Bridei I known as Bridei, son of Maelchon, was king of the Picts from 554 to 584. Sources are vague or contradictory regarding him, but it is believed that his court was near Loch Ness and that he may have been a Christian. There were contemporaries claiming the title "king of the Picts", he died in the mid-580s in battle, was succeeded by Gartnait son of Domelch. Bridei son of Maelchon, was king of the Picts until his death around 584–586. Other forms of his name include Brude son of Melcho and, in Irish sources, Bruide son of Maelchú and Bruidhe son of Maelchon, he was first mentioned in the Irish annals from 558–560, where the Annals of Ulster report "the migration before Máelchú's son, king Bruide". An earlier entry, reporting the death of "Bruide son of Máelchú" in the Annals of Ulster for 505 is presumed to be an error; the Ulster annalist does not say who fled, but the Annals of Tigernach refers to "the flight of the Scots before Bruide son of Máelchú" in 558. This uncertainty has provoked considerable speculation.
Bridei is suggested to have been the son of Maelgwn Gwynedd by John Morris in his Age of Arthur, where he is referred to in passing as "... Bridei, son of Maelgwn, the mighty king of north Wales...". Though the book has been a commercial success, it is disparaged by historians as an unreliable source of "misleading and misguided" information. Bridei's death was reported in the 580's in battle against Pictish rivals in Circinn, an area thought to correspond with the Mearns; the lists of kings in the Pictish Chronicle agree that Bridei was followed by Gartnait son of Domelch. Bridei appears in Adomnán's Life of Saint Columba as a contemporary, as one of the chief kings in Scotland. Adomnán's account of Bridei is problematic as it does not mention whether Bridei was a Christian, if not, whether Columba converted him; the archaeological discoveries at Portmahomack, showing that there was a monastic community there from around 550, provide some support for the idea that Bridei was either a Christian, at least in name, or was converted by Columba.
Bridei was not the only "king of the Picts" during his lifetime. The death of Galam — called "Cennalath, king of the Picts" — is recorded in 580 in the Annals of Ulster, four years before Bridei's death. In addition, Adomnán mentions the presence of the "under-king of Orkney" at Bridei's court; the Annals of Ulster report two expeditions to Orkney during Bridei's reign, in 580 and 581. The location of the court of Bridei's kingdom is not certain. Adomnán's account states that after leaving the royal court, Columba came to the River Ness and that the court was located atop a steep rock. Accordingly, it is supposed that Bridei's chief residence was at Craig Phadrig, to the west of the modern city of Inverness and overlooks the Beauly Firth. Bridei’s kingdom may have corresponded with what would become Fortriu. Juliet Marillier's trilogy The Bridei Chronicles is written as a combination of history and informed guesswork regarding this king's rise to power and rule, her novels describe events in the life of Bridei III.
CELT: Corpus of Electronic Texts at University College Cork includes the Annals of Ulster, the Four Masters and Innisfallen, the Chronicon Scotorum, the Lebor Bretnach and various Saints' Lives. Most are translated into English. Bede's Ecclesiastical History and the Continuation of Bede, at CCEL, translated by A. M. Sellar. Tarbat Discovery Programme with reports on excavations at Portmahomack. List of Kings of the Picts
Sueno's Stone is a Picto-Scottish Class III standing stone on the north-easterly edge of Forres, Scotland. It stands over 7 metres high, it is situated on a raised bank on a now isolated section of the former road to Findhorn. The stone is named after Sweyn Forkbeard, but this association has been challenged and it has been associated with the killing of King Duffus. Evidence from Timothy Pont's Mapp of Murray, the more modern military maps of Roy and Ainslie and Robert Campbell's map of 1790 all show Sueno's Stone along with another stone that has now disappeared; the fact that Pont's map shows the standing stones at all indicates their size as Pont does not show any other obelisks anywhere. Ainslie has inscribed on his map "two curiously carved pillars"; the fact that these maps show the pillar in their present position belies the notion that it was found elsewhere and re-erected at its present location. Hector Boece attributes it to Sueno. Lady Ann Campbell, the Countess of Moray, is noted in the early 1700s as carrying out maintenance on the stone in an attempt to stabilise it.
