Maktoum bin Rashid Al Maktoum
Maktoum bin Rashid Al Maktoum referred to as Sheikh Maktoum was the Vice President and Prime Minister of the United Arab Emirates and the emir of Dubai. He was born in 1943 in Dubai to the Al Maktoum family of the Al Bu Falasah tribe, his father Sheikh Rashid bin Saeed Al Maktoum became the Ruler of Dubai upon the death of his own father, Sheikh Saeed bin Maktoum bin Hasher Al Maktoum, in 1958. Sheikh Maktoum was Prime Minister of the United Arab Emirates first from the country's independence on 9 December 1971 until 25 April 1979, when he was replaced by his father, Vice President since 1971. Following his father's death on 7 October 1990, he resumed his position as Prime Minister of the United Arab Emirates, took over as Ruler of Dubai and Vice President of the United Arab Emirates, he served in all three positions until his death on 4 January 2006. Sheikh Maktoum briefly served as acting President of the United Arab Emirates on 2–3 November 2004 between the death of Sheikh Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan and the proclamation and installation of his son Sheikh Khalifa bin Zayed Al Nahyan as President of the United Arab Emirates on 4 November 2004.
Sheikh Maktoum ran the emirate of Dubai along with his two brothers, Sheikh Mohammed and Sheikh Hamdan of the United Arab Emirates. Internationally, he was known as co-owner of Dubai's Godolphin Stables, which competes in major horse races around the world. Sheikh Maktoum bin Rashid al Maktoum died on the morning of 4 January 2006, suffering a heart attack while staying at Palazzo Versace Hotel in Gold Coast, Australia, he was succeeded by Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum as ruler of Dubai. His body was buried in Dubai. Timeline of Dubai List of national leaders Official web page of HH Sheikh Maktoum bin Rashid Al Maktoum Obituary: Sheikh Maktoum BBC Shaikh Maktoum Bin Rashid Al Maktoum dies Gulf News
Biryani known as biriyani, birani or briyani, is a mixed rice dish with its origins among the Muslims of the Indian subcontinent. This dish is popular throughout the Indian subcontinent, as well as among the diaspora from the region, it is prepared in other regions such as Iraqi Kurdistan. It is made with Indian spices, meat, vegetables or eggs. Biryani is a Hindustani word derived from the Persian language, used as an official language in different parts of medieval India by various Islamic dynasties. One theory states that it originated from the Persian word for rice. Another theory states that it is derived from biryan or beriyan, which means "to fry" or "to roast." The exact origin of the dish is uncertain. In North India, different varieties of biryani developed in the Muslim centers of Delhi and other small principalities. In South India, where rice is more used as a staple food, several distinct varieties of biryani emerged from Telangana, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka, where Muslim communities were present.
Andhra is the only region of South India. During the Safavid dynasty in Persia, a dish called Berian Pilao was made with lamb or chicken, marinated overnight — with dahi, spices, dried fruits — and cooked in a tandoor oven, it was served with steamed rice. According to historian Lizzie Collingham, the modern biryani developed in the royal kitchens of the Mughal Empire and is a mix of the native spicy rice dishes of India and the Persian pilaf. Indian restaurateur Kris Dhillon believes that the dish originated in Persia, was brought to India by the Mughals. Another theory claims that the dish was prepared in India before the first Mughal emperor Babur came to India; the 16th-century Mughal text Ain-i-Akbari makes no distinction between biryanis and pilaf: it states that the word "biryani" is of older usage in India. A similar theory, that biryani came to India with Timur's invasion, appears to be incorrect, because there is no record of biryani having existed in his native land during that period.
According to Pratibha Karan, the biryani is of South Indian origin, derived from pilaf varieties brought to the Indian subcontinent by the Arab traders. She speculates; the armies, unable to cook elaborate meals, would prepare a one-pot dish where they cooked rice with whichever meat was available. Over time, the dish became biryani due to different methods of cooking, with the distinction between "pulao" and "biryani" being arbitrary. According to Vishwanath Shenoy, the owner of a biryani restaurant chain in India, one branch of biryani comes from the Mughals, while another was brought by the Arab traders to Malabar in South India. Pilaf or pulao, as it is known in the Indian subcontinent, is another mixed rice dish popular in the cuisines of the Indian subcontinent and Middle Eastern cuisine. Opinions differ on the differences between pulao and biryani, whether there is a difference between the two. According to Delhi-based historian Sohail Nakhvi, pulao tends to be comparatively plainer than the biryani and consists of meat cooked with rice.
