A cigarette known colloquially as a fag in British English, is a narrow cylinder containing psychoactive material tobacco, rolled into thin paper for smoking. Most cigarettes contain a "reconstituted tobacco" product known as "sheet", which consists of "recycled stems, scraps, collected dust, floor sweepings", to which are added glue and fillers; the cigarette is ignited at one end, causing it to smolder and allowing smoke to be inhaled from the other end, held in or to the mouth. Most modern cigarettes are filtered. Cigarette manufacturers have described cigarettes as a drug administration system for the delivery of nicotine in acceptable and attractive form. Cigarettes are addictive and cause cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, heart disease, other health problems; the term cigarette, as used, refers to a tobacco cigarette but is sometimes used to refer to other substances, such as a cannabis cigarette. A cigarette is distinguished from a cigar by its smaller size, use of processed leaf, paper wrapping, white.
Cigar wrappers are composed of tobacco leaf or paper dipped in tobacco extract. Smoking rates have declined in the developed world, but continue to rise in developing nations. Cigarettes carry serious health risks, which are more prevalent than with other tobacco products, nicotine is highly addictive. About half of cigarette smokers lose on average 14 years of life. Cigarette use by pregnant women has been shown to cause birth defects, including low birth weight, fetal abnormalities, premature birth. Second-hand smoke from cigarettes causes many of the same health problems as smoking, including cancer, which has led to legislation and policy that has prohibited smoking in many workplaces and public areas. Cigarette smoke contains over 7,000 chemical compounds, including arsenic, cyanide, nicotine, carbon monoxide and other poisonous substances. Over 70 of these are carcinogenic. Additionally, cigarettes are a frequent source of mortality-associated fires in private homes, which prompted both the European Union and the United States to ban cigarettes that are not fire-standard compliant from 2011 onwards.
The earliest forms of cigarettes were similar to the cigar. Cigarettes appear to have had antecedents in Mexico and Central America around the 9th century in the form of reeds and smoking tubes; the Maya, the Aztecs, smoked tobacco and other psychoactive drugs in religious rituals and depicted priests and deities smoking on pottery and temple engravings. The cigarette and the cigar were the most common methods of smoking in the Caribbean and Central and South America until recent times; the North American, Central American, South American cigarette used various plant wrappers. The resulting product was called papelate and is documented in Goya's paintings La Cometa, La Merienda en el Manzanares, El juego de la pelota a pala. By 1830, the cigarette had crossed into France; the French word was adopted by English in the 1840s. Some American reformers promoted the spelling cigaret, but this was never widespread and is now abandoned; the first patented cigarette-making machine was invented by Juan Nepomuceno Adorno of Mexico in 1847.
However, production climbed markedly when another cigarette-making machine was developed in the 1880s by James Albert Bonsack, which vastly increased the productivity of cigarette companies, which went from making about 40,000 hand-rolled cigarettes daily to around 4 million. In the English-speaking world, the use of tobacco in cigarette form became widespread during and after the Crimean War, when British soldiers began emulating their Ottoman Turkish comrades and Russian enemies, who had begun rolling and smoking tobacco in strips of old newspaper for lack of proper cigar-rolling leaf; this was helped by the development of tobaccos suitable for cigarette use, by the development of the Egyptian cigarette export industry. Cigarettes may have been used in a manner similar to pipes and cigarillos and not inhaled; as cigarette tobacco became milder and more acidic, inhaling may have become perceived as more agreeable. However, Moltke noticed in the 1830s that Ottomans inhaled the Turkish tobacco and Latakia from their pipes.
