A dual carriageway can be classified as a motorway traffic travelling in opposite directions separated by a central reservation. Roads with two or more carriageways which are designed to higher standards with controlled access are classed as motorways, etc. rather than dual carriageways. A road without a central reservation is a single carriageway regardless of the number of lanes. Dual carriageways have improved road traffic safety over single carriageways and have higher speed limits as a result. In some places, express lanes and local/collector lanes are used within a local-express-lane system to provide more capacity and to smooth traffic flows for longer-distance travel. A early example of a dual carriageway was the Via Portuensis, built in the first century by the Roman emperor Claudius between Rome and its port Ostia at the mouth of the Tiber. One claim for the first divided highway in the United States was Savery Avenue in Carver, first built in 1860, where the two roadways were separated by a narrow strip of trees down the middle.
In 1907 the Long Island Motor Parkway opened, 20% of it featured a semi-dual-carriageway design. The New York City Belt Parkway system, built between 1907 and 1934 pioneered the same design; however the majority of it featured concrete or brick railings as lane dividers instead of grass medians. In 1924 the first Italian autostrada was opened running 55 km from Milan to Varese, it featured a broad road bed and did not feature lane dividers except near cities and through the mountains. The London end of the Great West Road became Britain's first dual carriageway when it was opened in 1925 by King George V. In 1927 the Rome bypass was opened, it ran 92 km bypassing Rome to the east. The entire length featured a dual-carriageway design. In the early 1930s it was extended northward to Florence. Most of the original routing was destroyed by the Allies in World War II. By 1930 several US and European cities had built dual-carriageway highways to control traffic jams and/or to provide bypass routes for traffic.
In 1932 the first German autobahn opened between Bonn. It became a precedent for future highways. Although it, like the first autostrada, did not feature a dual-carriageway design, it inspired the mass construction of future high-speed roadways. During the 1930s, Germany and the Soviet Union began construction of a network of dual carriageway expressways. By 1942, Germany had over 3,200 km of dual carriageway roads, Italy had nearly 1,300 km, the Soviet Union had 400 km. What may be the world's first long-distance intercity dual carriageway/freeway is the Queen Elizabeth Way in Southern Ontario in Canada linking the large cities of Toronto and Hamilton together by 1939, with construction on this stretch of the present-day Queen Elizabeth Way beginning in 1936 as "Middle Road". Opened to traffic in 1940, the 160-mile-long Pennsylvania Turnpike was the first rural dual carriageway built in the United States. By 1955 several states had built dual carriageway freeways and turnpikes and in 1957 the Interstate Highway System began.
Completed in 1994, the major highway system links all the major cities of the United States. In the UK, although the term "dual carriageway" applies to any road with physically separated lanes, it is used as a descriptive term for major routes built in this style; such major dual carriageways have two lanes of traffic in each direction, with the lane nearest the centre being reserved for overtaking. Dual carriageways have only one lane in each direction, or more than two lanes each way. Different speed limits apply on dual carriageway sections from those that apply on single carriageway sections of the same class of road, except in cities and built-up areas where the dual carriageway is more of a safety measure; when first constructed, many dual carriageways—including the first motorways—had no crash- or other barriers in the central reservation. In the event of congestion, or if a driver missed their exit, some drivers made U-turns onto the opposite carriageway; the majority of dual carriageway roads now have barriers.