This was achieved by constructing stepped plinths around the base and these are what can be seen today. Archaeological excavations carried out in 1990 and 1991 suggest that it may have been one of two monumental stones. Sueno's Stone is an upright cross slab with typical Pictish style interwoven vine symbols on the edge panels, it is carved from Old Red Sandstone, prevalent in the Laigh o' Moray but has suffered considerable weathering in places. The western face has a carved Celtic cross with elaborately interlaced decoration and a poorly preserved figural scene set in a panel below the cross; the east face has four panels. The top panel shows rows of horsemen; the second panel depicts armed foot soldiers and the third panel shows the decapitated vanquished soldiers, the heads piled up, soldiers and horsemen surrounding what may be a broch. The base panel depicts the victorious army leaving the battlefield; the sides are elaborately carved. In the early 1990s the stone was encased in armoured glass to prevent further erosion and graffiti.
Radiocarbon dating at the site produced dates of charcoal fragments to between AD 600 and AD 1000. Two separate but similar patterns may relate to the second stone. There is general agreement that the stone dates to between the 9th and 10th centuries and greater accuracy is not possible; the examination of the carvings has been carried out to compare the style and to interpret the figurative and historical significance. The Irish crosses of the 10th century are similar with their interweaving patterns and crowded panels of figures. One hypothesis is that the figures depicted in the battle and decapitation scenes is the army of Kenneth MacAlpin, the scene being the representation of Kenneth's demonstration of his military and legal authority over northern Pictland; the two side panels have sinuous vine patterns populated with men. This suggests a date of between AD 800 and AD 900; the traditional interpretation of the battle scene was that it shows a victory by Malcolm II against Danes or Norse led by one Sueno.
This appears in Alexander Gordon's Itinerarium Septentrionale of 1726 and is thought to have been ancient derived from folklore and the more learned histories of John of Fordun, Hector Boece and George Buchanan. However, this interpretation is no longer supported by archaeologists. Several more recent interpretations have been advanced. Anthony Jackson suggested that the stone displayed the final triumph of the Christian Gaels of Dál Riata over their heathen, Pictish enemies, in which case it would have been erected by Kenneth MacAlpin or his immediate successors; as an alternative, Archie Duncan advances his theory that the stone records the defeat and reburial of Dub in 966 or 967. A modified form of Jackson's theory, stripped of much of the ingenious interpretation, is the present orthodoxy; this holds that Sueno's Stone commemorates an unknown victory by the men of Alba, the Gaelicised Picts of the lands south of the Mounth over the men of Moray, those of the lands north of the Mounth. Local legend says this was the crossroads where Macbeth met the three witches.
In the legend, they were imprisoned inside the stone and should the stone be broken they would be released. However this tale can date no further back than Shakespeare's play. Another legend suggests; the Annals of Ulster reported "Dub mac Maíl Coluim, king of Alba, was killed by the Scots themselves". It has been suggested that Sueno's Stone, near Forres, may be a monument to Dub, erected by his brother Kenneth II, it is presumed that Dub was killed or driven out by Cuilén, who became king after Dub's death, or by his supporters. Media related to Sueno's Stone at Wikimedia Commons Duncan, A. A. M; the Kingship of the Scots 842–1292: Succession and Independence. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh, 2002. ISBN 0-7486-1626-8 Foster, Sally M. Picts and Scots: Early Historic Scotland. Batsford, London, 2004. ISBN 0-7134-8874-3 Henderson, George & Isabel Henderson, The Art of the Picts: Sculpture and Metalwork in Early Medieval Sco
Cuilén was an early King of Alba. He was a son of Illulb mac Custantín, King of Alba, after whom he is known by the patronymic mac Illuilb of Clann Áeda meic Cináeda, a branch of the Alpínid dynasty. During the 10th century, the Alpínids rotated the kingship of Alba between two main dynastic branches. Dub mac Maíl Choluim, a member of a rival branch of the kindred, seems to have succeeded after Illulb's death in 962. Cuilén soon after challenged him but was defeated in 965. Dub was expelled and slain in 966/967. Whether Cuilén was responsible for his death is uncertain. Following Dub's fall, Cuilén appears to have ruled as undisputed king from 966–971. Little is known of Cuilén's short reign other than his own death in 971. According to various sources, he and his brother, were slain by Britons; some sources identify Cuilén's killer as Rhydderch ap Dyfnwal, a man whose daughter had been abducted and raped by the king. Rhydderch was evidently a man of eminent standing, seems to have been a son of Dyfnwal ab Owain, King of Strathclyde, could have ruled the Cumbrian Kingdom of Strathclyde at the time of Cuilén's death.