The widespread smoking of cigarettes in the Western world is a 20th-century phenomenon. At the start of the 20th century, the per capita annual consumption in the U. S. was 54 cigarettes, consumption there peaked at 4,259 per capita in 1965. At that time, about 50% of men and 33% of women smoked. By 2000, consumption had fallen to 2,092 per capita, corresponding to about 30% of men and 22% of women smoking more than 100 cigarettes per year, by 2006 per capita consumption had declined to 1,691; the adverse health effects of cigarettes were known by the mid-19th century when they became known as coffins nails
The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K
Luxembourg the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, is a small landlocked country in western Europe. It is bordered by Belgium to the west and north, Germany to the east, France to the south, its capital, Luxembourg City, is one of the three official capitals of the European Union and the seat of the European Court of Justice, the highest judicial authority in the EU. Its culture and languages are intertwined with its neighbours, making it a mixture of French and German cultures, as evident by the nation's three official languages: French and the national language, Luxembourgish; the repeated invasions by Germany in World War II, resulted in the country's strong will for mediation between France and Germany and, among other things, led to the foundation of the European Union. With an area of 2,586 square kilometres, it is one of the smallest sovereign states in Europe. In 2018, Luxembourg had a population of 602,005, which makes it one of the least-populous countries in Europe, but by far the one with the highest population growth rate.
Foreigners account for nearly half of Luxembourg's population. As a representative democracy with a constitutional monarch, it is headed by Grand Duke Henri and is the world's only remaining grand duchy. Luxembourg is a developed country, with an advanced economy and one of the world's highest GDP per capita; the City of Luxembourg with its old quarters and fortifications was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1994 due to the exceptional preservation of the vast fortifications and the old city. The history of Luxembourg is considered to begin in 963, when count Siegfried I acquired a rocky promontory and its Roman-era fortifications known as Lucilinburhuc, ′little castle′, the surrounding area from the Imperial Abbey of St. Maximin in nearby Trier. Siegfried's descendants increased their territory through marriage and vassal relations. At the end of the 13th century, the Counts of Luxembourg reigned over a considerable territory. In 1308, Henry VII, Count of Luxembourg became King of the Germans and Holy Roman Emperor.
The House of Luxembourg produced four Holy Roman Emperors during the high Middle Ages. In 1354, Charles IV elevated the County to the Duchy of Luxembourg. Since Sigismund had no male heir, the Duchy became part of the Burgundian Circle and one of the Seventeen Provinces of the Habsburg Netherlands. Over the centuries, the City and Fortress of Luxembourg, of great strategic importance situated between the Kingdom of France and the Habsburg territories, was built up to be one of the most reputed fortifications in Europe. After belonging to both the France of Louis XIV and the Austria of Maria Theresia, Luxembourg became part of the First French Republic and Empire under Napoleon; the present-day state of Luxembourg first emerged at the Congress of Vienna in 1815. The Grand-Duchy, with its powerful fortress, became an independent state under the personal possession of William I of the Netherlands with a Prussian garrison to guard the city against another invasion from France. In 1839, following the turmoil of the Belgian Revolution, the purely French-speaking part of Luxembourg was ceded to Belgium and the Luxembourgish-speaking part became what is the present state of Luxembourg.
Luxembourg is a founding member of the European Union, OECD, United Nations, NATO, Benelux. The city of Luxembourg, the country's capital and largest city, is the seat of several institutions and agencies of the EU. Luxembourg served on the United Nations Security Council for the years 2013 and 2014, a first in the country's history; as of 2018, Luxembourgish citizens had visa-free or visa-on-arrival access to 186 countries and territories, ranking the Luxembourgish passport 5th in the world, tied with Austria, the Netherlands, Portugal, the United Kingdom and the United States. The recorded history of Luxembourg begins with the acquisition of Lucilinburhuc situated on the Bock rock by Siegfried, Count of Ardennes, in 963 through an exchange act with St. Maximin's Abbey, Trier. Around this fort, a town developed, which became the centre of a state of great strategic value. In the 14th and early 15th centuries, three members of the House of Luxembourg reigned as Holy Roman Emperors. In 1437, the House of Luxembourg suffered a succession crisis, precipitated by the lack of a male heir to assume the throne, which led to the territories being sold by Duchess Elisabeth to Philip the Good of Burgundy.