Some are heavy concrete obstructions. On urban dual carriageways where the road has been converted from a four-lane single carriageway the central reservation will not be substantial: just a small steel divider to save space. Turning right is permitted only at specific locations; the driver will be required to turn left in order to loop around to an access road that permits crossing the major road. Roundabouts on dual carriageways are common in cities or where the cost of a grade-separated junction would be prohibitive. Where space is more limited, intersections may be controlled by traffic lights. Smaller residential roads adjoining urban dual carriageways may be blocked off at one end to limit the number of junctions on the dual carriageway. A dual carriageway with grade-separated junctions and w
Alfred Jacoby is a German architect and architectural lecturer, principally known for his output of synagogues in post-war Germany, development of a modern Jewish religious architectural vernacular, his teaching positions as a lecturer and professor of architecture, his active architectural practice in Frankfurt am Main. Jacoby was born in Offenbach, in 1950, to a Polish father, was educated at the University of Cambridge and Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule. Credited with being the first postwar architect in Germany to develop a distinctive Jewish vernacular for synagogue buildings, he is recognised as Germany's leading synagogue architect. Jacoby was Director of the Dessau Institute of Architecture at the Anhalt University of Applied Sciences, Bauhaus Dessau, from 2000 until 2017
The Minute Man is an 1874 sculpture by Daniel Chester French located in Minute Man National Historical Park in Concord, Massachusetts. It was created between 1871 and 1874 after extensive research by French and was intended to be made of stone; the medium was switched to bronze and it was cast from cannons captured from the Confederate Army during the American Civil War. The statue was unveiled in 1875 for the centennial celebration of the battle of Battle of Concord to critical acclaim, it continues to be praised by critics; the statue was created for the centennial celebration of the battle of Battle of Concord in 1875. It was to be placed unlike earlier monuments. In 1871, Daniel Chester French was commissioned to create The Minute Man based on a small statue; the Minute Man was French's first full-size work. Because he was a local, the monument committee, which included Ralph Waldo Emerson, only considered French for the commission. French conducted research for The Minute Man by studying powder buttons from the era.
According to Harold Holzer because French was a good-looking man, "there would be a line of young women outside his studio ready to show him their alleged Colonial artifacts" to help him with his research. In 1873, his clay model of the statue was accepted by the statue committee; the same year the medium of the statue was changed from stone to bronze. The miniature version of the statue won a local art competition in September 1873, but the pose of the figure was "awkwardly stiff"; the pose of The Minute Man was made more natural in the enlargement process by working with models. By September 1874, the statue was completed and a plaster version of the clay statue was sent to Ames Manufacturing Works; the statue was cast in bronze with metal from 10 captured Confederate Army cannons. The Minute Man was unveiled in 1875 during the centennial celebration of the battle of Battle of Concord. In the audience during the unveiling were dignitaries such as Ulysses S. Grant and Ralph Waldo Emerson. French, left for Italy to further study sculpture in 1874 and was not in attendance.
Steve Maas of the Boston Globe suggests that French avoided the celebration in case the statue was panned by contemporary critics. French's fears were unfounded and it was positively received by art critics and the public. French was commissioned by the town of Concord in 1889 to rework The Minute Man for the USS Concord; the new statue, paid for by the United States Congress, was titled The Concord Minute Man of 1775. The reworked statue cleaned up some imperfections in the face of the original statue and incorporated elements of Beaux-Arts; the movement of the new statue was made more natural. It was completed in 1890 and installed on the gunboat in 1891; the statue depicts a singular minuteman at the Battle of Concord. The farmer-turned-soldier is shown trading his plow for a flintlock long gun and stepping forward toward the impending battle; the sleeves of his coat and shirt are rolled up. His face is alert; the pose of the soldier has been compared to the pose of the Apollo Belvedere. Eighteenth-century and nineteenth-century art critics, such as Lorado Taft and H. C.
Howard, have suggested. Howard in particular trivializes the sculpture as "little more than an Americanized rendition of the Apollo Belvedere". Modern scholarship, working with French's journals, disagrees that the pose is a copy while acknowledging that French used a variety of plaster casts of classical sculptures, including the Apollo Belvedere, as inspiration when creating The Minute Man; the Minute Man stands on a stone pedestal designed by James Elliot Cabot. On the front, it is inscribed with the fourth verse of Ralph Waldo Emerson's Concord Hymn. Cabot's design is nearly identical to French's final pedestal design. Throughout the creation of Minute Man, French built a variety of potential pedestals; the Minute Man continued to be praised by critics and art historians throughout the 20th and into 21st century. Anna Seaton-Schmidt referred to the statue as "the most inspiring of our solder monuments" in her 1922 biography of French in The American Magazine of Art. Michael Richman calls it a "masterwork in nineteenth-century American sculpture".
