Persea is a genus of about 150 species of evergreen trees belonging to the laurel family, Lauraceae. The best-known member of the genus is the avocado, P. americana cultivated in subtropical regions for its large, edible fruit. They are medium-size 15 -- 30 m tall at maturity; the leaves are simple, lanceolate to broad lanceolate, varying with species from 5–30 cm long and 2–12 cm broad, arranged spirally or alternately on the stems. The flowers are in short panicles, with six small greenish-yellow perianth segments 3–6 mm long, nine stamens and an ovary with a single embryo; the fruit is an pear-shaped drupe, with a fleshy outer covering surrounding the single seed. The species of Persea have a disjunct distribution, with about 70 Neotropic species, ranging from Brazil and Chile in South America to Central America and Mexico, the Caribbean, the southeastern United States. None of the species are tolerant of severe winter cold, with the hardiest, P. borbonia, P. ichangensis and P. lingue, surviving temperatures down to about −12 °C.
A number of these species are found in forests that face threats of deforestation. The family Lauraceae was part of the land flora of Gondwana, many genera had migrated to South America via Antarctica over ocean landbridges by the time of the Paleocene. From South America they spread over most of the continent; when the North American and South American tectonic plates joined in the late Neogene, volcanic mountain building created island chains which formed the Mesoamerican landbridge. Pliocene elevation created new habitats for speciation. While some genera died out in xerophytic mainland Africa, starting with the freezing of Antarctica about 20 million years ago and the formation of the Benguela current, which reached South America and Mesoamerica, such as Beilschmiedia and Nectandra are still surviving today in Africa in a number of species; the genus, died out in Africa, except for P. indica, which is, today, a threatened species that survives in the fog-shrouded mountains of the Canary Islands.
Fossil evidence indicates that the genus originated in West Africa during the Paleocene, spread to Asia, to South America, to Europe and thence to North America. It is thought that the gradual drying of Africa, west Asia, the Mediterranean from the Oligocene to the Pleistocene, the glaciation of Europe during the Pleistocene, caused the extinction of the genus across these regions, resulting in the present distribution. Since this habitat is threatened by encroaching agriculture, the laurel forest animal or vegetal species have become rare in many of its former habitats and are threatened by further habitat loss. In Mesoamerica, Persea proliferated into many new species, the berries of some of them constitute a valuable food supply for quetzals, trogoniform birds that live in the montane rainforests of Mesoamerica. In particular, the resplendent quetzal's favorite fruits are berries of wild relatives of the avocado, their differing maturing times in the cloudforest determine the migratory movements of the quetzals to differing elevation levels in the forests.
With a gape width of 21 mm, the quetzal swallows the small berry whole, which he catches while flying through the lower canopy of the tree, regurgitates the seed within 100 meters from the tree. Wheelright in 1983 observed that parent quetzals take far less time intervals to deliver fruits to the young brood than insects or lizards, reflecting the ease of procuring fruits, as opposed to capturing animal prey. Since the young are fed berries in the first 2 weeks after hatching, these berries must be of high nutritional value. Only the total percentage of water, nitrogen, crude fats and carbohydrates are reported by ornithologists. Persea species are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including giant leopard moth, Coleophora octagonella and Hypercompe indecisa; the genus Persea is treated in three subgenera. The Asian subgenus Machilus is treated in a separate genus Machilus by many authors, including in the Flora of China, while graft-incompatibility between subgenus Persea and subgenus Eriodaphne suggests that these too may be better treated as distinct genera, in fact Kostermans founded the genus Mutisiopersea for these.