After Cuilén's assassination, the kingship of Alba may have been assumed by another member of Clann Áeda meic Cináeda, Cináed mac Maíl Choluim, a man who appears to have launched a retaliatory raid against the Cumbrians. There is evidence indicating that Cináed faced considerable opposition from Cuilén's brother, Amlaíb, a man, accorded the title King of Alba in Irish sources recording his death at Cináed's hands in 977. Cuilén's son, Custantín succeeded Cináed as king. There is evidence to suggest that Cuilén had Máel Coluim. Cuilén was one of three sons of King of Alba; the two other sons were Amlaíb. Illulb was in turn a son of Custantín mac Áeda, King of Alba, a man who possessed strong connections with the Scandinavian dynasty of Dublin. There is evidence to suggest. For instance, Illulb's name could be either a Gaelicised form of the Old English personal name Eadwulf, or a Gaelicised form of the Old Norse personal name Hildulfr. If the latter possibility is indeed correct, Illulb's name could indicate that his mother was a member of a Scandinavian kindred.
Amlaíb's name could represent a form of the Gaelic personal name Amalgaid, or else a Gaelicised form of an Old Norse personal name Óláfr. Therefore, Amlaíb's name could indicate that his mother was a member of a Scandinavian kindred as well, a descendant of Amlaíb Cúarán or Amlaíb mac Gofraid. Further evidence of Scandinavian influence on the contemporary Scottish court may be a possible epithet accorded to Cuilén by the ninth–twelfth-century Chronicle of the Kings of Alba. In one instance, this source records Cuilén's name as "Culenrig". Whilst it is possible that this word represents the Old Norse hringr, meaning "ring" or "ring-giver", the name instead may be corrupted from a scribal error, the word itself might refer to something else. Cuilén and his immediate family were members of the ruling Alpínid dynasty, the patrilineal descendants of Cináed mac Ailpín, King of the Picts; the root of this kindred's remarkable early success laid in its ability to rotate the royal succession amongst its members.
For example, Illulb's father—a member of the Clann Áeda meic Cináeda branch of the dynasty—succeeded Domnall mac Causantín —a member of the Clann Custantín meic Cináeda branch—and following a remarkable reign of forty years resigned the kingship to this man's son, Máel Coluim mac Domnaill. Cuilén's father succeeded to the kingship following Máel Coluim's demise, ruled as king until his own death in 962; the record of Illulb's fall at the hands of an invading Scandinavian host is the last time Irish and Scottish sources note Viking encroachment into the kingdom. The Scandinavian Kingdom of York had collapsed by the 950s, the warbands of the kings of Dublin seem to have ceased their overseas adventures during this period as well. Unlike English monarchs who had to endure Viking depredations from the 980s to the 1010s, the kings of Alba were left in relative peace from about the time of Illulb's fall. Free from such outside threats, the Alpínids seem to have struggled amongst themselves. There is some uncertainty regarding the succession after Illulb's demise.
On one hand, he may well have been succeeded by Dub. Such a chronology is evinced by the fourteenth-century Chronica gentis Scotorum and various king lists; the twelfth-century Prophecy of Berchán, on the other hand, states that the kingship was temporarily shared by Dub and Cuilén. If correct, this source could indicate that neither man had been strong enough to displace the other in the immediate aftermath of Illulb's passing. Although the Alpínid branches represented by Illulb and Dub seem to have maintained peace throughout Illulb's reign, inter-dynastic conflict erupted in the years that followed; the Chronicle of the Kings of Alba may indicate that Dub spent much of his reign contending with Cuilén. This source states that the two battled each other on Dorsum Crup, where Dúnchad, Abbot of Dunkeld, Dubdon, satrap of Atholl were slain; the battle seems to have taken place at Duncrub the same site as first-century Battle of Mons Graupius. The conflict itself is attested by the fifteenth–sixteenth-century Annals of Ulster in 965, in an entry recording Dúnchad's fall in a clash between the men of Alba.
Although the Chronicle of the Kings of Alba state
Scottish Gaelic or Scots Gaelic, sometimes referred to as Gaelic, is a Celtic language native to the Gaels of Scotland. A member of the Goidelic branch of the Celtic languages, Scottish Gaelic, like Modern Irish and Manx, developed out of Middle Irish. Most of modern Scotland was once Gaelic-speaking, as evidenced by Gaelic-language placenames. In the 2011 census of Scotland, 57,375 people reported as able to speak Gaelic, 1,275 fewer than in 2001; the highest percentages of Gaelic speakers were in the Outer Hebrides. There are revival efforts, the number of speakers of the language under age 20 did not decrease between the 2001 and 2011 censuses. Outside Scotland, Canadian Gaelic is spoken in Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island. Scottish Gaelic is not an official language of either the United Kingdom. However, it is classed as an indigenous language under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages, which the British government has ratified, the Gaelic Language Act 2005 established a language development body, Bòrd na Gàidhlig.