Chris Bergeron from the The MetroWest Daily News describes The Minute Man as "naturalistic detail imbued with an idealistic effect" Harold Holzer describes the statue as representative of French's style of "naturalism, a great feeling of humanity, connection to the subject". Louisa May Alcott commented on the lack of place for women in the unveiling ceremony of The Minute Man in her writings for the Woman's Journal. Alcott and other suffragettes appropriated the statue as a symbol of their struggle for voting rights, the suffragettes made pilgrimages to the statue in the 1880s; the Minute Man appears on the seal of the United States National Guard. The Minute Man has been depicted on United States coins, it appears on the obverse of the Lexington-Concord Sesquicentennial half dollar, minted in 1925. The statue appears on the reverse of the 2000 Massachusetts state quarter next to an outline of the state. Media related to Minuteman by Daniel Chester French at Wikimedia Commons
Countercontrol is a term used by Dr. B. F. Skinner in 1953 as a functional class in the analysis of social behavior. Opposition or resistance to intervention defines countercontrol, however little systematic research has been conducted to document its occurrence. Skinner distinguished it from the literature of freedom, which he said did not provide effective countercontrol strategies; the concept was identified as a mechanism to oppose control such as escape from the controller or waging an attack in order to weaken or destroy the controlling power. For this purpose, Skinner stressed the role of the individual as an instrument of countercontrol, emphasizing the notion of vigilance along with the concepts of freedom and dignity. Counter control can embed itself in both active behavior. An individual may not respond to the demanding interventionist or may withdraw from the situation passively; the foundation for countercontrol is that human behavior is both a function of the environment and a source of control over it.
Counter control originates from the essential behavior-analytic position which states that behavior is always caused or controlled. For Skinner, countercontrol is constituted by the behaviors that determine the behavior of the controller or those who hold authority. Control is fundamental in conceptual and applied behavior analysis, as it is fundamental in all experimental science. To study functional relations in behavior and environment, one must manipulate environmental variables to study their effect in behavior. Countercontrol can be defined as human operant behavior as a response to social aversive control; the individual, exposed to aversive control may try to oppose controlling attempts through the process of negative reinforcement, such as by escaping, attacking, or passively resisting. Countercontrol is a way in which individuals regain behavioral freedom when faced with aversive controlling attempts of others. There are two types of countercontrol: Counterattack or aggression Nonviolent resistance or escapeCountercontrol is avoidance or escape behavior, this behavior class is only unique insofar as the behaver is confronted with some form of aversive interpersonal or social controlling stimulation and responds to oppose control rather than to reinforce it by "giving in”.
From the principle of consequential causality or selection by consequences, responses occur and are met by environmental consequences that control the situations of similar responses in future events. Skinner found that countercontrol was important in understanding human behavior because of the prevalence of aversive control in human relations. According to Michael Countercontrol can occur at two levels. At one level, countercontrolling behavior results in avoidance or escape from a short-term problem along with non-reinforcement or counter measure from the controlee. For example, a teacher threatens a student with detention and in response the student threatens the teacher with a serious allegation and in turn the teacher withdraws. At another level, individuals may avoid or escape specific short-term consequences contingent on the result that occurs but avoid or escape long standing aversion contingencies in which those consequences participate. There are multiple components of behaviour changes which may occur in countercontrol such being nontargeted responses which fits well with increasing emphasis on the ecological-systems considerations in behaviour analysis.