Another related genus, Beilschmiedia, is sometimes included in Persea. Subgenus Persea — Central America. Two species. Persea americana Mill. – Avocado Persea americana var. drymifolia S. F. Blake Persea americana var. floccosa Scora Persea americana var. guatemalensis Scora Persea americana var. nubigena L. E. Kopp Persea americana var. steyermarkii Scora Persea schiedeana Nees – CoyoSubgenus Eriodaphne — The Americas, Macaronesia. About 70 species, including Persea alpigena Persea brevipetiolata van der Werff from Mexico Persea borbonia Spreng. – Redbay Persea caerulea Mez Persea cinerascens Persea donnell-smithii Mez Persea indica Spreng. – Viñátigo Persea lingue Nees – Lingue Persea lo
The loquat is a species of flowering plant in the family Rosaceae, a native to the cooler hill regions of China to south-central China. It is quite common in Japan, hilly Regions of India and foothill regions of Pakistan and some can be found in some Northern part of the Philippines, hill country in Sri Lanka, it can be found in some southern European countries such as Cyprus, Italy and Portugal. It is a large evergreen shrub or tree, grown commercially for its yellow fruit, cultivated as an ornamental plant. Eriobotrya japonica was thought to be related to the genus Mespilus, is still sometimes known as the Japanese medlar, it is known as Japanese plum and Chinese plum known as pipa in China. Eriobotrya japonica is a large evergreen shrub or small tree, with a rounded crown, short trunk and woolly new twigs; the tree can grow to 5–10 metres tall, but is smaller, about 3–4 metres. The fruit begins to ripen during Spring to Summer depending on the temperature in the area; the leaves are alternate, simple, 10–25 centimetres long, dark green and leathery in texture, with a serrated margin, densely velvety-hairy below with thick yellow-brown pubescence.
Loquats are unusual among fruit trees in that the flowers appear in the autumn or early winter, the fruits are ripe at any time from early spring to early summer. The flowers are 2 cm in diameter, with five petals, produced in stiff panicles of three to ten flowers; the flowers have a heady aroma that can be smelled from a distance. Loquat fruits, growing in clusters, are oval, rounded or pear-shaped, 3–5 centimetres long, with a smooth or downy, yellow or orange, sometimes red-blushed skin; the succulent, tangy flesh is white, yellow or orange and sweet to subacid or acid, depending on the cultivar. Each fruit contains with three to five being most common. A variable number of the ovules mature into large brown seeds; the fruits are the sweetest when soft and orange. The flavour is a mixture of peach and mild mango; the loquat is from China where related species can be found growing in the wild. It was introduced into Japan and became naturalised there in early times, it has become naturalised in Georgia, Afghanistan, Azerbaijan, Chile, India, Iraq, South Africa, the whole Mediterranean Basin, New Zealand, Réunion, Central America, South America and in warmer parts of the United States.
In Louisiana, many refer to loquats as "misbeliefs" and they grow in yards of homes. Chinese immigrants are presumed to have carried the loquat to California, it has been cultivated in Japan for about 1,000 years and the fruits and seeds were brought back from China to Japan by the many Japanese scholars visiting and studying in China during the Tang Dynasty. The loquat was mentioned in ancient Chinese literature, such as the poems of Li Bai. Eriobotrya japonica was first described in Europe by Carl Peter Thunberg, has Mespilus japonica in 1780, was relocated to the genera Eriobotrya by John Lindley, who published these changes in Transactions of the Linnean Society of London, 13, p. 102, 1821. However, the first record of the species might have been alluded to by the XVI century, in Portugal, since the common name for the fruit, nêspera, is used. Since the first contact of the Portuguese with the Japanese and Chinese dates from the sixteenth century, it is possible that some were brought back to Europe, as was the case with other species like the hachiya persimmon variety.
Curiously, the far more rare by now Mespilus Germanica, is now called "nespereira-europeia" to distinguish it from the common "nespereira" tree. The most common variety in Portugal is the late ripening Tanaka, where it is popular in gardens and backyards, but not commercially produced. In northern Portugal it is popularly called magnório/magnólio something to do with the french botanist Pierre Magnol. In Spain, the fruits are called "nísperos" and are comercially explored, Spain being the largest producer worldwide, after China, with 41,487t annualy, half of, destined to export markets. Over 800 loquat cultivars exist in Asia. Self-fertile variants include the'Gold ` Mogi' cultivars; the loquat is easy to grow in subtropical to mild temperate climates where it is primarily grown as an ornamental plant for its sweet-scented flowers, secondarily for its delicious fruit. The boldly textured foliage adds a tropical look to gardens, contrasting well with many other plants, it is popular in the Eastern United States, as well as the American South.
