The mountains were formed over tens of millions of years as the African and Eurasian tectonic plates collided. Extreme shortening caused by the event resulted in marine sedimentary rocks rising by thrusting and folding into high mountain peaks such as Mont Blanc, Mont Blanc spans the French–Italian border, and at 4,810 m is the highest mountain in the Alps. The Alpine region area contains about a hundred peaks higher than 4000 metres, the altitude and size of the range affects the climate in Europe, in the mountains precipitation levels vary greatly and climatic conditions consist of distinct zones. Wildlife such as live in the higher peaks to elevations of 3,400 m. Evidence of human habitation in the Alps goes back to the Palaeolithic era, a mummified man, determined to be 5,000 years old, was discovered on a glacier at the Austrian–Italian border in 1991. By the 6th century BC, the Celtic La Tène culture was well established, Hannibal famously crossed the Alps with a herd of elephants, and the Romans had settlements in the region.
In 1800 Napoleon crossed one of the passes with an army of 40,000. The 18th and 19th centuries saw an influx of naturalists, writers, in World War II, Adolf Hitler kept a base of operation in the Bavarian Alps throughout the war. The Alpine region has a cultural identity. The Winter Olympic Games have been hosted in the Swiss, French, at present, the region is home to 14 million people and has 120 million annual visitors. The English word Alps derives from the Latin Alpes, maurus Servius Honoratus, an ancient commentator of Virgil, says in his commentary that all high mountains are called Alpes by Celts. The term may be common to Italo-Celtic, because the Celtic languages have terms for high mountains derived from alp and this may be consistent with the theory that in Greek Alpes is a name of non-Indo-European origin. According to the Old English Dictionary, the Latin Alpes might possibly derive from a pre-Indo-European word *alb hill, Albania, a name not native to the region known as the country of Albania, has been used as a name for a number of mountainous areas across Europe.
In Roman times, Albania was a name for the eastern Caucasus, in modern languages the term alp, albe or alpe refers to a grazing pastures in the alpine regions below the glaciers, not the peaks. An alp refers to a mountain pasture where cows are taken to be grazed during the summer months and where hay barns can be found. The Alps are a crescent shaped geographic feature of central Europe that ranges in a 800 km arc from east to west and is 200 km in width, the mean height of the mountain peaks is 2.5 km. The range stretches from the Mediterranean Sea north above the Po basin, extending through France from Grenoble, the range continues onward toward Vienna and east to the Adriatic Sea and Slovenia. To the south it dips into northern Italy and to the north extends to the border of Bavaria in Germany
Downpatrick is a medium-sized town about 33 km south of Belfast in County Down, Northern Ireland. It has been an important site since ancient times and its cathedral is said to be the burial place of Saint Patrick. Today it is the county town of Down and the joint headquarters of Newry, Mourne and it had a population of 10,822 at the 2011 Census. As the largest town in the Lecale area, Downpatrick is a commercial and administrative centre for the locality and serves as a hub for the nearby towns and villages. Within a 30 minutes drive from Belfast, the location serves as a town for a large number of people. The town has a number of primary and post-primary schools educating students from all over the east Down area, unfortunately is very behind area not so much shopping there and very bad transportation and weak services as well in this area. Its lowest point lies within the surrounding the north east of the town. Downpatrick is approximately 22 miles from Belfast and has a bus service to the city.
An early Bronze Age site was excavated in Downpatrick on the Meadowlands housing estate, one measured over 4 metres in diameter and contained a hearth in the centre, while the other round house was over seven metres across. Some archaeological evidence indicates a Neolithic settlement at the Cathedral Hill site and it had an undefended settlement at least on the south west of the hill top. Downpatrick or Duno is one of Irelands most ancient and historic towns and it takes its name from a dún, which once stood on the hill that dominates the town and on which Down Cathedral was built. Ptolemy, about the year AD130, includes it as Dunum in his list of towns of Ireland. The Gaelic name of the town was Rath Celtair, named after the warrior of Ulster called Celtchar, who resided there. He is mentioned in the Ulster Cycle and, in particular, Saint Patrick was reputedly buried here in 461 on Cathedral Hill, together with Saint Brigit and Saint Columba. Down Cathedral was constructed on this spot and his grave is still a place of pilgrimage on St Patricks Day.