Biryani, on the other hand, contains more gravy, is cooked for longer, leaving the meat or vegetables more tender. Biryani is cooked with additional dressings. Pratibha Karan states that while the terms are applied arbitrarily, the main distinction is that a biryani consists of two layers of rice with a layer of meat in the middle. Colleen Taylor Sen lists the following distinctions between biryani and pulao: Biryani is the primary dish in a meal, while the pulao is a secondary accompaniment to a larger meal In biryani and rice are cooked separately before being layered and cooked together. Pulao is a single-pot dish: meat and rice are simmered in a liquid until the liquid is absorbed. However, some other writers, such as Holly Shaffer, R. K. Saxena and Sangeeta Bhatnagar have reported pulao recipes in which the rice and meat are cooked separately and mixed before the dum cooking. Biryanis have stronger spices compared to pulao; the British-era author Abdul Halim Sharar mentions the following as their primary difference: biryani has a stronger taste of curried rice due to a greater amount of spices.
Ingredients vary according to the type of meat used. Meat is the prime ingredient with rice; as is common in dishes of the Indian subcontinent, vegetables are used when preparing biryani, known as vegetable biriyani. Corn may be used depending on the availability. Navratan biryani tends to use sweeter, richer ingredients such as cashews and fruits, such as apples and pineapples; the spices and condiments used in biryani may include ghee, mace, cloves, cinnamon, bay leaves, mint leaves, onions, green chilies, garlic. The premium varieties include saffron. In all biryanis, the main ingredient that accompanies the spices is the goat meat; the dish may be served with dahi chutney or raita, curry, a sour dish of aubergine, boiled egg, salad. Kacchi biryani For kacchi biryani, raw marinated meat is layered with raw rice before being cooked together, it i
International Standard Serial Number
An International Standard Serial Number is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication, such as a magazine. The ISSN is helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title. ISSN are used in ordering, interlibrary loans, other practices in connection with serial literature; the ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization international standard in 1971 and published as ISO 3297 in 1975. ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC 9 is responsible for maintaining the standard; when a serial with the same content is published in more than one media type, a different ISSN is assigned to each media type. For example, many serials are published both in electronic media; the ISSN system refers to these types as electronic ISSN, respectively. Conversely, as defined in ISO 3297:2007, every serial in the ISSN system is assigned a linking ISSN the same as the ISSN assigned to the serial in its first published medium, which links together all ISSNs assigned to the serial in every medium.
The format of the ISSN is an eight digit code, divided by a hyphen into two four-digit numbers. As an integer number, it can be represented by the first seven digits; the last code digit, which may be 0-9 or an X, is a check digit. Formally, the general form of the ISSN code can be expressed as follows: NNNN-NNNC where N is in the set, a digit character, C is in; the ISSN of the journal Hearing Research, for example, is 0378-5955, where the final 5 is the check digit, C=5. To calculate the check digit, the following algorithm may be used: Calculate the sum of the first seven digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right—that is, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, respectively: 0 ⋅ 8 + 3 ⋅ 7 + 7 ⋅ 6 + 8 ⋅ 5 + 5 ⋅ 4 + 9 ⋅ 3 + 5 ⋅ 2 = 0 + 21 + 42 + 40 + 20 + 27 + 10 = 160 The modulus 11 of this sum is calculated. For calculations, an upper case X in the check digit position indicates a check digit of 10. To confirm the check digit, calculate the sum of all eight digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right.
The modulus 11 of the sum must be 0. There is an online ISSN checker. ISSN codes are assigned by a network of ISSN National Centres located at national libraries and coordinated by the ISSN International Centre based in Paris; the International Centre is an intergovernmental organization created in 1974 through an agreement between UNESCO and the French government. The International Centre maintains a database of all ISSNs assigned worldwide, the ISDS Register otherwise known as the ISSN Register. At the end of 2016, the ISSN Register contained records for 1,943,572 items. ISSN and ISBN codes are similar in concept. An ISBN might be assigned for particular issues of a serial, in addition to the ISSN code for the serial as a whole. An ISSN, unlike the ISBN code, is an anonymous identifier associated with a serial title, containing no information as to the publisher or its location. For this reason a new ISSN is assigned to a serial each time it undergoes a major title change. Since the ISSN applies to an entire serial a new identifier, the Serial Item and Contribution Identifier, was built on top of it to allow references to specific volumes, articles, or other identifiable components.
