadcast. From 2011 onward, performances from the preliminary "all-skate" were broadcast.
  5. ^ Drum corps are housed at middle schools and high schools over night, and often rehearse on school grounds prior to competitions.
  6. ^ Four championship titles as the Garfield Cadets, three as the Cadets of Bergen County, and three as The Cadets.


  1. ^ a b c Boo, Michael (March 12, 2004). "Determination: Believing in the Midwest Combine". www.dci.org. Retrieved August 9, 2015.
  2. ^ a b c d e Vickers, Steve, ed. (2002). A History of Drum and Bugle Corps. 1. Madison, Wisconsin: Sight & Sound, Inc. (published 2003).
  3. ^ Blocher, Gregg. "1972 Season". fromthepressbox2.com. Retrieved September 14, 2018.
  4. ^ "Details about". apps.irs.gov. EIN: 36-2754480. Retrieved September 14, 2018.
  5. ^ "2016 Form 990" (PDF). 990s.foundationcenter.org. 2016. Retrieved September 14, 2018.
  6. ^ "DCI Board of Directors". www.dci.org. Retrieved September 14, 2018.
  7. ^ "Acheson renewed as DCI Chief Executive". www.dci.org. January 7, 2016. Retrieved September 14, 2018.
  8. ^ "Kathy Black elected new DCI Board of Directors Chair". www.dci.org. May 18, 2018. Retrieved September 14, 2018.
  9. ^ "Drum Corps International Corporate partners". www.dci.org. Retrieved September 14, 2018.
  10. ^ a b "DCI Policies and Procedures Manual". Issuu. Retrieved September 14, 2018.
  11. ^ a b "About Drum Corps International (DCI), Marching Music's Major League™". www.dci.org. Retrieved September 14, 2018.
  12. ^ Tannert, Emily (October 24, 2005). "The Ageout rule". www.dci.org. Retrieved September 14, 2014.
  13. ^ "Shadow Drum and Bugle Corps | DRUM AND BUGLE CORPS". www.shadowdbc.org. Retrieved September 14, 2018.
  14. ^ Boo, Michael (August 22, 2003). "DCI broadcasts on PBS through history". www.dci.org. Retrieved September 14, 2018.
  15. ^ "Coming soon to a theater near you: A larger-than-life DCI experience!". www.dci.org. April 23, 2004. Retrieved September 13, 2017.
  16. ^ "Introducing the NEW Drum Corps International Fan Network". www.dci.org. May 14, 2008. Retrieved September 14, 2018.
  17. ^ Gilley, Michael (April 20, 2017). "FloSports Announces Multi-Year Agreement with Drum Corps International". FloMarching. Retrieved September 14, 2018.
  18. ^ "Rondinaro's 40th broadcast in the "Air Chair"". Drum Corps International Field Pass (Podcast). Drum Corps International. August 8, 2018. Retrieved September 14, 2018.
  19. ^ "Rules & FAQ - SoundSport®". SoundSport®. Retrieved September 14, 2018.
  20. ^ Weber, Chris (May 21, 2014). "Influx of Open Class corps approved to participate in 2014 DCI Tour". www.dci.org. Retrieved September 14, 2018.
  21. ^ a b Koenig, Kate (May 14, 2015). "Three new Open Class corps set to join the 2015 DCI Tour". www.dci.org. Retrieved May 14, 2015.
  22. ^ "Rules & FAQ - DrumLine Battle™". DrumLine Battle™. Retrieved September 14, 2018.
  23. ^ Hollenhorst, Cecilia (August 28, 2013). "DrumLine Battle fuels World Championships excitement". www.dci.org. Retrieved September 14, 2018.
  24. ^ a b "BANDtastic! Honor Bands - DCI". www.dci.org. Retrieved September 14, 2018.
  25. ^ "INpact Indiana's Future Band". www.dci.org. April 19, 2016. Retrieved September 14, 2018.
  26. ^ "BANDtastic! Georgia Honor Band". www.dci.org. April 19, 2016. Retrieved August 2, 2017.
  27. ^ Neff, Andrea (August 4, 2016). "BANDtastic Georgia brings middle schoolers to the drum corps scene". www.dci.org. Retrieved August 2, 2017.
  28. ^ Boo, Michael (September 23, 2007). "Speaking with one voice: The advent of 'Open Class'". www.dci.org. Retrieved September 24, 2007.
  29. ^ "DCI Executive Committee approves formation of 'Open Class'". www.dci.org. September 28, 2007. Retrieved September 30, 2007.
  30. ^ Boo, Michael (July 17, 2003). "The Joy of small corps, part 1". www.dci.org. Retrieved September 14, 2018.
  31. ^ "DCI Parents: Next Steps". www.dci.org. April 11, 2015. Retrieved September 14, 2018.
  32. ^ "2018 DCI rules proposal voting results". www.dci.org. January 6, 2018. Retrieved September 14, 2018.
  33. ^ Boo, Michael (July 27, 2016). "Adjudication 101: Who judges what?". www.dci.org. Retrieved September 14, 2018.
  34. ^ "Drum Corps International and City of Indianapolis announce 10-year contract extension". www.dci.org. August 6, 2015. Retrieved August 6, 2015.
  35. ^ "Open Class World Championship events relocating closer to Indy in 2019". Drum Corps International. November 16, 2018. Retrieved November 20, 2018.
  36. ^ "Drum Corps International: Marching Music`s Major League". www.dci.org. Retrieved November 26, 2018.
  37. ^ "DCX - Drum Corps Xperience". www.dcxmuseum.org. Retrieved September 14, 2018.

External links[edit]