Aside from "Scottish Gaelic", the language may be referred to as "Gaelic", pronounced or in English. "Gaelic" may refer to the Irish language. Scottish Gaelic is distinct from Scots, the Middle English-derived language varieties which had come to be spoken in most of the Lowlands of Scotland by the early modern era. Prior to the 15th century, these dialects were known as Inglis by its own speakers, with Gaelic being called Scottis. From the late 15th century, however, it became common for such speakers to refer to Scottish Gaelic as Erse and the Lowland vernacular as Scottis. Today, Scottish Gaelic is recognised as a separate language from Irish, so the word Erse in reference to Scottish Gaelic is no longer used. Gaelic was believed to have been brought to Scotland, in the 4th–5th centuries CE, by settlers from Ireland who founded the Gaelic kingdom of Dál Riata on Scotland's west coast in present-day Argyll.:551:66 However, archaeologist Dr Ewan Campbell has argued that there is no archaeological or placename evidence of a migration or takeover.
This view of the medieval accounts is shared by other historians. Regardless of how it came to be spoken in the region, Gaelic in Scotland was confined to Dál Riata until the eighth century, when it began expanding into Pictish areas north of the Firth of Forth and the Firth of Clyde. By 900, Pictish appears to have become extinct replaced by Gaelic.:238–244 An exception might be made for the Northern Isles, where Pictish was more supplanted by Norse rather than by Gaelic. During the reign of Caustantín mac Áeda, outsiders began to refer to the region as the kingdom of Alba rather than as the kingdom of the Picts. However, though the Pictish language did not disappear a process of Gaelicisation was under way during the reigns of Caustantín and his successors. By a certain point during the 11th century, all the inhabitants of Alba had become Gaelicised Scots, Pictish identity was forgotten. In 1018, after the conquest of the Lothians by the Kingdom of Scotland, Gaelic reached its social, cultural and geographic zenith.:16–18 Colloquial speech in Scotland had been developing independently of that in Ireland since the eighth century.
For the first time, the entire region of modern-day Scotland was called Scotia in Latin, Gaelic was the lingua Scotica.:276:554 In southern Scotland, Gaelic was strong in Galloway, adjoining areas to the north and west, West Lothian, parts of western Midlothian. It was spoken to a lesser degree in north Ayrshire, the Clyde Valley and eastern Dumfriesshire. In south-eastern Scotland, there is no evidence that Gaelic was widely spoken. Many historians mark the reign of King Malcom Canmore as the beginning of Gaelic's eclipse in Scotland, his wife Margaret of Wessex spoke no Gaelic, gave her children Anglo-Saxon rather than Gaelic names, brought many English bishops and monastics to Scotland.:19 When Malcolm and Margaret died in 1093, the Gaelic aristocracy rejected their anglicised sons and instead backed Malcolm's brother Donald Bàn. Donald had spent 17 years in Gaelic Ireland and his power base was in the Gaelic west of Scotland, he was the last Scottish monarch to be buried on Iona, the traditional burial place of the Gaelic Kings of Dàl Riada and the Kingdom of Alba.
However, during the reigns of Malcolm Canmore's sons, Alexander I and David I, Anglo-Norman names and practices spread throughout Scotland south of the Forth–Clyde line and along the northeastern coastal plain as far north as Moray. Norman French displaced Gaelic at court; the establishment of royal burghs throughout the same area under David I, attracted large numbers of foreigners speaking Old English. This was the beginning of Gaelic's status as a predominantly rural language in Scotland.:19-23 Clan chiefs in the northern and western parts of Scotland continued to support Gaelic bards who remained a central feature of court life there. The semi-independent Lordship of the Isles in the Hebrides and western coastal mainland remained Gaelic since the language's recovery there in the 12th century, providing a political foundation for cultural prestige down to the end of the 15th century.:553-6By the mid-14th century what came to be called Scots emerged as the official language of government and law.:139 Scotland's emergent nat
Clan MacDuff or Clan Duff is a Lowland Scottish clan. The clan does not have a chief and is therefore considered an Armigerous clan, registered with the Lyon Court; the early chiefs of Clan MacDuff were the original Earls of Fife, although this title went to the Stewarts of Albany in the late fourteenth century. The title returned to the MacDuff chief when William Duff was made Earl Fife in 1759, his descendant Alexander Duff was made Duke of Fife in 1889. The Clan Duff claims descent from the original Royal Scoto-Pictish line of which Queen Gruoch of Scotland, wife of Macbeth, King of Scotland was the senior representative. After the death of MacBeth, Malcolm III of Scotland seized the Crown and his son, married the daughter of Queen Gruoch. Aedh was created abbot of Abernethy; the early chiefs of Clan MacDuff were the Earls of Fife. Sir Iain Moncreiffe wrote. Today, the Earls of Wemyss are thought to be the descendants in the male line of Gille Míchéil, Earl of Fife, thought to be one of the first Clan MacDuff chiefs.