Separate ISSNs are needed for serials in different media. Thus, the print and electronic media versions of a serial need separate ISSNs. A CD-ROM version and a web version of a serial require different ISSNs since two different media are involved. However, the same ISSN can be used for different file formats of the same online serial; this "media-oriented identification" of serials made sense in the 1970s. In the 1990s and onward, with personal computers, better screens, the Web, it makes sense to consider only content, independent of media; this "content-oriented identification" of serials was a repressed demand during a decade, but no ISSN update or initiative occurred. A natural extension for ISSN, the unique-identification of the articles in the serials, was the main demand application. An alternative serials' contents model arrived with the indecs Content Model and its application, the digital object identifier, as ISSN-independent initiative, consolidated in the 2000s. Only in 2007, ISSN-L was defined in the
The Dubai Metro is a rapid transit rail network in Dubai, United Arab Emirates. The Red Line and Green Line are operational, with one more line being constructed; these first two lines run underground on elevated viaducts elsewhere. All trains are automated and driverless, together with stations, are air conditioned with platform edge doors to make this possible. Architecture firm Aedas designed the metro's 45 stations, two depots and operational control centers; the Al Ghurair Investment group were the metro's builders. The first section of the Red Line, covering 10 stations, was ceremonially inaugurated at 9:09:09 pm on 9 September 2009, by Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum, Ruler of Dubai, with the line opening to the public at 6 am on 10 September; the Dubai Metro is the first urban train network in the Arabian Peninsula and either the second in the Arab World or the third. A major expansion of the Red Line to add 15 kilometers of track and extend it from Ibn Battuta to the Expo 2020 site was announced in April 2015.
The extension will increase 7 metro stations. More than 110,000 people, or nearly 10 percent of Dubai’s population, used the Metro in its first two days of operation; the Dubai Metro carried 10 million passengers from launch on 9 September 2009 to 9 February 2010 with 11 stations operational on the Red Line. Engineering consultancy Atkins provided full multidisciplinary design and management of the civil works on Dubai Metro; until 2016, the Dubai Metro was the world's longest driverless metro network with a route length of 75 kilometres, as recognized by Guinness World Records in 2012. However, its total route length have since been surpassed by the automated driverless Vancouver SkyTrain and Singapore MRT; the Red Line, at 52.1 kilometres, remains the world's longest driverless single metro line. Planning of the Dubai Metro began under the directive of Dubai's Ruler, Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum, who expected other projects to attract 15 million visitors to Dubai by 2010; the combination of a growing population and severe traffic congestion necessitated the building of an urban rail system to provide additional public transportation capacity, relieve motor traffic, provide infrastructure for additional development.
In May 2005, a AED 12.45 billion/US$3.4 billion design and build contract was awarded to the Dubai Rail Link consortium made up of Japanese companies including Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Mitsubishi Corporation, Obayashi Corporation, Kajima Corporation and Turkish firm Yapı Merkezi, the Project Management and Construction Management services contract awarded to a French-American joint venture between Systra and Parsons Corporation. The first phase covers 35 kilometres of the proposed network, including the Red Line between Al Rashidiya and the Jebel Ali Free Zone set for completion by September 2009 and the Green Line from Al Qusais 2 to Al Jaddaf 1; this was to be completed by June 2010. A second phase contract was subsequently signed in July 2006 and includes extensions to the initial routes; the Red Line opened at 9 minutes and 9 seconds past 9 pm on 9 September 2009, inaugurated by Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid al Maktoum. The construction cost of the Dubai Metro project has shot up by about 80 per cent from the original AED 15.5 billion/US$4.2 billion to AED 28 billion/US$7.8 billion.
The authorities contradicted this. They attributed the increase in expenditure to the major changes in the scope and design of the project; the authorities expect to generate AED 18 billion/US$4.9 billion in income over the next 10 years. Work commenced on the construction of the metro on 21 March 2006. In February 2009, a top RTA Rail Agency official said the US$4.2 billion Dubai Metro project would be completed on schedule despite the global crisis. However, only 10 out of 29 metro stations of the red line opened on 9 September 2009. Construction of the 18 stations on the red line and another 18 on the green line restarted on 7 February 2010, according to contractors, after a settlement was reached with a Japanese-led consortium over disputed payments of about US$2 billion-US$3 billion. Construction of all 29 metro stations on the Red Line was declared complete on 28 April 2010 by the acting chief of the RTA Rail Agency. Seven more stations on the Dubai Metro Red Line opened on 30 April 2010.