In the following centuries, Luxembourg's fortress was enlarged and strengthened by its successive occupants, the Bourbons, Habsburgs and the French. After the defeat of Napoleon in 1815, Luxembourg was disputed between Prussia and the Netherlands; the Congress of Vienna formed Luxembourg as a Grand Duchy within the German Confederation. The Dutch king became, in the grand duke. Although he was supposed to rule the grand duchy as an independent country with an administration of its own, in reality he treated it to a Dutch province; the Fortress of Luxembourg was manned by Prussian troops for the German Confederation. This arrangement was revised by the 1839 First Treaty of London, from which date Luxembourg's full independence is reckoned. At the time of the Belgian Revolution of 1830–1839, by the 1839 Treaty establishing full independence, Luxembourg's territory was reduced by more than half, as the predominantly francophone western part of the country was transferred to Belgium. In 1842 Luxembourg joined the German Customs Union (Zoll
Imperial Tobacco Canada
Imperial Tobacco Canada Limited is a cigarette manufacturing company operating in Canada. It is a wholly-owned subsidiary of British American Tobacco, it was created in 1908 and bought out the Canadian interests of the American Tobacco Company, a monopoly in the United States until it was reorganized in 1911. Imperial Tobacco Canada has had no relationship to Imperial Tobacco Group plc since 1980 though British American was established as a joint venture between Imperial Tobacco Group and American Tobacco. American Tobacco, which had acquired the Kinney Brothers Tobacco Company, makers of the then-popular cigarette brand Sweet Caporal, had entered the Canadian market by acquiring the Montreal-based American Cigarette Company and D. Ritchie and Company, forming the American Tobacco Company of Canada, Ltd. Imperial Tobacco was the first Canadian cigarette manufacturer to be sued by a governmental entity in Canada; the province of British Columbia's lawsuit against Imperial was upheld by the Supreme Court of Canada in the landmark case British Columbia v. Imperial Tobacco Canada Ltd. 2 S.
C. R. 473, 2005 SCC 49. The Supreme Court ruled that the provincial Tobacco Damages and Health Care Costs Recovery Act, which allowed the government to sue tobacco companies, was constitutionally valid. On June 1, 2015, the Quebec Superior Court ruled against Imperial Tobacco Canada, JTI-Macdonald, RBH in two Quebec class action suits; the judgment against Imperial Tobacco was in excess of $10 billion – the highest tobacco judgement in Canadian history. The court found that Imperial failed in its duty of care to Quebec consumers prior to 1998; the court required a $1 billion payment to the plaintiffs within 60 days, regardless of appeal. Imperial Tobacco Canada is a Canadian market leader in tobacco products, with 50% market share of total tobacco products. Brands that BAT Canada markets include Du Maurier, John Player Special, Matineé, Pall Mall and Vogue. BAT Canada started marketing a vaping product called Vype, an alternative to combustible tobacco. Official website
Tobacco smoking is the practice of smoking tobacco and inhaling tobacco smoke. The practice is believed to have begun as early as 5000 -- 3000 BC in South America. Tobacco was introduced to Eurasia in the late 17th century by European colonists, where it followed common trade routes; the practice encountered criticism from its first import into the Western world onwards but embedded itself in certain strata of a number of societies before becoming widespread upon the introduction of automated cigarette-rolling apparatus. German scientists identified a link between smoking and lung cancer in the late 1920s, leading to the first anti-smoking campaign in modern history, albeit one truncated by the collapse of Nazi Germany at the end of World War II. In 1950, British researchers demonstrated a clear relationship between cancer. Evidence continued to mount in the 1980s. Rates of consumption declined. However, they continue to climb in the developing world. Smoking is the most common method of consuming tobacco, tobacco is the most common substance smoked.
The agricultural product is mixed with additives and combusted. The resulting smoke is inhaled and the active substances absorbed through the alveoli in the lungs or the oral mucosa. Combustion was traditionally enhanced by addition of potassium or nitrates. Many substances in cigarette smoke trigger chemical reactions in nerve endings, which heighten heart rate and reaction time, among other things. Dopamine and endorphins are released, which are associated with pleasure; as of 2008 to 2010, tobacco is used by about 49% of men and 11% of women aged 15 or older in fourteen low-income and middle-income countries, with about 80% of this usage in the form of smoking. The gender gap tends to be less pronounced in lower age groups. Many smokers begin during early adulthood. During the early stages, a combination of perceived pleasure acting as positive reinforcement and desire to respond to social peer pressure may offset the unpleasant symptoms of initial use, which include nausea and coughing. After an individual has smoked for some years, the avoidance of withdrawal symptoms and negative reinforcement become the key motivations to continue.
