Vikings were Norse seafarers speaking the Old Norse language, who during the late 8th to late 11th centuries and traded from their Northern European homelands across wide areas of Europe, explored westwards to Iceland and Vinland. The term is commonly extended in modern English and other vernaculars to the inhabitants of Norse home communities during what has become known as the Viking Age; this period of Nordic military and demographic expansion constitutes an important element in the early medieval history of Scandinavia, the British Isles, Kievan Rus' and Sicily. Facilitated by advanced sailing and navigational skills, characterised by the longship, Viking activities at times extended into the Mediterranean littoral, North Africa, the Middle East. Following extended phases of exploration and settlement, Viking communities and governments were established in diverse areas of north-western Europe, Belarus and European Russia, the North Atlantic islands and as far as the north-eastern coast of North America.
This period of expansion witnessed the wider dissemination of Norse culture, while introducing strong foreign cultural influences into Scandinavia itself, with profound developmental implications in both directions. Popular, modern conceptions of the Vikings—the term applied casually to their modern descendants and the inhabitants of modern Scandinavia—often differ from the complex picture that emerges from archaeology and historical sources. A romanticised picture of Vikings as noble savages began to emerge in the 18th century. Perceived views of the Vikings as alternatively violent, piratical heathens or as intrepid adventurers owe much to conflicting varieties of the modern Viking myth that had taken shape by the early 20th century. Current popular representations of the Vikings are based on cultural clichés and stereotypes, complicating modern appreciation of the Viking legacy; these representations are not always accurate — for example, there is no evidence that they wore horned helmets.
One etymology derives víking from the feminine vík, meaning "creek, small bay". Various theories have been offered that the word viking may be derived from the name of the historical Norwegian district of Viken, meaning "a person from Viken". According to this theory, the word described persons from this area, it is only in the last few centuries that it has taken on the broader sense of early medieval Scandinavians in general. However, there are a few major problems with this theory. People from the Viken area were not called'Viking' in Old Norse manuscripts, but are referred to as víkverir,'Vík dwellers'. In addition, that explanation could explain only the masculine and ignore the feminine, a serious problem because the masculine is derived from the feminine but hardly vice versa; the form occurs as a personal name on some Swedish runestones. The stone of Tóki víking was raised in memory of a local man named Tóki who got the name Tóki víking because of his activities as a viking; the Gårdstånga Stone uses the phrase "ÞeR drængaR waRu wiða unesiR i wikingu", referring to the stone's dedicatees as vikings.
The Västra Strö 1 Runestone has an inscription in memory of a Björn, killed when "i viking". In Sweden there is a locality known since the middle ages as Vikingstad; the Bro Stone was risen in memory of Assur, said to have protected the land from vikings. There is little indication of any negative connotation in the term before the end of the Viking Age. Another etymology, one that gained support in the early twenty-first century, derives Viking from the same root as Old Norse vika, f.'sea mile', originally'the distance between two shifts of rowers', from the root *weik or *wîk, as in the Proto-Germanic verb *wîkan,'to recede'. This is found in the Proto-Nordic verb *wikan,'to turn', similar to Old Icelandic víkja'to move, to turn', with well-attested nautical usages. Linguistically, this theory is better attested, the term most predates the use of the sail by the Germanic peoples of North-Western Europe, because the Old Frisian spelling shows that the word was pronounced with a palatal k and thus in all probability existed in North-Western Germanic before that palatalisation happened, that is, in the 5th century or before.