Ten new trains were pressed into service, giving a total of 22 trains in service when the stations opened. The seven stations are, Emirates Station, Airport Terminal 1 Station, Dubai Internet City Station, Al Karama Station, Emirates Towers Station, Dubai Marina Station and Ibn Battuta Station. In addition to this, a further three stations were opened on 15 May 2010. Furthermore, Business Bay Station, First Gulf Bank Station, Sharaf DG Station, Nakheel Station and Jumeirah Lakes Towers Station were opened on 15 October 2010. After much delay, Jebel Ali Station, the terminus of the Red Line on the Abu Dhabi side was opened on 11 March 2011, Jebel Ali Industrial Station, renamed Danube Station, was opened on 12 December 2012; the final two stations, Al Jadaf and Creek, on the Green Line were opened on 1 March 2014. The Dubai Metro is operated by Serco under contract to the Dubai Roads and Transport Authorit
Global Village (Dubai)
Global Village Dubai is located on Sheikh Mohammed Bin Zayed Road Dubai. Global Village Dubai combine the world 90 countries cultures at one place. Global Village Dubai, claims to be the world's largest tourism, leisure and entertainment project, it is the region's first cultural, entertainment and shopping destination. Every year, it has over 5 million visitors over an area of 17,200,000 sq ft. Global Village started out in the form of a number of kiosks in 1996 located on the Creek Side opposite to Dubai Municipality, it later shifted to the Oud Metha Area near Wafi City for 5 years. Today, Global Village has 6 million visitors at its current location on exit of Sheikh Zayed Exit 37. There is four main sections of the Global Village; these sections consist of Events and Concerts, Carnaval and Shopping. Dubai Global village have one of the largest capacity parking in Dubai; the total capacity of Dubai parking is 18300 vehicles. The parking is divided into two main categories. One is general parking, free of cost while other is paid parking known as VIP Parking.
The 23rd session of Dubai Global village started on 30 October 2018. This season will remain open till 13 April 2019. Over 90 countries and 27 pavilion are established in this season. Overall, 23 concerts will be held during this season. A fire broke out in the China pavilion on 25 June 2018 during a demolition process. No injuries were reported. Developments in Dubai Arab Media Group Dubai Shopping Festival Official Website of Global Village Dubai One Page Details of Global Village Dubai
A tourist attraction is a place of interest where tourists visit for its inherent or an exhibited natural or cultural value, historical significance, natural or built beauty, offering leisure and amusement. Places of natural beauty such as beaches, tropical island resorts, national parks, mountains and forests, are examples of traditional tourist attractions which people may visit. Cultural tourist attractions can include historical places, ancient temples, aquaria and art galleries, botanical gardens and structures, theme parks and carnivals, living history museums, public art, ethnic enclave communities, historic trains and cultural events. Factory tours, industrial heritage, creative art and crafts workshops are the object of cultural niches like industrial tourism and creative tourism. Many tourist attractions are landmarks. Tourist attractions are created to capitalise on legends such as a supposed UFO crash site near Roswell, New Mexico and the alleged Loch Ness monster sightings in Scotland.
Ghost sightings make tourist attractions. Ethnic communities may become tourist attractions, such as Chinatowns in the United States and the black British neighbourhood of Brixton in London, England. In the United States and marketers of attractions advertise tourist attractions on billboards along the sides of highways and roadways in remote areas. Tourist attractions distribute free promotional brochures to be displayed in rest areas, information centers, fast food restaurants, motel rooms or lobbies. While some tourist attractions provide visitors a memorable experience for a reasonable admission charge or for free, others may be of low quality and overprice their goods and services in order to profit excessively from tourists; such places are known as tourist traps. Within cities, rides on boats and sightseeing buses are sometimes popular. Novelty attractions are oddities such as the "biggest ball of twine" in Cawker City, the Corn Palace in Mitchell, South Dakota, or Carhenge in Alliance, where old cars serve in the place of stones in a replica of Stonehenge.
Novelty attractions are part of Midwestern culture. A tourist destination is a city, town, or other area, dependent to a significant extent on revenues from tourism, or "a country, region, city, or town, marketed or markets itself as a place for tourists to visit", it may contain one or more tourist attractions and some "tourist traps". Fátima town, for example, is a popular tourist destination in Portugal. Siem Reap town is a popular tourist destination in Cambodia owing to its proximity to the Angkor temples; the Loire valley, the third tourist destination in France, is a good example of a region marketed and branded as a place for tourists to visit known for its Châteaux of the Loire valley. A tropical island resort is an island or archipelago that depends on tourism as its source of revenue; the Bahamas in the Caribbean, Bali in Indonesia, Phuket in Thailand, Hawaii in the United States, Palawan in the Philippines, Fiji in the Pacific, Santorini and Ibiza in the Mediterranean are examples of popular island resorts.
France, the United States, Spain were the three most popular international destinations in 2017. The total number of international travelers arriving in those countries was about 234 million, contributing 8.9%, 7.7%, 14.9% to the total GDP of those countries. From the tourism industry supply perspective a destination is defined by a geo-political boundary, destination marketing is most funded by governments. From the traveler perspective, a destination might be perceived quite differently; the tourism industry generates substantial economic benefits for both host countries and tourists' home countries. In developing countries, one of the primary motivations for a region to promote itself as a tourism destination is the expected economic benefit. According to the World Tourism Organization, 698 million people travelled to a foreign country in 2000, spending more than US$478 billion. International tourism receipts combined with passenger transport total more than US$575 billion – making tourism the world's number one export earner, ahead of automotive products, chemicals and food.
Tourist attractions can: Contribute to government revenues.