There are many named cultivars, with white flesh. Some cultivars are intended for home-growing, where the flowers open and thus the fruit ripens compared to the commercially grown species where the
A bramble is any rough, prickly shrub in the genus Rubus, the blackberries and raspberries and dewberries. "Bramble" is used to describe other prickly shrubs such as roses. Bramble or brambleberry sometimes refers to the blackberry fruit or products of its fruit, such as bramble jelly. In British English, bramble refers to the common blackberry, Rubus fruticosus. Rubus fruticosus grows abundantly in all parts of the British Isles and harvesting the fruits in late summer and autumn is considered a favourite pastime. An hardy plant, bramble bushes can become a nuisance in gardens, sending down strong suckering roots amongst hedges and shrubs and being resilient against pruning. Many consider R. fruticosus a weed due its tendency to grow in neglected areas and its sharp, tough thorns which can be hazardous to children and pets. "Bramble" comes from a variant of bræmel. It descends from Proto-Germanic *brēm-, whence come English broom, German Brombeere, Dutch braam and French framboise. Bramble bushes have long, arching shoots and root easily.
They send up long, arching canes that do not set fruit until the second year of growth. Brambles have trifoliate or palmately-compound leaves. Bramble fruits are aggregate fruits; each small unit is called a drupelet. In some, such as the blackberry, the flower receptacle is elongated and part of the ripe fruit, making the blackberry an aggregate-accessory fruit. Many species are bred for their fruit. Ornamental species can be grown for their ornamental stems and some as ground cover. Members of the Rubus genus tend to have a brittle, porous core and an oily residue along the stalk which makes them ideal to burn in damp climates; the thorny varieties are sometimes grown for game cover and for protection. Most species are important for their wildlife value in their native range; the flowers attract nectar-feeding butterflies and hoverflies, are a particular favourite of Volucella pellucens. Brambles are important food plants for the larvae of several species of Lepidoptera—see list of Lepidoptera that feed on Rubus.
The leaves of brambles are used as a main food source for captive stick insects. Many birds, such as the common blackbird, some mammals will feed on the nutritious fruits in autumn. Split bramble stems are traditionally used as binding material for straw in production of lip-work basketry, such as lip-work chairs and bee skeps and sometimes used to protect other fruits such as strawberries. Bramble leaves can be used to feed most Phasmatodea. Young leaves contain a toxin that can be harmful to many species of Phasmatodea, however this only occurs up until their third instar, by which time they have developed an immunity to it. Rubus fruticosus is difficult to eradicate. Early action by hand pulling with a gloved hand and digging young seedlings as soon as they are seen will save a lot of hard work later. A thick mulch of chipped bark or compost will make it much easier to pull out germinated seeds in the spring. Light but established infestations in friable, workable soils may be removed by cutting back the stems to about 1 foot above the ground, to leave a handle, forking out the bramble stump with as much of the root as possible.
Anything left below-ground may regenerate. Heavy infestations may make the land impenetrable and will require cutting first just to access the stems; the root systems will be so pervasive that removing them would require digging up the entire area. In this case, chemical control using a selective weedkiller such as triclopyr to wet the photosynthesising bramble leaves is effective if applied in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. However, a infested area of uncut brambles will require an inordinate amount of poison to wet the leaves; this will kill the plant back into its root system using a small fraction of the poison required to spray whole bushes. The area may first be cleared using a tractor-mounted rotary mower, motorised string trimmer or with a scythe. A short-bladed, 24 inches, scythe in good hands can be faster than using a string trimmer, leaves a neater cut close to the ground, avoids collateral damage to other plants that are desirable to keep, deposits the cut debris aligned in swathes that are easier to remove and stack.
The area must be cut and cleared at some point anyway and it is easier to clear the debris while green and flexible than dead and dry, so clearing when green spraying a little is more efficient than spraying a lot clearing when dry. Triclopyr is selective, it only affects photosynthesising dicots, leaving grass, flowering monocots such as narcissus and bluebell bulbs, undamaged, it breaks down harmlessly in the soil within about six weeks leaving no toxic residuals. Glyphosate is effective but must be used with much greater care and will damage other woodland plants. There are many different systems developed for the commercial culture of blackberries and raspberries. Bramble cultivars are separated into several categories based on their growth habit, they are categorised as erect, semi-erect, or trailing
The açaí palm, Euterpe oleracea, is a species of palm tree cultivated for its fruit, hearts of palm and trunk wood. Global demand for the fruit expanded in the 21st century and so the tree is cultivated for that purpose primarily; the species is native to Brazil, Peru and Trinidad and Tobago in swamps and floodplains. Açaí palms are tall, slender trees growing to more than 25 m tall, with pinnate leaves up to 3 m long; the fruit is small and black-purple in color, may be sold as a frozen fruit pulp or bottled juice drink with added sugar or other sweeteners. The fruit is a staple food in the tree's native range, but was only introduced to international markets in the 1980s; the common name comes from the Portuguese adaptation of the Tupian word ïwaca'i, meaning " cries or expels water". The importance of the fruit as a staple food in the Amazon River delta gives rise to the local legend of how the plant got its name; the folklore says. When his own daughter gave birth and the child was sacrificed, she cried and died beneath a newly sprouted tree.