The Saint Patrick Visitor Centre in Downpatrick is purpose-built to tell the story of St Patrick, from the seventh century the dominant power in Ulster were the Dál Fiatach so much so that the title Rí Uladh could simultaneously mean King of Ulster and King of the Dál Fiatach. County Down was the ancient centre of the Dál Fiatach lands, in 1137, St. Malachy after resigning as Archbishop of Armagh, separating the two dioceses and appointing another as Bishop of Connor, became the Bishop of Down. He administered the diocese of Dún dá leth glas from Bangor and he repaired and enlarged Down Cathedral
It is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the east, the states of Connecticut and Rhode Island to the south, New Hampshire and Vermont to the north, and New York to the west. The state is named for the Massachusett tribe, which inhabited the area. The capital of Massachusetts and the most populous city in New England is Boston, over 80% of Massachusetts population lives in the Greater Boston metropolitan area, a region influential upon American history and industry. Originally dependent on agriculture and trade, Massachusetts was transformed into a manufacturing center during the Industrial Revolution, during the 20th century, Massachusetts economy shifted from manufacturing to services. Modern Massachusetts is a leader in biotechnology, higher education, finance. Plymouth was the site of the first colony in New England, founded in 1620 by the Pilgrims, in 1692, the town of Salem and surrounding areas experienced one of Americas most infamous cases of mass hysteria, the Salem witch trials. In 1777, General Henry Knox founded the Springfield Armory, which during the Industrial Revolution catalyzed numerous important technological advances, in 1786, Shays Rebellion, a populist revolt led by disaffected American Revolutionary War veterans, influenced the United States Constitutional Convention.
In the 18th century, the Protestant First Great Awakening, which swept the Atlantic World, in the late 18th century, Boston became known as the Cradle of Liberty for the agitation there that led to the American Revolution. The entire Commonwealth of Massachusetts has played a commercial and cultural role in the history of the United States. Before the American Civil War, Massachusetts was a center for the abolitionist, temperance, in the late 19th century, the sports of basketball and volleyball were invented in the western Massachusetts cities of Springfield and Holyoke, respectively. Many prominent American political dynasties have hailed from the state, including the Adams, both Harvard University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, in Cambridge, have been ranked among the most highly regarded academic institutions in the world. Massachusetts public school students place among the top nations in the world in academic performance, the official name of the state is the Commonwealth of Massachusetts.
While this designation is part of the official name, it has no practical implications. Massachusetts has the position and powers within the United States as other states. Massachusetts was originally inhabited by tribes of the Algonquian language family such as the Wampanoag, Nipmuc, Pocomtuc and Massachusett. While cultivation of crops like squash and corn supplemented their diets, villages consisted of lodges called wigwams as well as longhouses, and tribes were led by male or female elders known as sachems. Between 1617 and 1619, smallpox killed approximately 90% of the Massachusetts Bay Native Americans, the first English settlers in Massachusetts, the Pilgrims, arrived via the Mayflower at Plymouth in 1620, and developed friendly relations with the native Wampanoag people. This was the second successful permanent English colony in the part of North America that became the United States, the event known as the First Thanksgiving was celebrated by the Pilgrims after their first harvest in the New World which lasted for three days
Eskers are frequently several kilometres long and, because of their peculiar uniform shape, are somewhat like railway embankments. The term esker is derived from the Irish word eiscir, which means ridge or elevation, the Irish word was and is used particularly to describe long sinuous ridges, which are now known to be deposits of fluvio-glacial material. Most eskers are argued to have formed within ice-walled tunnels by streams which flowed within and they tended to form around the time of the glacial maximum when the glacier was slow and sluggish. After the retaining ice walls melted away, stream deposits remained as long winding ridges, water can flow uphill if it is under pressure in an enclosed pipe, such as a natural tunnel in ice. Eskers may form above glaciers by accumulation of sediment in supraglacial channels, in crevasses, Eskers form near the terminal zone of glaciers, where the ice is not moving as fast and is relatively thin. Plastic flow and melting of the basal ice determines the size and this in turn determines the shape and structure of an esker.
