A ship is a large watercraft that travels the world's oceans and other sufficiently deep waterways, carrying passengers or goods, or in support of specialized missions, such as defense and fishing. A "ship" was a sailing vessel with at least three square-rigged masts and a full bowsprit. Ships are distinguished from boats, based on size, load capacity, tradition. Ships have been important contributors to human commerce, they have supported the spread of colonization and the slave trade, but have served scientific and humanitarian needs. After the 15th century, new crops that had come from and to the Americas via the European seafarers contributed to the world population growth. Ship transport is responsible for the largest portion of world commerce; as of 2016, there were more than 49,000 merchant ships, totaling 1.8 billion dead weight tons. Of these 28% were oil tankers, 43% were bulk carriers, 13% were container ships. Ships are larger than boats, but there is no universally accepted distinction between the two.
Ships can remain at sea for longer periods of time than boats. A legal definition of ship from Indian case law is a vessel. A common notion is, but not vice versa. A US Navy rule of thumb is that ships heel towards the outside of a sharp turn, whereas boats heel towards the inside because of the relative location of the center of mass versus the center of buoyancy. American and British 19th Century maritime law distinguished "vessels" from other craft. In the Age of Sail, a full-rigged ship was a sailing vessel with at least three square-rigged masts and a full bowsprit. A number of large vessels are referred to as boats. Submarines are a prime example. Other types of large vessel which are traditionally called boats are Great Lakes freighters and ferryboats. Though large enough to carry their own boats and heavy cargoes, these vessels are designed for operation on inland or protected coastal waters. In most maritime traditions ships have individual names, modern ships may belong to a ship class named after its first ship.
In the northern parts of Europe and America a ship is traditionally referred to with a female grammatical gender, represented in English with the pronoun "she" if named after a man. This is not universal usage and some English language journalistic style guides advise using "it" as referring to ships with female pronouns can be seen as offensive and outdated. In many documents the ship name is introduced with a ship prefix being an abbreviation of the ship class, for example "MS" or "SV", making it easier to distinguish a ship name from other individual names in a text; the first known vessels could not be described as ships. The first navigators began to use animal skins or woven fabrics as sails. Affixed to the top of a pole set upright in a boat, these sails gave early ships range; this allowed men to explore allowing for the settlement of Oceania for example. By around 3000 BC, Ancient Egyptians knew, they used woven straps to lash the planks together, reeds or grass stuffed between the planks helped to seal the seams.
The Greek historian and geographer Agatharchides had documented ship-faring among the early Egyptians: "During the prosperous period of the Old Kingdom, between the 30th and 25th centuries BC, the river-routes were kept in order, Egyptian ships sailed the Red Sea as far as the myrrh-country." Sneferu's ancient cedar wood ship Praise of the Two Lands is the first reference recorded to a ship being referred to by name. The ancient Egyptians were at ease building sailboats. A remarkable example of their shipbuilding skills was the Khufu ship, a vessel 143 feet in length entombed at the foot of the Great Pyramid of Giza around 2500 BC and found intact in 1954, it is known that ancient Nubia/Axum traded with India, there is evidence that ships from Northeast Africa may have sailed back and forth between India/Sri Lanka and Nubia trading goods and to Persia and Rome. Aksum was known by the Greeks for having seaports for ships from Yemen. Elsewhere in Northeast Africa, the Periplus of the Red Sea reports that Somalis, through their northern ports such as Zeila and Berbera, were trading frankincense and other items with the inhabitants of the Arabian Peninsula well before the arrival of Islam as well as with Roman-controlled Egypt.