In that case, the idea behind it seems to be that the tired rower moves aside for the rested rower on the thwart when he relieves him. The Old Norse feminine víking may have been a sea journey characterised by the shifting of rowers, i.e. a long-distance sea journey, because in the pre-sail era, the shifting of rowers would distinguish long-distance sea journeys. A víkingr would originally have been a participant on a sea journey characterised by the shifting of rowers. In that case, the word Viking was not connected to Scandinavian seafarers but assumed this meaning when the Scandinavians begun to dominate the seas. In Old English, the word wicing appears first in the Anglo-Saxon poem, which dates from the 9th century. In Old English, in the history of the archbishops of Hamburg-Bremen written by Adam of Bremen in about 1070, the term referred to Scandi
Dublin Port is the seaport of Dublin, Ireland, of both historical and contemporary economic importance. Approximatively two-thirds of Ireland's port traffic travels via the port, by far the busiest on the island of Ireland; the port and its land at the eastern end of Dublin's Northside, but with a southern section, were valued at €25 billion – €30 billion. The modern Dublin Port is located either side of the River Liffey, out to its mouth. On the north side of the river, the main part of the port lies at the end of East Wall and North Wall, from Alexandra Quay; the element of the port on the south side of the river is much smaller and lies at the beginning of the Poolbeg peninsula. The main activity of the port is freight handling, with a wide range of vessels, from large container carriers to small diesel lighters, visiting daily. Roll-on/roll-off passenger ferry services run across the Irish Sea to Holyhead in Wales, Liverpool in England and in the summer months and at Christmas to Douglas, Isle of Man.
The largest car ferry in the world, the Irish Ferries ship MV Ulysses which can carry up to 2000 passengers, runs on the Holyhead route. Dublin Port is increasingly a docking point for cruise liners. Celebrity Eclipse began to home port in Dublin on 29 April 2018. and the port authorities reported 217 cruise ship visits in 2017 and anticipated 251 visits 2018. A temporary facility, Terminal 7, was created between Tolka Quay Road at Branch Road. A shuttle services transports guests to Ocean Pier 33. A new baggage claim facility was added to Ocean Pier 33 for guests to use; the port is operated by the semi-state Dublin Port Company, incorporated on 28 February 1997, the headquarters of which are located just beyond the main port entrance on the northern side of the Liffey. According to the DPC, the port handled 23.5 million tonnes of cargo in 2003, as well as 1,426,000 passengers. That year 7,917 ships docked including 54 cruise liners carrying 54,000 visitors. In April 2010, the Dublin Port Company announced its "busiest week ever", following restrictions placed on European airspace because of the eruption of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano in Iceland.
Some 72,118 passengers were reported to have travelled through the ferry terminals during the week 15–21 April. That week saw the culmination of increased trade in Dublin Port, as the company's figures for the first quarter of 2010 would reveal. March 2010 saw a 13.5% trade increase when compared with March 2009, that month was declared by the company as the fourth consecutive month of trade increase since the economic downturn. The Port Company is responsible for pilotage services within Dublin Bay, manages the three port lighthouses, it operates three diesel tugboats and two drydocks and provides divers for underwater hull inspections. It licences private companies to provide stevedoring services. Within the main port enclave, on the north side of the river, are a power generating station, several oil terminals and number of slightly-related businesses, such as car dealerships, a Topaz fuelling station on Bond Road. Entered at the north side of the port, but lying in East Wall, is one end of the Dublin Port Tunnel.
The medieval port of Dublin was located on the south bank of the Liffey near Christ Church Cathedral, a few miles upstream from its current location. In 1715, the Great South Wall was constructed to shelter the entrance to the port. Poolbeg Lighthouse at the end of the South Bull Wall was constructed in 1767. In 1800, a survey of Dublin Bay conducted by Captain William Bligh recommended the construction of the Bull Wall. After the completion of the wall in 1842, North Bull Island formed as sand built up behind it. After James Gandon's Custom House was built further downstream in 1791, the port moved downstream to the north bank of the river estuary, where the International Financial Services Centre is located; the noise and dirt associated with the port traffic contributed to the decline of the fashionable Mountjoy Square area, with many wealthy families moving to the Southside. The advent of containerisation in the second half of the 20th century resulted in the port moving a mile further downstream to enable new wharves to be constructed.