Eskers may exist as a channel, or may be part of a branching system with tributary eskers. They are not often found as continuous ridges, but have gaps that separate the winding segments, the ridge crests of eskers are not usually level for very long, and are generally knobby. Eskers may be broad-crested or sharp-crested with steep sides and they can reach hundreds of kilometers in length and are generally 20–30 metres in height. The path of an esker is governed by its pressure in relation to the overlying ice. This process is what produces the wide eskers upon which roads, less pressure, occurring in areas closer to the glacial maximum, can cause ice to melt over the stream flow and create steep-walled, sharply-arched tunnels. The concentration of debris in the ice and the rate at which sediment is delivered to the tunnel by melting. The sediment generally consists of coarse-grained, water-laid sand and gravel and this sediment is stratified and sorted, and usually consists of pebble/cobble-sized material with occasional boulders.
Bedding may be irregular but is almost always present, and cross-bedding is common, Eskers are critical to the ecology of Northern Canada. In Sweden Uppsalaåsen stretches for 250 km and passes through Uppsala city, great Esker Park runs along the Back River in Weymouth, Massachusetts and is home to the highest esker in North America. Pispala in Tampere, Finland is on an esker between two lakes carved by glaciers, a similar site is Punkaharju in Finnish Lakeland. The village of Kemnay in Aberdeenshire, Scotland has a 5 km esker locally called the Kemb Hills, there are over 1,000 eskers in the state of Michigan, primarily in the south-central Lower Peninsula. The longest esker in Michigan is the 22 mile long Mason Esker, Esker systems in the U. S. state of Maine can be traced for up to 100 miles
County Leitrim is a county in Ireland. It is in the province of Connacht and is part of the Border Region and it is named after the village of Leitrim. Leitrim County Council is the authority for the county, which had a population of 31,972 according to the 2016 census. Leitrim is the 26th largest of the 32 counties by area and it is the smallest of Connacht’s 5 counties in both size and population. Leitrim is bordered by the counties of Donegal to the north, Fermanagh to the north-east, Cavan to the east, Longford to the south, Roscommon to the south-west, Fermanagh is in Northern Ireland while all the other neighbouring counties are within the Republic. There are five historic baronies in the county, while baronies continue to be officially defined units, they are no longer used for many administrative purposes. Their official status is illustrated by Placenames Orders made since 2003 and they are Carrigallen, Leitrim and Rosclogher. Leitrim has the shortest length of coastline of any Irish county that touches the sea, at Tullaghan, the coastline is only 2.5 kilometres long.
The Shannon is linked to the Erne via the Shannon-Erne Waterway, notable lakes include, Lough Melvin Lough Allen Lough Gill is to the northwest of Dromahair, Parkes Castle is located on the lake shore. Belhavel Lough is located in Dromahair, within the parish of Killargue, Lough Scur, and Saint Johns Lough, on the Shannon–Erne Waterway. Other lakes include Upper Lough MacNean, Glencar Lough, Glenade Lough, Garadice Lough, Rinn Lough, Lough Scannal, Lough Erril, in ancient times Leitrim formed the western half of the Kingdom of Breifne. This region was influenced by the ORourke family of Dromahair. The Normans invaded in the 13th century and occupied the south of Breifne, much of the county was confiscated from its owners in 1620 and given to Villiers and Hamilton. Their initial objective was to plant the county with English settlers, English Deputy Sir John Perrot had ordered the legal establishment of Leitrim County a half-century prior, in 1565. Perrott demarcated the current county borders around 1583, many of these great forests were denuded for the making for Charcoal for Iron works around Slieve Anierin.