A panel found at Mohenjodaro depicted a sailing craft. Vessels were of many types; this treatise gives a technical exposition on the techniques of shipbuilding. It sets forth minute details about the various types of ships, their sizes, the materials from which they were built; the Yukti Kalpa Taru sums up in a condensed form all the available information. The Yukti Kalpa Taru gives sufficient information and dates to prove that, in ancient times, Indian shipbuilders had a good knowledge of the materials which were used in building ships. In addition to describing the qualities of the different types of wood and their suitability for shipbuilding, the Yukti Kalpa Taru gives an elaborate classification of ships based on their size; the oldest discovered sea faring hulled boat is the Late Bronze Age Uluburun shipwreck off the coast of Turkey, dating back to 1300 BC. The Phoenicians, the first to sail around
Port of Jebel Ali
Jebel Ali (also sometime written "Mina Jebel Ali" is a deep port located in Jebel Ali, United Arab Emirates. Jebel Ali is the world's ninth busiest port, the largest man-made harbour, the biggest and by far the busiest port in the Middle-East. Port Jebel Ali was constructed in the late 1970s to supplement the facilities at Port Rashid. Jebel Ali port is located 35 km southwest of Dubai, in the Persian Gulf. Jebel Ali Port, credited to the efforts of Rashid bin Saeed Al-Maktoum, was constructed in the late 1970s and opened in 1979 to supplement the facilities at Port Rashid; the village of Jebel Ali was constructed for port workers, it has a population of 300 people. Covering over 134 square kilometres, it is home to over 5,000 companies from 120 countries of the world. With 67 berths and a size of 134.68 square kilometres, Jebel Ali is the world's largest man-made harbour and the biggest port in the Middle-East. The port of Jebel Ali has become the port most visited by ships of the United States Navy outside the United States.
Due to the depth of the harbour and size of the port facilities, a Nimitz-class aircraft carrier and several ships of the accompanying battle group can be accommodated pier-side. Due to the frequency of these port visits, semi-permanent liberty facilities have been erected adjacent to the carrier berth. Port Jebel Ali encompass over one million square metres of container yard, it contains space for medium- and long-term general cargo storage, including seven Dutch barns with a total of 19 thousand square metres and 12 covered sheds covering with 90.5 square metres. In addition, Port Jebel Ali consist of 960 thousand square metres of open storage. Port Jebel Ali is linked to Dubai’s expressway system and to the Dubai International Airport Cargo Village; the Cargo Village facilities capable of handling cargoes, making four-hour transit from ship to aircraft possible. The DPA’s commercial trucking service transport container and general cargo transport between Port Jebel Ali, Port Rashid, the rest of UAE every day.
Jebel Ali port is one of DP World's flagship facilities and have been ranked as 9th in Top Container Port Worldwide having handled 7.62 million TEUs in 2005, which represents a 19% increase in throughput, over 2004. Jebel Ali Port was ranked 7th in the world's largest ports in 2007. Jebel Ali port is managed by state-owned Dubai Ports World; the expansion of Jebel Ali port commenced in 2001, the master plan of the port. The project comprises 15 stages; the stage one was completed in 2007, which has increased the storage and handling capacity by 2.2 million TEUs and a Quay length of 1,200 m. The entire project includes 2.4 km of new berths, the container yard behind the berths and the supporting infrastructure and buildings necessary for a functioning terminal. The new port will be on reclaimed land extending seaward from the existing port and situated to the west of the Jumeirah Palm Island complex; the current plan is expected to multiply the total capacity of Jebel Ali port by more than seven, making it the world’s biggest container port, surpassing the ports of Shanghai and Singapore.
On 9 April 2011 Port of Jebel Ali won the Golden Award for Best Seaport Overall from the Higher Committee for UAE Civil Seaports and Airports Security. List of East Asian ports Dubai Ports World Shipping to Jebel Ali
United Arab Emirates
The United Arab Emirates, sometimes called the Emirates, is a country in Western Asia at the southeast end of the Arabian Peninsula on the Persian Gulf, bordering Oman to the east and Saudi Arabia to the south, as well as sharing maritime borders with Qatar to the west and Iran to the north. The sovereign constitutional monarchy is a federation of seven emirates consisting of Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Ras Al Khaimah and Umm Al Quwain, their boundaries are complex, with numerous enclaves within the various emirates. Each emirate is governed by a ruler. One of the rulers serves as the President of the United Arab Emirates. In 2013, the UAE's population was 9.2 million, of which 1.4 million are Emirati citizens and 7.8 million are expatriates. Human occupation of the present UAE has been traced back to the emergence of anatomically modern humans from Africa some 125,000 BCE through finds at the Faya-1 site in Mleiha, Sharjah. Burial sites dating back to the Neolithic Age and the Bronze Age include the oldest known such inland site at Jebel Buhais.