The tree fed the tribe and was called açaí because, the daughter's name spelled backwards. The fruit known as açaí berry or açaí, is a small, black-purple drupe about 25 mm in circumference, similar in appearance to a grape, but smaller and with less pulp and produced in branched panicles of 500 to 900 fruits; the exocarp of the ripe fruits is a deep purple color, or green, depending on the kind of açaí and its maturity. The mesocarp is thin, with a consistent thickness of 1 mm or less, it surrounds the voluminous and hard endocarp, which contains a single large seed about 7–10 mm in diameter. The seed makes up about 60-80% of the fruit; the palm bears fruit year round but the berry cannot be harvested during the rainy season. There are two harvests: one is between January and June, while the other is between August and December; the last harvest is the most important. Few named cultivars exist, varieties differ in the nature of the fruit:'Branco' is a rare variety local to the Amazon estuary in which the berries do not change color, but remain green when ripe.
This is believed to be due to a recessive gene since only about 30% of'Branco' palm seeds mature to express this trait. It has less iron and fewer antioxidants, but more oil, many believe it to have a superior taste and digestibility to purple açaí.'BRS-Para Dwarf' was developed by the Brazilian Agricultural Research Agency. The pulp yield ranges from 15% to 25%.. A powdered preparation of freeze-dried açaí fruit pulp and skin was reported to contain 534 calories, 52 g carbohydrates, 8 g protein, 33 g total fat; the carbohydrate portion included 44 g of dietary fiber with low sugar levels, the fat portion consisted of oleic acid, palmitic acid, linoleic acid. The powder was shown to contain negligible vitamin C, 260 mg calcium, 4 mg iron, 1002 IU vitamin A. A comparative analysis from in vitro studies reported that açaí has intermediate polyphenol content relative to 11 varieties of frozen juice pulps, scoring lower than acerola, mango and grapes; the extent to which polyphenols as dietary antioxidants may promote health is unknown, as no credible evidence indicates any antioxidant role for polyphenols in vivo.
When three commercially available juice mixes, containing unspecified percentages of açaí juice, were compared for in vitro antioxidant capacity against red wine, six types of pure fruit juice, pomegranate juice, the average antioxidant capacity ranked lower than that of pomegranate juice, Concord grape juice, blueberry juice, red wine. The average was equivalent to that of black cherry or cranberry juice, was higher than that of orange juice, apple juice, tea; the medical watchdog website Quackwatch said that "açaí juice has only middling levels of antioxidants — less than that of Concord grape and black cherry juices, but more than cranberry and apple juices." The anthocyanins of açaí have relevance to antioxidant capacity only in the plant's natural defense mechanisms, in vitro. Anthocyanins in açaí accounted for only about 10% of the overall antioxidant capacity in vitro; the Linus Pauling Institute and European Food Safety Authority state that "the relative contribution of dietary flavonoids to antioxidant function in vivo is to be small or negligible".