A 2018 review of a'Draft Masterplan 2040' was published by the Dublin Port Company. By 2023, the current Terminal 3 will be converted into Berth 18 for Cruise ships; this new facility will replace the temporary check-in facility at Terminal 7 on Tolka Quay Road and eliminate the need to shuttle guests to Ocean Pier 33. Public transportation options will be improved. Over many years, the Dublin Port authorities have been exploring a controversial proposal to in-fill 21 hectares of Dublin Bay – a continuation of historical practice, as all of the port land was once part of Dublin Bay. Residents on areas near the proposed in-fill, on the north side of the Liffey, are opposed to the plan, which, as of 2018, has not progressed. Sources: A connection from Dublin Connolly to Dublin Port can be reached by walking beside the tram lines around the corner from Amiens Street, Dublin into Store Street or by taking the Luas one stop to Busáras where Dublin Bus operates a service to the Ferry Terminal, or Dublin Bus route 53 or by taxi.
Dublin Port Tunnel UKHO charts of Dublin Docks and the approaches to Dublin Dublin Port Company website RTÉ Radio 1 programme about South Bull Wall https
Rockall is an uninhabitable granite islet located within the exclusive economic zone of the United Kingdom, situated in the North Atlantic Ocean and is claimed by the United Kingdom as its territory. Its approximate distances from the closest large islands are: 301.3 kilometres west of Scotland. The nearest permanently inhabited place is North Uist, an island in the Outer Hebrides of Scotland, 370 kilometres to the east; the United Kingdom claimed Rockall in 1955 and incorporated it as a part of Scotland in 1972. Ireland does not recognise this claim; the UK does not make a claim to extended EEZ based on Rockall, as it has ratified the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea. However, such features are entitled to a territorial sea extending 12 nautical miles. With effect from 31 March 2014, the UK and Ireland published EEZ limits which resolved any disputes over the extent of their respective EEZs. In response to a Freedom of Information request in 2012, the British Government stated that, "The islet of Rockall is part of the UK: it forms part of Scotland under the Island of Rockall Act 1972.
No other state has disputed our claim to the islet." In Scotland it is part of South Harris Parish. Responding to a written parliamentary question in 2016, the Irish Minister for Foreign Affairs said: "The UK claims sovereignty over Rockall and has sought to formally annex it under its 1972 Island of Rockall Act. While Ireland has not recognised British sovereignty over Rockall, it has never sought to claim sovereignty for itself; the consistent position of successive Irish Governments has been that Rockall and similar rocks and skerries have no significance for establishing legal claims to mineral rights in the adjacent seabed or to fishing rights in the surrounding seas." The origin and meaning of the islet's name "Rockall" is uncertain. It has been suggested that the name is from the Norse *rok, meaning "foaming sea", kollr, meaning "bald head"—a word which appears in other placenames in Scandinavian-speaking areas. Another idea is that it derives from the Gaelic Sgeir Rocail, meaning "skerry of roaring" or "sea rock of roaring".
The Dutch mapmakers P. Plancius and C. Claesz, show an island called "Rookol" northwest of Ireland on their Map of New France and the Northern Atlantic Ocean; the first literary reference to the island, where it is called "Rokol", is found in Martin Martin's A Description of the Western Isles of Scotland published in 1703. This book gives an account of a voyage to the archipelago of St. Kilda, Martin states: "... and from it lies Rokol, a small rock sixty leagues to the westward of St. Kilda. Since the late 16th century, the 17.15-metre-high rock has been noted in written records. In the 20th century, its location became relevant due to potential fishing rights. Lord Kennet said of Rockall in 1971, "There can be no place more desolate and awful." It gives its name to one of the sea areas named in the shipping forecast provided by the British Meteorological Office. Rockall has been a point of interest for adventurers and amateur radio operators, who have variously landed on or occupied the islet.