Known as Magan to the Sumerians, the area was home to a prosperous Bronze Age trading culture during the Umm Al Nar period, which traded between the Indus Valley and Mesopotamia as well as Iran and the Levant. The ensuing Wadi Suq period and three Iron Ages saw the emergence of nomadism as well as the development of water management and irrigation systems supporting human settlement in both the coast and interior; the Islamic age of the UAE dates back to the expulsion of the Sasanians and the subsequent Battle of Dibba. The UAE's long history of trade led to the emergence of Julfar, in the present day emirate of Ras Al Khaimah, as a major regional trading and maritime hub in the area; the maritime dominance of the Persian Gulf by Emirati traders led to conflicts with European powers, including the Portuguese and British. Following decades of maritime conflict, the coastal emirates became known as the Trucial States with the signing of a Perpetual Treaty of Maritime Peace with the British in 1819, which established the Trucial States as a British Protectorate.
This arrangement ended with independence and the establishment of the United Arab Emirates on 2 December 1971 following the British withdrawal from its treaty obligations. Six emirates joined the UAE in 1971, the seventh, Ras Al Khaimah, joined the federation on 10 February 1972. Islam is the official religion and Arabic is the official language of the UAE; the UAE's oil reserves are the seventh-largest in the world while its natural gas reserves are the world's seventeenth-largest. Sheikh Zayed, ruler of Abu Dhabi and the first President of the UAE, oversaw the development of the Emirates and steered oil revenues into healthcare and infrastructure; the UAE's economy is the most diversified in the Gulf Cooperation Council, while its most populous city of Dubai is an important global city and an international aviation and maritime trade hub. The country is much less reliant on oil and gas than in previous years and is economically focusing on tourism and business; the UAE government does not levy income tax although there is a system of corporate tax in place and value added tax was established in 2018 at 5%.
The UAE's rising international profile has led to it being recognised as a regional and a middle power. It is a member of the United Nations, the Arab League, the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, OPEC, the Non-Aligned Movement and the Gulf Cooperation Council; the land of the Emirates has been occupied for thousands of years. Stone tools recovered from Jebel Faya in the emirate of Sharjah reveal a settlement of people from Africa some 127,000 years ago and a stone tool used for butchering animals discovered at Jebel Barakah on the Arabian coast suggests an older habitation from 130,000 years ago. There is no proof of contact with the outside world at that stage, although in time lively trading links developed with civilisations in Mesopotamia and the Harappan culture of the Indus Valley; this contact persisted and became wide-ranging motivated by the trade in copper from the Hajar Mountains, which commenced around 3,000 BCE. Sumerian sources talk of the UAE as home to Magan people. There are six major periods of human settlement with distinctive behaviours in the pre-Islamic UAE, which includes the Hafit period from 3,200-2,600 BCE.
From 1,200 BC to the advent of Islam in Eastern Arabia, through three distinctive Iron Ages and the Mleiha period, the area was variously occupied by Achaemenid and other forces and saw the construction of fortified settlements and extensive husbandry thanks to the development of the falaj irrigation system. In ancient times, Al Hasa adjoined Greater Oman. From the second century AD, there was a movement of tribes from Al Bahreyn towards the lower Gulf, together with a migration among the Azdite Qahtani and Quda'ah tribal groups from south-west Arabia towards central Oman; the spread of Islam to the North Eastern tip of the Arabian Peninsula is thought to have followed directly from a letter sent by the Islamic prophet, Muhammad, to the rulers of Oman in 630 AD, nine years after the hijrah. This led to a group of rulers travelling to Medina, converting to Islam and subsequently driving a successful u
Ras Al Khor
Ras Al Khor Wildlife Sanctuary, United Arab Emirates, is a wetland reserve renowned for attracting migratory birds in large numbers. The wetlands have large numbers of birds, small mammals and fish. Ras Al Khor Wildlife Sanctuary represents an enclave of relative wilderness amidst swirling traffic and sprawling urban infrastructure. Located just as the name in Arabic suggests - at the Cape of the Creek, it is among the few urban protected areas of the world; the Dubai Municipality has taken great efforts to protect and preserve the biodiversity of this delicate ecosystem. The wetland has been fenced off from the public and three birding hides have been built; the bird hides are a first step towards development of more elaborate visitor education facilities in the protected area. WWF UAE Project Office collaborated with Dubai Municipality's Environment Department, in setting up the facilities that were sponsored by the National Bank of Dubai. Opportunities for experiencing a natural environment in this building-up emirate are so limited that the opening of Ras Al Khor to visitors is a boon to present and potential nature lovers.