But unlike controlled test tube conditions, in vivo anthocyanins have been shown to be poorly conserved, most of what is absorbed exists as chemically modified metabolites destined for rapid excretion. A powdered preparation of freeze-dried açaí fruit pulp and skin was shown to contain cyanidin 3-O-glucoside and cyanidin 3-O-rutinoside as major anthocyanins; the powdered preparation was reported to contain twelve flavonoid-like compounds, including homoorientin, taxifolin deoxyhexose, scoparin, as well as proanthocyanidins, low levels of resveratrol. In the 1980s, the Brazilian Gracie family marketed açaí as an energy drink or as crushed fruit served with granola and bananas. In the early 2000s, Ryan and Jeremy Black started Sambazon to import açaí into the US. In the early 2000s, many companies flooded the internet with açaí advertising, many of them with counterfeit testimonials
The raspberry is the edible fruit of a multitude of plant species in the genus Rubus of the rose family, most of which are in the subgenus Idaeobatus. Raspberries are perennial with woody stems. Raspberry derives its name from raspise, "a sweet rose-colored wine", from the Anglo-Latin vinum raspeys, or from raspoie, meaning "thicket", of Germanic origin; the name may have been influenced by its appearance as having a rough surface related to Old English rasp or "rough berry". Examples of raspberry species in Rubus subgenus Idaeobatus include: Rubus crataegifolius Rubus gunnianus Rubus idaeus Rubus leucodermis Rubus occidentalis Rubus parvifolius Rubus phoenicolasius Rubus rosifolius Rubus strigosus Rubus ellipticus Several species of Rubus called raspberries, are classified in other subgenera, including: Rubus deliciosus Rubus odoratus Rubus nivalis Rubus arcticus Rubus sieboldii Various kinds of raspberries can be cultivated from hardiness zones 3 to 9. Raspberries are traditionally planted in the winter as dormant canes, although planting of tender, plug plants produced by tissue culture has become much more common.
A specialized production system called "long cane production" involves growing canes for a year in a northern climate such as Scotland or Oregon or Washington, where the chilling requirement for proper bud break is attained, or attained earlier than the ultimate place of planting. These canes are dug and all, to be replanted in warmer climates such as Spain, where they flower and produce a early season crop. Plants are planted 2-6 per m in fertile, well drained soil. All cultivars of raspberries have perennial roots but, many do not have perennial shoots. In fact, most raspberries have shoots; the flowers can be a major nectar source for other pollinators. Raspberries can be locally invasive, they propagate using basal shoots, extended underground shoots that develop roots and individual plants. They can sucker new canes some distance from the main plant. For this reason, raspberries spread well, can take over gardens if left unchecked. Raspberries are propagated using cuttings, will root in moist soil conditions.
The fruit is harvested when it comes off the receptacle and has turned a deep color. This is when the fruits are sweetest. High tunnel bramble production offers the opportunity to bridge gaps in availability during late fall and late spring. Furthermore, high tunnels allow less hardy floricane-fruiting raspberries to overwinter in climates where they wouldn't otherwise survive. In the tunnel plants are established at close spacing prior to tunnel construction. Raspberries are an important commercial fruit crop grown in all temperate regions of the world. Many of the most important modern commercial red raspberry cultivars derive from hybrids between R. idaeus and R. strigosus. Some botanists consider the Eurasian and American red raspberries to belong to a single, circumboreal species, Rubus idaeus, with the European plants classified as either R. idaeus subsp. Idaeus or R. idaeus var. idaeus, the native North American red raspberries classified as either R. idaeus subsp. Strigosus, or R. idaeus var. strigosus.
Recent breeding has resulted in cultivars that are thornless and more upright, not needing staking. The black raspberry, Rubus occidentalis, is cultivated, providing both fresh and frozen fruit, as well as jams and other products, all with that species' distinctive flavor. Purple raspberries have been produced by horticultural hybridization of red and black raspberries, have been found in the wild in a few places where the American red and the black raspberries both grow naturally. Commercial production of purple-fruited raspberries is rare. Blue raspberry is a local name used in Prince Edward County, Canada for the cultivar'Columbian', a hybrid of R. strigosus and R. occidentalis. Fruits from such plants are called yellow raspberries. Most pale-fruited raspberries commercially sold in the eastern United States are derivatives of red raspberries. Yellow-fruited variants of the black raspberry are sometimes grown in home gardens. Red raspberries have been crossed with various species in other subgenera of the genus Rubus, resulting in a number of hybrids, the first of, the loganberry.
Notable hybrids include boysenberry, tayberry. Hybridization between the familiar cultivated red raspberries and a few Asiatic species of Rubus has been achieved. Numerous raspberry cultivars have been selected. Two types of raspberry are available for domestic cultivation.