Countercontrol is present when adults use modeling to influence the behavior of children. For instance, the adult exhibits appropriate behavior and directs the children to reproduce the same. However, resistance will occur in the form of disobedience, negativism and uncooperativeness thus reducing the probability of the child replicating the desired skill or behavior demonstrated by the adult. A series of responses by the child may result by this resistance: ignore the model and refuse to respond perform some other, non-modeled behavior execute desire response in the absence of the model Prior exposure to contingencies: A high rate of reinforcement over a long period of time may promote an overdependence to stimulate performance; when extended reinforcement is removed, countercontrol may take place. Intrusiveness: Intrusiveness may affect the individual's willingness to comply. Unneeded intrusive or directive procedures may cause resistance. Subject briefing: The subject's experience from previous interventions can affect the extent to which the subject cooperates.
Freedom of choice: The subject's view on intervention can influence the occurrence of countercontrol. Countercontrol can have an effect on intervention strategies by minimizing instructional time while increasing program expense. Mary B.. Rase. 5:38-40. Human freedom or free will. Social Control: Importance of avenues of effective countercontrol since institutions of social control such as religion and education rely on aversive control; these avenues will be available if control is conspicuous and if there is a balance between control and countercontrol. Understanding countercontrol in a classroom setting and implementing cooperation among students and teachers might be helpful to the classroom environment and countercontrol may help in understanding chronic behavior problems. Control of environment countercontrol provides a way to analyze how behavers control the environment
Ginban Kaleidoscope is a series of light novels written by Rei Kaibara and illustrated by Hiro Suzuhira. A manga adaptation authored by Jun Hasegawa was serialized in Margaret from 2005 to 2006. An anime adaptation of the first arc of the novels aired on TV Tokyo from October 8, 2005 to December 24, 2005; the series won the 2nd Super Dash Novel Rookie of the Year Award Grand Prize. The story revolves around Tazusa Sakurano, a Japanese Olympic figure skating candidate, Pete Pumps, a Canadian stunt pilot. During a qualifying round in Montreal, Canada, Tazusa falls in the middle of a Triple Lutz and loses consciousness. At the same time, Pete dies mid-performance. For Tazusa, Pete ends up involuntarily inhabiting her body for 100 days. During this time, Tazusa begins to develop romantic feelings for Pete, falls in love with him. Tazusa Sakurano Voiced by: Ayako Kawasumi, she is on bad terms with the media and the public because of her cold attitude and string of bad luck in competitions. Her goal is to compete in the Winter Olympics in Torino.
At the beginning of the series, she is possessed by the ghost of Pete Pumps and while she hated him, she grew to accept his constant presence in her life and grew more to love him. While possessed, she picked up the habit of eating tomatoes, because her possessor Pete hates tomatoes, using masochism, since Pete can share Tazusa's pain, to keep him in line, she has an unlucky tendency to fall asleep when she gets bored, but can never sleep the night before a competition. In the anime, she describes herself as "The 10 Billion Dollar Beauty."Initially Tazusa is portrayed as a bratty, cold girl. She doesn't have many lives with her coach and sister; however after spending time with Pete, she changes and opens her heart. In school where Pete helps her through her exams, she starts to express herself more during the skating routines which enable her to represent Japan in the Olympics. At the same time, Tazusa falls in love with Pete and she realizes what is important to her. Pete Pumps Voiced by: Hiroyuki Yoshino A Canadian stunt pilot who died when his stunt plane developed mechanical trouble and crashed in a fireball.
As a ghost he needs to wait 100 days before he can go to Heaven and inadvertently ends up possessing Tazusa. Pete likes Tazusa and tries to help her improve her public image and succeed in being selected for the Olympics, he gets jealous of the reporter Kazuya Nitta, as Tazusa seems to have a crush on him. Though Tazusa at first doesn't agree with him and ignores him, he wins her over and she starts to get to know him better, he designs her "waitress on ice" performance. Sometimes, as a way to punish him for annoying her or for any other reason, she will eat tomatoes which he has a strong hatred for, it is the only way she can torture him without having any physical or mental pain inflicted upon her as well. At the first stage of performing at the Olympics Pete kisses Tazusa during their last performance, Pete kisses her in his ghost form and seems to love her in return, he bids her an emotional farewell as he departs. Kyōko Shitō Voiced by: Kazusa Murai She is one of Tazusa's skating rivals, she is the preferred choice for the Japanese Olympic representative for Women's Figure Skating because she is closer to the Skating Federation's "ideal" and as such and Tazusa are quite competitive.