Fewer than 20 individuals have been confirmed to have landed on Rockall, the longest continuous stay by an individual was 45 days in 2014. In a House of Commons debate in 1971, William Ross, MP for Kilmarnock, said: "More people have landed on the moon than have landed on Rockall." Rockall is one of the few pinnacles of the surrounding Helen's Reef. Its location was determined by Nick Hancock during his 2014 expedition; the surrounding elevated seabed is called the Rockall Bank, lying directly south from an area known as the Rockall Plateau. It is separated from the Outer Hebrides by the Rockall Trough, itself located within the Rockall Basin. In 1956 the British scientist James Fisher referred to the island as "the most isolated small rock in the oceans of the world"; the neighbouring Hasselwood Rock and several other pinnacles of the surrounding Helen's Reef are smaller, at half the size of Rockall or less, remote, but those formations are not islands or points on land, as they are submerged only revealed momentarily above certain types of ocean surface waves.
Rockall is about 25 metres wide and 31 metres long at its base and rises sheer to a height of 17.15 metres. It is washed over by large storm waves in winter. There is a small ledge of 3.5 by 1.3 metres, known as Hall's Ledge, four metres from the summit on the rock's western face. It is the only named geographical location on the rock; the nearest point o
Howth is a village and outer suburb of Dublin, Ireland. The district occupies the greater part of the peninsula of Howth Head, forming the northern boundary of Dublin Bay. Just a small fishing village, Howth with its surrounding once-rural district is now a busy suburb of Dublin, with a mix of suburban residential development, wild hillside and heathland, golf courses and coastal paths, a small quarry and a busy commercial fishing port; the only neighbouring district on land is Sutton. Howth is home to one of the oldest occupied buildings in Ireland, Howth Castle, it has been the location for many films. Howth is a civil parish in the ancient barony of Coolock. Howth is located on the peninsula of Howth Head, which begins around 13 kilometres east-north-east of Dublin, on the north side of Dublin Bay; the village itself is located 15 kilometres from Dublin city centre, spans most of the northern part of Howth Head, once an island but now is connected to the rest of Dublin via a narrow strip of land at Sutton.
Howth is located in the administrative county of Fingal. Howth is at the end of a regional road from Dublin and is one of the two northern termini of the DART suburban rail system. Dublin Bus serves Howth with route 31 and its variants; the name Howth is thought to be of Norse origin being derived from the Old Norse Hǫfuð. Norse vikings colonised the eastern shores of Ireland and built the settlement of Dublin as a strategic base between Scandinavia and the Mediterranean. Norse Vikings first invaded Howth in 819. After Brian Ború, the High King of Ireland, defeated the Norse in 1014, many Norse fled to Howth to regroup and remained a force until their final defeat in Fingal in the middle of the 11th century. Howth still remained under the control of Irish and localized Norse forces until the invasion of Ireland by the Anglo-Normans in 1169. Without the support of either the Irish or Scandinavian powers, Howth was isolated and fell to the Normans in 1177. One of the victorious Normans, Armoricus Tristram, was granted much of the land between the village and Sutton.
According to the historian Samuel Lewis: In 1177, Sir Amorey Tristram and Sir John de Courcy landed here at the head of a large military force, defeated the Danish inhabitants in a sanguinary battle at the bridge of Evora, over a mountain stream which falls into the sea near the Baily lighthouse. This victory secured to Sir Amorey the lordship of Howth, of which his descendants have continued in possession to the present day, under the name of St. Laurence, which Almaric, third baron, assumed in fulfilment of a vow to his victory over the Danes near Clontarf, in a battle fought on the festival of that saint; the territory of Howth was confirmed to Almaric de St. Laurence by King John.... Tristam built his first castle near the harbour and the St. Lawrence link remains today; the original title of Baron of Howth was granted to Almeric St. Lawrence by Henry II of England in 1181, for one Knight's fee. Howth was a trading port from at least the 14th century, with both health and duty collection officials supervising from Dublin, although the harbour was not built until the early 19th century.