Presently there are three birding hides located on the perimeter of the sanctuary open to the public. Entrance operate from 9:00 am to 4:00 pm Saturday to Thursday. Ras Al Khor is home to about 500 greater flamingoes, which has become something of a mascot for Dubai's Wild Life protection program; some of the regular visitors to the sanctuary are: Arabian Peninsula Middle East Wildlife of the United Arab Emirates Official website
Al Garhoud Bridge
Al Garhoud Bridge is one of three road bridges over Dubai Creek, one of five crossings, in Dubai, United Arab Emirates. Al Garhoud Bridge forms the eastern end of the road toll that went into effect on 1 July 2007. Since the beginning of Salik, Al Garhoud Bridge has seen low amounts of traffic for Dubai; the old Al Garhoud Bridge was the second bridge constructed that crossed the Creek, after Al Maktoum Bridge. The bridge opened in 1976. In 2007, nearly 9,000 vehicles crossed the bridge every hour at peak flow, it has been the cause of huge traffic jams in Dubai. The main reason for this was the number of roads. On the Bur Dubai-bound lanes, seven lanes convergeed into three lanes. For the Deira-bound lanes, five lanes converged into three lanes; the bridge had to be closed to allow large boats to pass under it. The bridge had a total of 6 lanes: 3 lanes in each direction. To solve the major traffic problems caused by the old bridge, a replacement was constructed between 2006 and 2008 by Belgian main contractor BESIX.
The bridge, which cost 415 million dirhams, is meant to add more lanes of road that cross Dubai Creek. The new Al Garhoud Bridge has a total of 7 in each direction, it is able to handle 16,000 vehicles per hour. Construction of the bridge began in February 2006 and by 26 September 2007, 76% of the construction was completed; the bridge is 16 metres above the water. On 15 December 2007, four lanes on the Deira-bound side were opened to vehicle traffic. On 15 March 2008, as had been scheduled, remaining lanes on both sides were opened; the old bridge was demolished after the new bridge opened. Shortly after the bridge opened, the Roads and Transport Authority announced that Al Garhoud Bridge would be decorated with artwork that look like sand dunes during the day and waves at night with the aid of lighting. Construction Photos on 31 January 2007 Construction Photos on 1 May 2007 Construction Photo on 31 May 2007 Construction Photo on 18 October 2007 Coordinates: 25°14′02″N 55°20′15″E
Arabic is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term used to describe peoples living in the area bounded by Mesopotamia in the east and the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, in the Sinai Peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, derived from Classical Arabic; as the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is taught in schools and universities, is used to varying degrees in workplaces and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic, the official language of 26 states, the liturgical language of the religion of Islam, since the Quran and Hadith were written in Arabic. Modern Standard Arabic follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic, uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties.
Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era in modern times. Due to its grounding in Classical Arabic, Modern Standard Arabic is removed over a millennium from everyday speech, construed as a multitude of dialects of this language; these dialects and Modern Standard Arabic are described by some scholars as not mutually comprehensible. The former are acquired in families, while the latter is taught in formal education settings. However, there have been studies reporting some degree of comprehension of stories told in the standard variety among preschool-aged children; the relation between Modern Standard Arabic and these dialects is sometimes compared to that of Latin and vernaculars in medieval and early modern Europe. This view though does not take into account the widespread use of Modern Standard Arabic as a medium of audiovisual communication in today's mass media—a function Latin has never performed. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe in science and philosophy.
As a result, many European languages have borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence in vocabulary, is seen in European languages Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid-9th to mid-10th centuries. Many of these words relate to related activities; the Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history; some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Spanish, Kashmiri, Bosnian, Bengali, Malay, Indonesian, Punjabi, Assamese, Sindhi and Hausa, some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times.
Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims, Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by as many as 422 million speakers in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography. Arabic is a Central Semitic language related to the Northwest Semitic languages, the Ancient South Arabian languages, various other Semitic languages of Arabia such as Dadanitic; the Semitic languages changed a great deal between Proto-Semitic and the establishment of the Central Semitic languages in grammar. Innovations of the Central Semitic languages—all maintained in Arabic—include: The conversion of the suffix-conjugated stative formation into a past tense; the conversion of the prefix-conjugated preterite-tense formation into a present tense.
The elimination of other prefix-conjugated mood/aspect forms in favor of new moods formed by endings attached to the prefix-conjugation forms. The development of an internal passive. There are several features which Classical Arabic, the modern Arabic varieties, as well as the Safaitic and Hismaic inscriptions share which are unattested in any other Central Semitic language variety, including the Dadanitic and Taymanitic languages of the northern Hejaz; these features are evidence of common descent from Proto-Arabic. The following features can be reconstructed with confidence for Proto-Arabic: negative particles m *mā.