The population subsequently continued to decrease due to emigration, after many years, the wounds of such rapid population decline have finally started to heal. Agriculture improved over the last century, Leitrim now has the fastest growing population in Connacht. Working of the rich deposits of iron ore began in the 15th century
A moraine is any glacially formed accumulation of unconsolidated glacial debris that occurs in both currently and formerly glaciated regions on Earth, through geomorphological processes. Moraines are formed from debris previously carried along by a glacier, lateral moraines are formed at the side of the ice flow and terminal moraines at the foot, marking the maximum advance of the glacier. Other types of moraine include ground moraines, till-covered areas with irregular topography, moraines may be composed of debris ranging in size from silt-sized glacial flour to large boulders. The debris is typically sub-angular to rounded in shape, moraines may be on the glacier’s surface or deposited as piles or sheets of debris where the glacier has melted. Moraines may form through a number of processes, depending on the characteristics of sediment, the dynamics on the ice, moraine forming processes may be loosely divided into passive and active. Passive processes involve the placing of chaotic supraglacial sediments onto the landscape with limited reworking and these moraines are composed of supraglacial sediments from the ice surface.
Active processes form or rework moraine sediment directly by the movement of ice and these form push moraines and thrust-block moraines, which are often composed of till and reworked proglacial sediment. Moraine may form by the accumulation of sand and gravel deposits from glacial streams emanating from the ice margin and these fan deposits may coalesce to form a long moraine bank marking the ice margin. Several processes may combine to form and rework a single moraine, moraines can be classified either by origin, location with respect to a glacier or former glacier, or by shape. Some moraine types are only from ancient glaciers, while medial moraines of valley glaciers are poorly preserved. Lateral moraines are parallel ridges of debris deposited along the sides of a glacier, the unconsolidated debris can be deposited on top of the glacier by frost shattering of the valley walls and/or from tributary streams flowing into the valley. The till is carried along the glacial margin until the glacier melts, lateral moraines stand high because they protect the ice under them from the elements, causing it to melt or sublime less than the uncovered parts of the glacier.
Multiple lateral moraines may develop as the glacier advances and retreats, ground moraines are till-covered areas with irregular topography and no ridges, often forming gently rolling hills or plains. They are accumulated at the base of the ice as lodgment till, in alpine glaciers, ground moraines are often found between the two lateral moraines. Ground moraines may be modified into drumlins by the overriding ice, Rogen moraines or ribbed moraines are a type of basal moraines that form a series of ribs perpendicular to the ice flow in an ice sheet. The depressions between the ribs are sometimes filled with water, making the Rogen moraines look like tigerstripes on aerial photographs, Rogen moraines are named after Lake Rogen in Härjedalen, the landform’s type locality. End moraines, or terminal moraines, are ridges of unconsolidated debris deposited at the snout or end of the glacier and they usually reflect the shape of the glaciers terminus. Glaciers act much like a belt, carrying debris from the top of the glacier to the bottom where it deposits it in end moraines
Greenland is an autonomous constituent country within the Danish Realm between the Arctic and Atlantic Oceans, east of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Though physiographically a part of the continent of North America, Greenland has been politically and culturally associated with Europe for more than a millennium. The majority of its residents are Inuit, whose ancestors began migrating from the Canadian mainland in the 13th century, Greenland is the worlds largest island. Three-quarters of Greenland is covered by the permanent ice sheet outside Antarctica. With a population of about 56,480, it is the least densely populated country in the world, the Arctic Umiaq Line ferry acts as a lifeline for western Greenland, connecting the various cities and settlements. Greenland has been inhabited off and on for at least the last 4,500 years by Arctic peoples whose forebears migrated there from what is now Canada, Norsemen settled the uninhabited southern part of Greenland beginning in the 10th century, and Inuit peoples arrived in the 13th century.
The Norse colonies disappeared in the late 15th century, soon after their demise, beginning in 1499, the Portuguese briefly explored and claimed the island, naming it Terra do Lavrador. In the early 18th century, Scandinavian explorers reached Greenland again, to strengthen trading and power, Denmark-Norway affirmed sovereignty over the island. Greenland was settled by Vikings more than a thousand years ago, Vikings set sail from Greenland and Iceland, discovering North America nearly 500 years before Columbus reached Caribbean islands. Though under continuous influence of Norway and Norwegians, Greenland was not formally under the Norwegian crown until 1262, the Kingdom of Norway was extensive and a military power until the mid-14th century. Thus, the two kingdoms resources were directed at creating Copenhagen, Norway became the weaker part and lost sovereignty over Greenland in 1814 when the union was dissolved. Greenland became a Danish colony in 1814, and was made a part of the Danish Realm in 1953 under the Constitution of Denmark, in 1973, Greenland joined the European Economic Community with Denmark.