The pistachio, a member of the cashew family, is a small tree originating from Central Asia and the Middle East. The tree produces seeds that are consumed as food. Pistacia vera is confused with other species in the genus Pistacia that are known as pistachio; these other species can be distinguished by their geographic distributions and their seeds which are much smaller and have a soft shell. Pistachio is from late Middle English "pistace", from Old French, superseded in the 16th century by forms from Italian "pistacchio", via Latin from Greek "pistakion", from Persian "pesteh". Archaeology shows that pistachio seeds were a common food as early as 6750 BC. Pliny the Elder writes in his Natural History that pistacia, "well known among us", was one of the trees unique to Syria, that the seed was introduced into Italy by the Roman Proconsul in Syria, Lucius Vitellius the Elder and into Hispania at the same time by Flaccus Pompeius; the early sixth-century manuscript De observatione ciborum by Anthimus implies that pistacia remained well known in Europe in Late Antiquity.
Archaeologists have found evidence from excavations at Jarmo in northeastern Iraq for the consumption of Atlantic pistachio. The Hanging Gardens of Babylon were said to have contained pistachio trees during the reign of King Merodach-Baladan about 700 BC; the modern pistachio P. vera was first cultivated in Bronze Age Central Asia, where the earliest example is from Djarkutan, modern Uzbekistan. It appears in Dioscurides as pistakia πιστάκια, recognizable as P. vera by its comparison to pine nuts. Additionally, remains of the Atlantic pistachio and pistachio seed along with nut-cracking tools were discovered by archaeologists at the Gesher Benot Ya'aqov site in Israel's Hula Valley, dated to 780,000 years ago. More the pistachio has been cultivated commercially in parts of the English-speaking world, such as Australia along with New Mexico and California in the United States, where it was introduced in 1854 as a garden tree. David Fairchild of the United States Department of Agriculture introduced hardier cultivars collected in China to California in 1904 and 1905, but it was not promoted as a commercial crop until 1929.
Walter T. Swingle’s pistachios from Syria had fruited well at Niles, California, by 1917. Pistachio is a desert plant and is tolerant of saline soil, it has been reported to grow well. Pistachio trees are hardy in the right conditions and can survive temperatures ranging between −10 °C in winter and 48 °C in summer, they need well-drained soil. Pistachio trees do poorly in conditions of high humidity and are susceptible to root rot in winter if they get too much water and the soil is not sufficiently free-draining. Long, hot summers are required for proper ripening of the fruit; the tree grows up to 10 m tall. It has deciduous; the plants are dioecious, with separate male and female trees. The flowers are unisexual and borne in panicles; the fruit is a drupe, containing an elongated seed, the edible portion. The seed thought of as a nut, is a culinary nut, not a botanical nut; the fruit has a cream-colored exterior shell. The seed has light green flesh, with a distinctive flavor; when the fruit ripens, the shell changes from green to an autumnal yellow/red and abruptly splits open.
This is known as dehiscence, happens with an audible pop. The splitting open is a trait, selected by humans. Commercial cultivars vary in how they split open; each pistachio tree averages around around 50,000, every two years. The shell of the pistachio is a beige color, but it is sometimes dyed red or green in commercial pistachios. Dye was applied by importers to hide stains on the shells caused when the seeds were picked by hand. Most pistachios are now picked by machine and the shells remain unstained, making dyeing unnecessary except to meet ingrained consumer expectations; the pistachio tree is long-lived up to 300 years. The trees are planted in orchards, take seven to ten years to reach significant production. Production is alternate-bearing or biennial-bearing, meaning the harvest is heavier in alternate years. Peak production is reached around 20 years. Trees are pruned to size to make the harvest easier. One male tree produces enough pollen for eight to twelve drupe-bearing females. Harvesting in the United States and in Greece is accomplished using equipment to shake the drupes off the tree.