The intertidal zone known as the foreshore and seashore and sometimes referred to as the littoral zone, is the area, above water at low tide and underwater at high tide. This area can include many different types of habitats, with many types of animals, such as starfish, sea urchins, numerous species of coral; the well-known area includes steep rocky cliffs, sandy beaches, or wetlands. The area can be a narrow strip, as in Pacific islands that have only a narrow tidal range, or can include many meters of shoreline where shallow beach slopes interact with high tidal excursion. Peritidal zone is similar but a somewhat wider zone, extending from above the highest tide level to below that of the lowest tide level. Organisms in the intertidal zone are adapted to an environment of harsh extremes; the intertidal zone is home to many several species from different taxa including Porifera, Coelenterates, crustaceans, etc. Water is available with the tides but varies from fresh with rain to saline and dry salt with drying between tidal inundations.
Wave splash can dislodge residents from the littoral zone. With the intertidal zone's high exposure to the sun, the temperature range can be anything from hot with full sun to near freezing in colder climates; some microclimates in the littoral zone are ameliorated by local features and larger plants such as mangroves. Adaptation in the littoral zone allows the use of nutrients supplied in high volume on a regular basis from the sea, moved to the zone by tides. Edges of habitats, in this case land and sea, are themselves significant ecologies, the littoral zone is a prime example. A typical rocky shore can be divided into a spray zone or splash zone, above the spring high-tide line and is covered by water only during storms, an intertidal zone, which lies between the high and low tidal extremes. Along most shores, the intertidal zone can be separated into the following subzones: high tide zone, middle tide zone, low tide zone; the intertidal zone is one of a number of marine biomes or habitats, including estuaries, neritic and deep zones.
Marine biologists divide the intertidal region into three zones, based on the overall average exposure of the zone. The low intertidal zone, which borders on the shallow subtidal zone, is only exposed to air at the lowest of low tides and is marine in character; the mid intertidal zone is exposed and submerged by average tides. The high intertidal zone is only covered by the highest of the high tides, spends much of its time as terrestrial habitat; the high intertidal zone borders on the splash zone. On shores exposed to heavy wave action, the intertidal zone will be influenced by waves, as the spray from breaking waves will extend the intertidal zone. Depending on the substratum and topography of the shore, additional features may be noticed. On rocky shores, tide pools form in depressions. Under certain conditions, such as those at Morecambe Bay, quicksand may form; this subregion is submerged - it is only exposed at the point of low tide and for a longer period of time during low tides. This area is teeming with life.
There is a great biodiversity. Organisms in this zone are not well adapted to periods of dryness and temperature extremes; some of the organisms in this area are abalone, sea anemones, brown seaweed, crabs, green algae, isopods, mussels, sculpin, sea cucumber, sea lettuce, sea palms, sea urchins, snails, surf grass, tube worms, whelks. Creatures in this area can grow to larger sizes because there is more available energy in the localized ecosystem. Marine vegetation can grow to much greater sizes than in the other three intertidal subregions due to the better water coverage; the water is shallow enough to allow plenty of light to reach the vegetation to allow substantial photosynthetic activity, the salinity is at normal levels. This area is protected from large predators such as fish because of the wave action and the shallow water; the intertidal region is an important model system for the study of ecology on wave-swept rocky shores. The region contains a high diversity of species, the zonation created by the tides causes species ranges to be compressed into narrow bands.
This makes it simple to study species across their entire cross-shore range, something that can be difficult in, for instance, terrestrial habitats that can stretch thousands of kilometres. Communities on wave-swept shores have high turnover due to disturbance, so it is possible to watch ecological succession over years rather than decades; the burrowing invertebrates that make up large portions of sandy beach ecosystems are known to travel great distances in cross-shore directions as beaches change on the order of days, semilunar cycles, seasons, or years. The distribution of some species has been found to correlate with geomorphic datums such as the high tide strand and the water table outcrop. Since the foreshore is alternately covered by the sea and exposed to the air, organisms living in this environment must have adaptions for both wet and dry conditions. Hazards include being smashed or carried away by rough waves, exposure to dangerously high temperatures, desiccation. Typical inhabit