However, in a referendum in 1982, a majority of the population voted for Greenland to withdraw from the EEC which was effected in 1985, Greenland contains the worlds largest and most northernly national park, Northeast Greenland National Park. Greenland is divided into four municipalities - Sermersooq, Qaasuitsup and it retains control of monetary policy, providing an initial annual subsidy of DKK3.4 billion, which is planned to diminish gradually over time. Greenland expects to grow its economy based on increased income from the extraction of natural resources, the capital, held the 2016 Arctic Winter Games. At 70%, Greenland has one of the highest shares of renewable energy in the world, the early Viking settlers named the island as Greenland. In the Icelandic sagas, the Norwegian-born Icelander Erik the Red was said to be exiled from Iceland for manslaughter, along with his extended family and his thralls, he set out in ships to explore an icy land known to lie to the northwest. After finding an area and settling there, he named it Grœnland
County Armagh is one of six counties that form Northern Ireland and one of the 32 traditional counties of Ireland, situated in the northeast of the island. Adjoined to the shore of Lough Neagh, the county covers an area of 1,326 km² and has a population of about 174,792. It is within the province of Ulster. County Armagh is known as the Orchard County because of its apple orchards. The name Armagh derives from the Irish word Ard meaning height and Macha, together meaning height, the River Blackwater marks the border with County Tyrone and Lough Neagh otherwise marks out the Countys northern boundary. There are a number of uninhabited islands in the section of Lough Neagh, Coney Island Flat, Croaghan Flat, Phil Roes Flat. Despite lying in the east of Ireland, Armagh enjoys a climate strongly influenced by the Gulf Stream with damp mild winters. Overall temperatures rarely drop below freezing during daylight hours, though frost is not infrequent in the months November to February, snow rarely lies for longer than a few hours even in the elevated south-east of the County.
Summers are mild and wet and although with sunshine often interspersed with showers, ancient Armagh was the territory of the Ulaid before the fourth century AD. It was ruled by the Red Branch, whose capital was Emain Macha near Armagh, the site, and subsequently the city, were named after the goddess Macha. The Red Branch play an important role in the Ulster Cycle, they were eventually driven out of the area by the Three Collas, who invaded in the 4th century and held power until the 12th. The Clan Colla ruled the known as Airghialla or Oriel for these 800 years. The chief Irish septs of the county were descendants of the Collas, the OHanlons and MacCanns, and the Uí Néill, Oneilland East was the territory of the OGarveys, who were displaced by the MacCanns. Oneilland West, like Oneilland East, was once ONeill territory, until it was held by the MacCanns. Upper and Lower Orior were OHanlon territory, miscellaneous tracts of land were ruled by OKelaghan. The area around the base of Slieve Guillion near Newry became home to a number of the McGuinness clan as they were dispossessed of hereditary lands held in the County Down.
Armagh was the seat of St. Patrick, and the Catholic Church continues to be his see, County Armagh is presently one of four counties of Northern Ireland to have a majority of the population from a Catholic background, according to the 2011 census. South Armagh is predominantly nationalist, with most of the population being opposed to any form of British presence, see Provisional IRA South Armagh Brigade for further information
Rock or stone is a natural substance, a solid aggregate of one or more minerals or mineraloids. For example, granite, a rock, is a combination of the minerals quartz, feldspar. The Earths outer solid layer, the lithosphere, is made of rock, rock has been used by mankind throughout history. The minerals and metals found in rocks have been essential to human civilization, three major groups of rocks are defined, igneous and metamorphic. The scientific study of rocks is called petrology, which is a component of geology. At a granular level, rocks are composed of grains of minerals, the aggregate minerals forming the rock are held together by chemical bonds. The types and abundance of minerals in a rock are determined by the manner in which the rock was formed, many rocks contain silica, a compound of silicon and oxygen that forms 74. 3% of the Earths crust. This material forms crystals with other compounds in the rock, the proportion of silica in rocks and minerals is a major factor in determining their name and properties.