She has a calm personality, never likes to take risks. Yūji Takashima Voiced by: Jurota Kosugi He is Tazusa's coach, he is an all-around nice guy. Tazusa and her younger sister live with him because of their parents' divorce. In the beginning of the series, he had believed that the reason why Tazusa was hitting and torturing herself was due to stress of having Japan's representative figure skater in the Olympics being chosen soon, he believes that whenever she is insulting Pete, it is he, the target of her nasty remarks and considers this as part of her stress. He reveals Hitomi as his fiancée on Episode 9. Kazuya Nitta Voiced by: Isshin Chiba He is a freelance reporter who has a secret crush on Kyōko and tries to help Tazusa in her battles with the mass media, he is a collected figure who believes in and supports Tazusa. Yōko Sakurano Voiced by: Chiwa Saitō She is Tazusa's level-headed younger sister, she is seen waking Tazusa up for breakfast and in her competition to cheer her as well. In the novel series, she figure skates.
Mika Honjō Voiced by: Marina Inoue She is Tazusa's quiet best friend and the designer of all of her skating outfits. A running gag in the anime consists of Tazusa yelling at Pete, invisible to other people only to have Mika mistake the target of Tazusa's tirade as herself. Mika's voice actor sings the ending theme of the anime series. Yukie Mishiro Voiced by: Hiroko Suzuki She is an official from the Japan Skating Federation who claims that Tazusa has a "stone face." In return Tazusa calls Sarcastic the Third. However, she does believe that Tazusa has special potential, why she pushes her so hard. In the final episode she recognizes the changes in Tazusa's personali
In 1964, the United States FBI, under Director J. Edgar Hoover, continued for a fifteenth year to maintain a public list of the people it regarded as the Ten Most Wanted Fugitives; as the year 1964 began, nine of the ten places on the list remained filled by these elusive long-time fugitives from prior years still at large: 1950 #14, Frederick J. Tenuto process dismissed March 9, 1964 1956 #97, Eugene Francis Newman remained still at large 1960 #137, Donald Leroy Payne remained still at large 1961 #158, John Gibson Dillon found murdered March 2, 1964 1962 #170, Edward Howard Maps remained still at large 1963 #175, Harold Thomas O'Brien remained still at large 1963 #178, Howard Jay Barnard arrested April 6, 1964 1963 #181, Thomas Asbury Hadder arrested January 13, 1964 1963 #182, Alfred Oponowicz captured December 23, 1964By year end, despite the nearly full list it began the year with, the FBI again had a productive year of new captures, added a total of an additional nineteen new Fugitives.
Notable in 1964 was the removal from the list of the Fugitive with the longest time spent on the list up to that time, Fugitive #14, Frederick J. Tenuto, listed in the first year of the first top Ten, although he was not an original Top Tenner. Tenuto's record of fourteen years on the list would not be surpassed until several decades later; the "Ten Most Wanted Fugitives" listed by the FBI in 1964 include: January 27, 1964 #184 One month on the listJesse James Gilbert - U. S. prisoner arrested February 1964 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania by FBI Agents. In order to hide his identity, he was wearing a wig, had on dark glasses, had placed bandages over a tattoo on his left arm. After being apprehended by the Agents, Gilbert remarked, "You men are real gentlemen, if I had to be picked up I'm glad it was by the FBI." February 10, 1964 #185 Three months on the listSammie Earl Ammons - U. S. prisoner arrested May 15, 1964 in Cherokee, Alabama by local police after a high-speed chase as local authorities pursued him across the state line after he attempted to pass a bad check in a Rome, Georgia store March 10, 1964 #186 One month on the listFrank B.