Gille-michael MacDuff was one of the witnesses to the great charter of David I of Scotland to Dunfermline Abbey. In 1306 during the Wars of Scottish Independence, Duncan MacDuff, Earl of Fife was as a minor, held by Edward I of England at the coronation of Robert the Bruce as his ward while Duncan's sister, Isabella MacDuff, placed the golden circlet upon King Robert's head; as a result, when she fell into the hands of King Edward's army, she was imprisoned in a cage, suspended from the walls of Berwick Castle. Duncan MacDuff married Mary, the niece of King Edward, threw in his lot against the Bruce. However, he was captured and imprisoned in Kildrummy Castle where he died in 1336; the Earldom fell into the hands of Robert Stewart, Duke of Albany, although the MacDuff family lost their rank, they continued to prosper. In 1384, the earl of Fife was described as capitalis legis de Clenmcduffe, meaning chief of the law of Clan MacDuff. In 1404, David Duff received a charter from Robert III of Scotland for lands in Banffshire.
In 1626, John Duff sold the lands in Bannfshire which his ancestor had acquired in 1404. The title of The Fife returned with William Duff, 1st Earl Fife and Viscount Macduff in 1759; the 1st Earl of Fife's cousin, Captain Robert Duff of the Royal Navy supported the British-Hanoverian Government during the Jacobite rising of 1745 and was involved in the Skirmish of Arisaig. James Duff, 4th Earl of Fife fought with distinction in the Peninsular War where he was wounded at the Battle of Talavera in 1809 and was made a Knight of the Order of St Ferdinand of Spain. Alexander Duff, 6th Earl of Fife married Louise, Princess Royal, eldest daughter of Edward VII. Alexander was advanced to the rank of Duke of Fife in July 1889. With the death of the 1st Duke of Fife, the Clan MacDuff had its last Chief; as of 2014, the representative that should succeed to its Headship is, according to thepeerage.com, James Richard Valentine Duff, born on 19 October 1941. Clan Macduff was the first Scottish clan to be recognized as a clan by the Scottish Parliament, by legislation dated November 1384.
The Earl of Fife and the Abbot of Abernethy were both "Capitals of Law of the Clan MacDuff". The law protected all murderers within ninth degree of kin to the Earl of Fife, as they could claim sanctuary at the Cross of MacDuff near Abernethy, could find remission by paying compensation to the victim's family; the chiefs of the clan had the right to enthrone the King on the Stone of Scone. When the Stone of Scone was taken to England by Edward I of England, Robert I of Scotland had himself crowned King of Scots a second time, in order to be crowned by a member of clan MacDuff, in that case the Earl of Fife's sister. In 1425, the last Earl of Fife, Murdoch Stewart, Duke of Albany, was beheaded; the Clan MacDuff's hereditary right of bearing the Crown of Scotland passed to the Lord Abernethy. The current Lord Abernethy, bearer of the Scottish Crown, is Alexander Douglas-Hamilton, 16th Duke of Hamilton. Macduff's Castle in East Wemyss, Fife is now a ruinous castle, once held by the MacDuff Earls of Fife.
The property went to the Clan Wemyss who built the present castle. Airdit House in Leuchers, Fife was held by the MacDuffs but went to the Clan Stewart who held it in 1425 when Murdoch Stewart, Duke of Albany was executed. Barnslee Castle near Markinch, Fife was held by the Clan MacDuff. One story is that an underground tunnel led from it to Maiden Castle, about three miles away. Castle Hill in North Berwick in East Lothian was held by the MacDuff Earls of Fife who had a ferry from North Berwick to Earlsferry in Fife. Cupar Castle in Cupar, was held by the Clan MacDuff. Falkland Palace in Falkland, there was a castle here, held by the MacDuff Earls of Fife although it was destroyed by the English in 1337, it was re-built in 1371 and passed to Robert Stewart, Duke of Albany, also Earl of Fife. Fernie Castle in Cupar, Fife was once held by the MacDuff Earls of Fife. Maiden Castle near Methil, Fife was once held by the Clan MacDuff. One story is that an underground tunnel led from it to Barnslee Castle, about three miles away.