Rocks are geologically classified according to such as mineral and chemical composition, the texture of the constituent particles. These physical properties are the end result of the processes that formed the rocks, over the course of time, rocks can transform from one type into another, as described by the geological model called the rock cycle. These events produce three general classes of rock, igneous and metamorphic, the three classes of rocks are subdivided into many groups. However, there are no hard and fast boundaries between allied rocks, hence the definitions adopted in establishing rock nomenclature merely correspond to more or less arbitrary selected points in a continuously graduated series. Igneous rock forms through the cooling and solidification of magma or lava and this magma can be derived from partial melts of pre-existing rocks in either a planets mantle or crust. Typically, the melting of rocks is caused by one or more of three processes, an increase in temperature, a decrease in pressure, or a change in composition, igneous rocks are divided into two main categories, plutonic rock and volcanic.
Plutonic or intrusive rocks result when magma cools and crystallizes slowly within the Earths crust, a common example of this type is granite. Volcanic or extrusive rocks result from magma reaching the surface either as lava or fragmental ejecta, the chemical abundance and the rate of cooling of magma typically forms a sequence known as Bowens reaction series. Most major igneous rocks are found along this scale, about 64. 7% of the Earths crust by volume consists of igneous rocks, making it the most plentiful category. Of these, 66% are basalts and gabbros, 16% are granite, only 0. 6% are syenites and 0. 3% peridotites and dunites
Estonia, officially the Republic of Estonia, is a country in the Baltic region of Northern Europe. It is bordered to the north by the Gulf of Finland, to the west by the Baltic Sea, to the south by Latvia, across the Baltic Sea lies Sweden in the west and Finland in the north. The territory of Estonia consists of a mainland and 2,222 islands and islets in the Baltic Sea, covering 45,339 km2 of land and water, and is influenced by a humid continental climate. The territory of Estonia has been inhabited since at least 6500 BC, in 1988, during the Singing Revolution, the Estonian Supreme Soviet issued the Estonian Sovereignty Declaration in defiance of Soviet rule, and independence was restored on 20 August 1991. Estonia is a parliamentary republic divided into fifteen counties. Its capital and largest city is Tallinn, with a population of 1.3 million, it is one of the least-populous member states of the European Union, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, OECD and Schengen Area. Estonia is a country with an advanced, high-income economy that is among the fastest growing in the EU.
Its Human Development Index ranks very highly, and it performs favourably in measurements of economic freedom, civil liberties, the 2015 PISA test places Estonian high school students 3rd in the world, behind Singapore and Japan. Citizens of Estonia are provided with health care, free education. Since independence the country has developed its IT sector, becoming one of the worlds most digitally advanced societies. In 2005 Estonia became the first nation to hold elections over the Internet, in the Estonian language, the oldest known endonym of the Estonians was maarahvas, meaning country people or people of the land. The land inhabited by Estonians was called Maavald meaning Country Parish or Land Parish, one hypothesis regarding the modern name of Estonia is that it originated from the Aesti, a people described by the Roman historian Tacitus in his Germania. The historic Aesti were allegedly Baltic people, whereas the modern Estonians are Finno-Ugric, the geographical areas between Aesti and Estonia do not match, with Aesti being further down south.
Ancient Scandinavian sagas refer to a land called Eistland, as the country is called in Icelandic. Early Latin and other ancient versions of the name are Estia and Hestia, esthonia was a common alternative English spelling prior to 1921. Human settlement in Estonia became possible 13,000 to 11,000 years ago, the oldest known settlement in Estonia is the Pulli settlement, which was on the banks of the river Pärnu, near the town of Sindi, in south-western Estonia. According to radiocarbon dating it was settled around 11,000 years ago, the earliest human inhabitation during the Mesolithic period is connected to Kunda culture, which is named after the town of Kunda in northern Estonia. At that time the country was covered with forests, and people lived in communities near bodies of water
County Cavan is a county in Ireland. It is in the province of Ulster and is part of the Border Region and it is named after the town of Cavan and is based on the historic Gaelic territory of East Breffny. Cavan County Council is the authority for the county, which has a population of 76,092 according to the 2016 census. Cavan borders six counties, Leitrim to the west and Monaghan to the north, Meath to the south-east, Longford to the south-west, Cavan shares a 70 km border with County Fermanagh in Northern Ireland. Cavan is the 19th largest of the 32 counties in area and it is the sixth largest of Ulsters nine counties in size and the seventh largest by population. There are eight historic baronies in the county, while baronies continue to be officially defined units, they are no longer used for many administrative purposes. Their official status is illustrated by Placenames Orders made since 2003, the county is characterised by drumlin countryside dotted with many lakes and hills. The north-western area of the county is sparsely populated and mountainous, the Breifne mountains contain the highest point, Cuilcagh, at 665 metres.