Dumont - U. S. prisoner arrested April 27, 1964 in Tucson, Arizona by local police after committing a burglary in an apartment building March 18, 1964 #187 One month on the listWilliam Beverly Hughes - U. S. prisoner arrested April 11, 1964 in Bylas, Arizona by the Arizona Highway Patrol after a citizen recognized him from a description reported in a newspaper article March 23, 1964 #188 Three months on the listQuay Cleon Kilburn - U. S. prisoner arrested June 1964 in Ogden, Utah. April 14, 1964 #189 Two weeks on the listJoseph Francis Bryan, Jr. - U. S. prisoner arrested April 1964 in New Orleans, Louisiana. April 22, 1964 #190 Two weeks on the listJohn Robert Bailey - U. S. prisoner arrested May 4, 1964 in Hayward, California where he had posed as a plumber for two years. May 6, 1964 #191 One month on the listGeorge Zavada - U. S. prisoner arrested June 12, 1964 in San Jose, California after a gun battle in which he was shot in the chest and rushed to a hospital in Santa Clara to undergo surgery May 8, 1964 #192 Nine months on the listGeorge Patrick McLaughlin - U.
S. prisoner arrested February 24, 1965 in Dorchester, Massachusetts in his third floor apartment May 14, 1964 #193 Three years on the listChester Collins - process dismissed March 30, 1967 in West Palm Beach, Florida at the request of local authorities May 28, 1964 #194 Five days on the listEdward Newton Nivens - U. S. prisoner arrested June 2, 1964 in Tampa, Florida by the FBI after a citizen recognized him from a wanted flyer June 15, 1964 #195 Three months on the listLouis Frederick Vasselli - U. S. prisoner arrested September 1, 1964 in Calumet City, Illinois by the FBI after an old schoolmate recognized him from a wanted flyer June 24, 1964 #196 One month on the listThomas Edward Galloway - U. S. prisoner arrested July 17, 1964 at a golf course in Danville, Virginia by the FBI after a citizen recognized him from a newspaper article July 9, 1964 #197 Three years on the listAlson Thomas Wahrlich - U. S. prisoner arrested October 28, 1967 in Treasure Island, Florida after a citizen recognized his description in Argosy magazine July 27, 1964 #198 Two months on the listKenneth Malcolm Christiansen - U.
S. prisoner arrested September 8, 1964 in Silver Spring, Maryland by local authorities after attempting to rob a seafood restaurant September 11, 1964 #199 Six months on the listWilliam Hutton Coble - U. S. prisoner arrested March 1, 1965 in Charlotte, North Carolina by Charlotte police after an unsuccessful attempt to rob a bank September 18, 1964 #200 One week on the listLloyd Donald Greeson, Jr. - U. S. prisoner arrested September 23, 1964 in Lake Elsinore, California by the Chief of Police after a citizen recognized him from a photograph on the wanted flyer October 5, 1964 #201 One month on the listRaymond Lawrence Wyngaard - U. S. prisoner arrested November 28, 1964 in a taxi cab in downtown Madison, Wisconsin December 10, 1964 #202 Five months on the listNorman Belyea Gorham - U. S. prisoner arrested May 27, 1965 in Los Angeles, California after a citizen recognized him from a television announcement FBI Ten Most Wanted Fugitives, 2020s FBI Ten Most Wanted Fugitives, 2010s FBI Ten Most Wanted Fugitives, 2000s FBI Ten Most Wanted Fugitives, 1990s FBI Ten Most Wanted Fugitives, 1980s FBI Ten Most Wanted Fugitives, 1970s FBI Ten Most Wanted Fugitives, 1960s FBI Ten Most Wanted