A study of first smoking experiences of seventh-grade students found out that the most common factor leading students to smoke is cigarette advertisements. Smoking by parents and friends encourages students to smoke. Smoking's history dates back to as early as 5000–3000 BC, when the agricultural product began to be cultivated in Mesoamerica and South America; the practice worked its way into shamanistic rituals. Many ancient civilizations – such as the Babylonians, the Indians, the Chinese – burnt incense during religious rituals. Smoking in the Americas had its origins in the incense-burning ceremonies of shamans but was adopted for pleasure or as a social tool; the smoking of tobacco and various hallucinogenic drugs was used to achieve trances and to come into contact with the spirit world. To stimulate respiration, tobacco smoke enemas were used. Eastern North American tribes would carry large amounts of tobacco in pouches as a accepted trade item and would smoke it in ceremonial pipes, either in sacred ceremonies or to seal bargains.
Adults as well as children enjoyed the practice. It was believed that tobacco was a gift from the Creator and that the exhaled tobacco smoke was capable of carrying one's thoughts and prayers to heaven. Apart from smoking, tobacco had a number of uses as medicine; as a pain killer it was used for earache and toothache and as a poultice. Smoking was said by the desert Indians to be a cure for colds if the tobacco was mixed with the leaves of the small Desert sage, Salvia dorrii, or the root of Indian balsam or cough root, Leptotaenia multifida, the addition of, thought to be good for asthma and tuberculosis. In 1612, six years after the settlement of Jamestown, John Rolfe was credited as the first settler to raise tobacco as a cash crop; the demand grew as tobacco, referred to as "brown gold", revived the Virginia joint stock company from its failed gold expeditions. In order to meet demands from the Old World, tobacco was grown in succession depleting the soil; this became a motivator to settle west into the unknown continent, an expansion of tobacco production.
Indentured servitude became the primary labor force up until Bacon's Rebellion, from which the focus turned to slavery. This trend abated following the American Revolution as slavery became regarded as unprofitable. However, the practice was revived in 1794 with the invention of the cotton gin. Frenchman Jean Nicot introduced tobacco to France in 1560, tobacco spread to England; the first report of a smoking Englishman is of a sailor in Bristol in 1556, seen "emitting smoke from his nostrils". Like tea and opium, tobacco was just one of many intoxicants, used as a form of medicine. Tobacco was introduced around 1600 by French merchants in what today is modern-day Gambia and Senegal. At the same time, caravans from Morocco brought tobacco to the
Caballero is a Dutch brand of unfiltered cigarettes owned and manufactured by British American Tobacco. Caballero is the Spanish word for knight. Caballero was founded shortly after World War II. In 1945, the Dutch advertising agency Prad was formed, created the famous slogan "Caballero, anders dan andere." in which popular Dutchmen from the artistic parts of society, promoted the product. A song was created by the Dutch amusementband Leedy Trio, called "Ay-ay-ay! -die Caballero". The cigarettes had a market share of 4% in the 1950s due to the lack of popularity in comparison to the more popular brands Roxy and Lexington at the time, the simple look of the pack and because the cigarettes costed 0.80 cents compared to other brands, which costed 1 Dutch guilder. Instead of increasing the price to 1 guilder for 20 cigarettes, there was opted to put 25 cigarettes in one pack offering more cigarettes for 1 guilder; the move turned out to be a success, increasing Caballero's market share from 4 to 36% in just a few years thanks to the effective advertising campaigns with the famous "Mexicaantje".