Earl Fife Earl of Fife Duke of Fife Clan MacDuff Society of America The Scottish Studies Foundation
Dictionary of National Biography
The Dictionary of National Biography is a standard work of reference on notable figures from British history, published since 1885. The updated Oxford Dictionary of National Biography was published on 23 September 2004 in 60 volumes and online, with 50,113 biographical articles covering 54,922 lives. Hoping to emulate national biographical collections published elsewhere in Europe, such as the Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, in 1882 the publisher George Smith, of Smith, Elder & Co. planned a universal dictionary that would include biographical entries on individuals from world history. He approached Leslie Stephen editor of the Cornhill Magazine, owned by Smith, to become the editor. Stephen persuaded Smith that the work should focus only on subjects from the United Kingdom and its present and former colonies. An early working title was the Biographia Britannica, the name of an earlier eighteenth-century reference work; the first volume of the Dictionary of National Biography appeared on 1 January 1885.
In May 1891 Leslie Stephen resigned and Sidney Lee, Stephen's assistant editor from the beginning of the project, succeeded him as editor. A dedicated team of sub-editors and researchers worked under Stephen and Lee, combining a variety of talents from veteran journalists to young scholars who cut their academic teeth on dictionary articles at a time when postgraduate historical research in British universities was still in its infancy. While much of the dictionary was written in-house, the DNB relied on external contributors, who included several respected writers and scholars of the late nineteenth century. By 1900, more than 700 individuals had contributed to the work. Successive volumes appeared quarterly with complete punctuality until midsummer 1900, when the series closed with volume 63; the year of publication, the editor and the range of names in each volume is given below. Since the scope included only deceased figures, the DNB was soon extended by the issue of three supplementary volumes, covering subjects who had died between 1885 and 1900 or, overlooked in the original alphabetical sequence.
The supplements brought the whole work up to the death of Queen Victoria on 22 January 1901. Corrections were added. After issuing a volume of errata in 1904, the dictionary was reissued with minor revisions in 22 volumes in 1908 and 1909. In the words of the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, the dictionary had "proved of inestimable service in elucidating the private annals of the British", providing not only concise lives of the notable deceased, but additionally lists of sources which were invaluable to researchers in a period when few libraries or collections of manuscripts had published catalogues or indices, the production of indices to periodical literatures was just beginning. Throughout the twentieth century, further volumes were published for those who had died on a decade-by-decade basis, beginning in 1912 with a supplement edited by Lee covering those who died between 1901 and 1911; the dictionary was transferred from its original publishers, Elder & Co. to Oxford University Press in 1917.
Until 1996, Oxford University Press continued to add further supplements featuring articles on subjects who had died during the twentieth century. The supplements published between 1912 and 1996 added about 6,000 lives of people who died in the twentieth century to the 29,120 in the 63 volumes of the original DNB. In 1993 a volume containing missing biographies was published; this had an additional 1,000 lives, selected from over 100,000 suggestions. This did not seek to replace any articles on existing DNB subjects though the original work had been written from a Victorian perspective and had become out of date due to changes in historical assessments and discoveries of new information during the twentieth century; the dictionary was becoming less and less useful as a reference work. In 1966, the University of London published a volume of corrections, cumulated from the Bulletin of the Institute of Historical Research. There were various versions of the Concise Dictionary of National Biography, which covered everyone in the main work but with much shorter articles.
The last edition, in three volumes, covered everyone who died before 1986. In the early 1990s Oxford University Press committed itself to overhauling the DNB. Work on what was known until 2001 as the New Dictionary of National Biography, or New DNB, began in 1992 under the editorship of Colin Matthew, professor of Modern History at the University of Oxford. Matthew decided that no subjects from the old dictionary would be excluded, however insignificant the subjects appeared to a late twentieth-century eye. Suggestions for new subjects were solicited through questionnaires placed in libraries and universities and, as the 1990s advanced and assessed by the editor, the 12 external consultant editors and several hundred associate editors and in-house staff. Digitization of the DNB was performed by the Alliance Photosetting Company in India; the new dictionary would cover British history, "broadly defined", up to 31 December 2000. The research project was conceived as a collaborative one, with in-house staff co-ordinating the work of