After hulling and drying, pistachios are sorted according to open-mouth and closed-mouth shells roasted or processed by special machines to produce pistachio kernels. In California all female pistachio trees are the cultivar'Kerman'. A scion from a mature female'Kerman' is grafted onto a one-year-old rootstock. Pistachio trees are vulnerable to numerous diseases and infection by insects such as Leptoglossus clypealis. Among these is infection by the fungus Botryosphaeria, which causes panicle and shoot blight, can damage entire pistachio orchards. In 2004, the growing pistachio industry in California was threatened by panicle and shoot blight first discovered in 1984. In 2011, anthracnose fungus caused a sudden 50% loss in the Australian pistachio harvest. Several years of severe drought in Iran around 2008 to 2015 caused significant declines in production. In 2016, world production of pistachios was 1.1 million tonnes, with the United States and Iran as le
Coffea arabica known as the Arabian coffee, "coffee shrub of Arabia", "mountain coffee", or "arabica coffee", is a species of Coffea. Indigenous to Yemen, it is believed to be the first species of coffee to be cultivated, is the dominant cultivar, representing some 60% of global production. Coffee produced from the less acidic, more bitter, more caffeinated robusta bean makes up the preponderance of the remaining balance. Wild plants grow between 9 and 12 m tall, have an open branching system; the flowers grow in axillary clusters. The seeds are contained in a drupe 10–15 mm in diameter, maturing bright red to purple and contains two seeds, the actual coffee beans. Coffea arabica is the only polyploid species of the genus Coffea, as it carries 4 copies of the 11 chromosomes instead of the 2 copies of diploid species. Coffea arabica is itself the result of a hybridization between the diploids Coffea canephora and Coffea eugenioides, thus making it an allotetraploid, with two copies of two different genomes.
Endemic to the southwestern highlands of Ethiopia. C. arabica is now rare in Ethiopia, while many populations appear to be of mixed native and planted trees. In Ethiopia, where it is called būna, it is used as an understorey shrub, it has been recovered from the Boma Plateau in South Sudan. C. arabica is found on Mount Marsabit in northern Kenya, but it is unclear whether this is a native or naturalised occurrence. The species is naturalised in areas outside its native land, in many parts of Africa, Latin America, Southeast Asia and assorted islands in the Caribbean and in the Pacific; the conservation of the genetic variation of C. arabica relies on conserving healthy populations of wild coffee in the Afromontane rainforests of Ethiopia. Genetic research has shown coffee cultivation is threatening the genetic integrity of wild coffee because it exposes wild genotypes to cultivars. Nearly all of the coffee, cultivated over the past few centuries originated with just a handful of wild plants from Ethiopia, today the coffee growing on plantations around the world contains less than 1% of the diversity contained in the wild in Ethiopia alone.
Arabica coffee's first domestication in Ethiopia is obscure, but cultivation in Yemen is well documented by the 12th century. Coffea arabica accounts for 60% of the world's coffee production. C. Arabica takes seven years to mature and it does best with 1.0–1.5 meters of rain, evenly distributed throughout the year. It is cultivated between 1,300 and 1,500 m altitude, but there are plantations that grow it as low as sea level and as high as 2,800 m; the plant can tolerate low temperatures, but not frost, it does best with an average temperature between 15 and 24 °C. Commercial cultivars only grow to about 5 m, are trimmed as low as 2 m to facilitate harvesting. Unlike Coffea canephora, C. arabica prefers to be grown in light shade. Two to four years after planting, C. arabica produces small, white fragrant flowers. The sweet fragrance resembles the sweet smell of jasmine flowers. Flowers opening on sunny days result in the greatest numbers of berries; this can deleterious, however, as coffee plants tend to produce too many berries.
On well-kept plantations, overflowering is prevented by pruning the tree. The flowers only last a few days, leaving behind only the dark-green leaves; the berries begin to appear. These are as dark green as the foliage, until they begin to ripen, at first to yellow and light red and darkening to a glossy, deep red. At this point, they are called "cherries," which fruit they resemble, are ready for picking; the berries are about 1 cm long. Inferior coffee results from picking them too early or too late, so many are picked by hand to be able to better select them, as they do not all ripen at the same time, they are sometimes shaken off the tree onto mats, which means ripe and unripe berries are collected together. The trees are difficult to cultivate and each tree can produce from 0.5 to 5.0 kg of dried beans, depending on the tree's individual character and the climate that season. The most valuable part of this cash crop are the beans inside; each berry holds two locules containing the beans. The coffee beans are two seeds within the fruit.
These seeds are covered in two membranes. On Java Island, trees are harvested year round. In parts of Brazil, the trees have a season and are harvested only in winter; the plants are vulnerable to damage in such poor growing conditions as cold or low pH soil, they are more vulnerable to pests than the C. robusta plant. Arabica coffee production in Indonesia began in 1699. Indonesian coffees, such as Sumatran and Java, are known for low acidity; this makes them ideal for blending with the higher acidity coffees from Central America and East Africa. In Hawaii, coffee was more grown than at present, it persists after cultivation in many areas, but in some valleys, it is a invasive weed. In the Udawattakele and Gannoruwa Forest Reserves near Ka