The cigarettes were produced in the Caballero factory in Nieuw Binckhorst. Production moved to Zevenaar after BAT acquired the factory in 1995. Main market is the Netherlands. Other markets are or were Belgium, Luxembourg and Spain. Caballero sponsored the cycling team of Jan van der Horst from 1962 until 1972 and participated in the 1970 Tour de France under the "Caballero-Laurens" name. Cigarette Tobacco smoking Belinda
Rothmans International plc was a British tobacco manufacturer. Its brands included Rothmans and Dunhill, its international headquarters were in Hill Street and its international operations were run from Denham Place in Denham Village, Buckinghamshire. It was listed on the London Stock Exchange and was once a constituent of the FTSE 100 Index but was acquired by British American Tobacco in 1999, its business was strongest in Europe, it specialised in premium brands. The company was founded by Louis Rothman in 1890 as a small kiosk on Fleet Street in London. In 1900 Rothman opened a small showroom in Pall Mall, from where he launched his famous Pall Mall cigarette brand, his reputation was such that King Edward VII granted Rothmans a royal warrant in 1905. Rothmans was first listed on the London Stock Exchange in 1929. In 1954 the Rembrandt Tobacco Company acquired a controlling interest in Rothmans. Rembrandt was expanding and in 1958 acquired Carreras, who in turn took a 51% stake in Alfred Dunhill in 1967.
In the 1970s Rothmans became involved in sponsorships, sponsoring the British Olympic team in 1972 and the inaugural Hong Kong Sevens in 1976. They sponsored Rothmans Football Yearbook, an annual football reference book, from 1970 until 2002. In Malaysia, Rothmans was one of the popular brands of cigarette, so much so that one of the roundabouts in Petaling Jaya was named'Rothmans Roundabout' owing to its proximity to the former headquarters of Rothmans of Pall Mall Malaysia, it has since converted to a 4-way junction. In 1988 Lord Swaythling became chief executive. In January 1996 the Rembrandt Group and Richemont merged their tobacco business under the Rothmans International name. In 1999 Rothmans was acquired by British American Tobacco; the takeover resulted in the closure of the Rothmans Spennymoor and Darlington manufacturing plants in 2000 and 2001 with production moved to a larger plant at Southampton. Rothmans was an active promoter of motorsports in the 1990s. From 1982 onwards, Rothmans supported the factory Porsche sports car racing effort, winning the 1982 24 Hours of Le Mans with a 1-2-3 finish with their Porsche 956.
They would win the event a further three times in the 1980s. Rothmans-Porsche won the 1985 World Sportscar Championship before the team pulled out of the championship in 1987. Rothmans sponsorship extended to rallying, where they sponsored Walter Röhrl's 1982 World Rally Championship-winning Opel Ascona 400. In 1984 Porsche produced the 911 SC RS rally car for Rothmans with the car being run by David Richards and the newly formed Prodrive. Rothmans sponsored the winning Porsche team at the 1986 Paris-Dakar rally; when the Porsche involvement ended at the end of the Group B days, Rothmans transferred its association to the Subaru rally team run by Prodrive. Coincidentally, Richards was sponsored by Rothmans when he was co-driving Ari Vatanen to his privateer 1981 World Drivers' Championship success aboard the Ford Escort RS1800; the association with Prodrive would last until 1992, when their sponsorship was replaced by sister brand State Express 555. Between 1985 and 1993, Rothmans supported the works Honda team in Grand Prix motorcycle racing.
Rothmans transferred their association to Williams F1 during the World Championship from 1994 until 1997. However, their time with Williams was marred when Ayrton Senna, considered by many to be the greatest Formula 1 driver of all time, died behind the wheel of the Rothmans-Williams during the 1994 San Marino Grand Prix. Sponsorship was transferred in 1998 to another sister brand. Rothmans was the naming rights sponsor for Australian team Allan Moffat Racing in the early rounds of the inaugural World Touring Car Championship in 1987. Driving a V8 powered Holden VL Commodore SS Group A, team boss Allan Moffat and co-driver John Harvey won the first WTCC race, the 1987 Monza 500; the pair would drive the Rothmans sponsored car to outright 4th place in the 1987 Spa 24 Hours. Rothmans International Rothmans Biru Rothmans King Size Filter Benson & Hedges Dunhill Dunhill International Black Cat St Moritz Menthol Golden American Craven A John Player's Gold Leaf Royals 25's Winfield Consulate Menthol Kent Pall Mall Perilly's Peter Stuyvesant State Express 555 Dji Sam Soe 234 L&M Longbeach Marlboro ST Dupont Paris U Mild Rothmans Group homepage Company history Documents and clippings about Rothmans International in the 20th Century Press Archives of the German National Library of Economics