Cavan is the source of many rivers, Shannon Pot on the slopes of Cuilcagh is the source of the River Shannon, the longest river in Ireland at 386 km. The River Erne is a river which rises from Beaghy Lough. The Glyde and the Owenroe source in Cavan, Cavan is known as The Lakeland County and is reputed to contain 365 lakes. At 18.8 km2, Lough Sheelin is the countys largest lake, it is situated in the south of the county, a large complex of lakes form in the north and west of Cavan into designated Specially Protected Areas, an example is Lough Oughter. Other important wildlife protected lakes such as Lough Gowna and Lough Ramor are in the south, Cavan has a mainly hilly landscape and contains just under 7,000 hectares of forested area,3. 6% of Cavans total land area. The county contains forests such as Bellamont Forest near Cootehill, Killykeen Forest Park at Lough Oughter, Dún na Rí Forest Park, met Éireann records the climate data for Cavan from their station at Ballyhaise. Under Köppen climate classification, Cavan experiences a temperate oceanic climate with cold winters, mild humid summers.
The average maximum January temperature is 8.2 °C, while the average maximum July temperature is 19.8 °C. On average, the sunniest months are May and June, while the wettest month is October with 104.4 mm of rain, in 2010, record low temperatures for November and January were recorded in Cavan. In late December, the temperature at the fell to −15.4 °C
A tunnel valley can be as long as 100 km,4 km wide, and 400 m deep. Tunnel valleys were formed by erosion by water and served as subglacial drainage pathways carrying large volumes of melt water. Their cross-sections exhibit steep-sided flanks similar to fjord walls, and their bottoms are typical of subglacial glacial erosion. They presently appear as dry valleys, seabed depressions, if they are filled with sediment, their lower layers are filled primarily with glacial, glaciofluvial or glaciolacustrine sediment, supplemented by upper layers of temperate infill. They can be found in areas covered by glacial ice sheets including Africa, North America, Europe and offshore in the North Sea. Tunnel valleys appear in the literature under several terms, including tunnel channels, subglacial valleys, snake coils. The Upper Ordovician–Lower Silurian materials there contain a roughly 20 m thick, approximately 30% of the worlds oil is found in these shale deposits. The shale has been linked to glacial meltwater nutrient enrichment of the marine environment.
Hence the presence of tunnel valleys is an indicator of the presence of oil in these areas, tunnel valleys represent a substantial fraction of all melt-water drainage from glaciers. Tunnel valleys are eroded into bedrock and filled with glacial debris of varying sizes. This configuration makes them excellent at capturing and storing water, hence they serve an important role as aquifers across much of Northern Europe and the United States. Examples include Oak Ridges Moraine Aquifer, Spokane Valley-Rathdrum Prairie Aquifer, Mahomet Aquifer, the Saginaw Lobe Aquifer, tunnel valleys have been observed as open valleys and as partially or totally buried valleys. If buried they may be partially or totally filled with glacial outwash or other debris, the valleys may be incised in bedrock, silt, or clay. They vary in depth and width, Danish examples run from 0. 5–4 km wide. They have steep sides which are frequently asymmetric, tunnel valleys frequently include relatively straight individual segments parallel to and independent of one another.
Tunnel valley courses may be interrupted, the interruption may include a stretch of elevated esker. The upstream portion – that section furthest into the glacier - consists of a branching system forming a network and they typically exhibit the largest cross-sectional area in the center of the course and terminate over a relatively short distance in elevated outwash fans at the ice-margin. Tunnel valleys are found to cross the regional gradient - as a result they may be crosscut by modern stream networks, in one example, tributaries of the Kalamazoo River cut at nearly right angles across buried tunnel channel filled with ice and debris