A popular tale concerns the pirate Gráinne O'Malley, rebuffed in 1576 while attempting a courtesy visit to Howth Castle, home of the Earl of Howth. In retaliation, she abducted the Earl's grandson and heir, as ransom she exacted a promise that unanticipated guests would never be turned away again, she made the Earl promise that the gates of Deer Park would never be closed to the public again, the gates are still open to this day, an extra place is set for unexpected guests during formal dinners in the dining room. In the early 19th century, Howth was chosen as the location for the harbour for the mail packet ship. One of the arguments used against Howth by the advocates of Dún Laoghaire was that coaches might be raided in the badlands of Sutton! However, due to silting, the harbour needed frequent dredging to accommodate the packet and the service was relocated to Dún Laoghaire. George IV visited the harbour in August 1821. On the 26 July 1914, 900 rifles were landed at Howth by Erskine Childers for the Irish Volunteers.
Many were used in the subsequent Anglo-Irish War. Among the members of the Howth branches of the Irish Volunteers and Cumann na mBan who participated in this event were the well-known writers Padraic Colum and Mary Colum. Members of both the Howth Volunteers and Baldoyle section of the Irish Citizen Army participated in the Easter Rising in Dublin city and in Fingal. A strong local branch of Sinn Féin developed in the area and there was considerable local involvement in both the Irish War of Independence and Irish Civil War; the harbour was radically rebuilt in the late 20th century, with distinct fishing and leisure areas formed, the installation of a modern ice-making facility. A new lifeboat house was constructed, Howth is today home to both the RNLI and the Irish Coastguard. Howth Head is one of the dominant features of Dublin Bay, with a number of peaks, the highest of, Black Linn. In one area, near Shielmartin, there is a small peat bog, the "Bog of the Frogs"; the wilder parts of Howth can be accessed by a network of paths and much of the centre and east is protected as part of a Special Area of Conservation of 2.3 square kilometres.
Rhododendron is a genus of 1,024 species of woody plants in the heath family, either evergreen or deciduous, found in Asia, although it is widespread throughout the highlands of the Appalachian Mountains of North America. It is the national flower of Nepal as well as the state flower of West Washington. Most species have brightly coloured flowers. Azaleas make up two subgenera of Rhododendron, they are distinguished from "true" rhododendrons by having only five anthers per flower. Rhododendron is a genus of shrubs and small to large trees, the smallest species growing to 10–100 cm tall, the largest, R. protistum var. giganteum, reported to 30 m tall. The leaves are spirally arranged, they may be either deciduous. In some species, the undersides of the leaves are covered with hairs; some of the best known species are noted for their many clusters of large flowers. There are alpine species with small flowers and small leaves, tropical species such as section Vireya that grow as epiphytes. Species in this genus may be part of the heath complex in oak-heath forests in eastern North America.
They have been divided based on the presence or absence of scales on the abaxial leaf surface. These scales, unique to subgenus Rhododendron, are modified hairs consisting of a polygonal scale attached by a stalk. Rhododendron are characterised by having inflorescences with scarious perulae, a chromosome number of x=13, fruit that has a septicidal capsule, an ovary, superior, stamens that have no appendages, agglutinate pollen. Rhododendron is the largest genus in the family Ericaceae, with as many as 1,024 species, is morphologically diverse; the taxonomy has been complex. Although Rhododendrons had been known since the description of Rhododendron hirsutum by Charles de l'Écluse in the sixteenth century, were known to classical writers, referred to as Chamaerhododendron, the genus was first formally described by Linnaeus in his Species Plantarum in 1753, he listed five species under Rhododendron. At that time he considered the known six species of Azalea that he had described earlier in 1735 in his Systema Naturae as a separate genus.
Linnaeus' six species of Azalea were Azalea indica, A. pontica, A. lutea, A. viscosa, A. lapponica and A. procumbens, which he distinguished from Rhododendron by having five stamens, as opposed to ten. As new species of what are now considered Rhododendron were discovered, if they seemed to differ from the type species they were assigned to separate genera. For instance Rhodora for Rhododendron canadense and Hymenanthes for Rhododendron metternichii, now R. degronianum. Meanwhile, other botanists such as Salisbury and Tate began to question the distinction between Azalea and Rhododendron, in 1836, Azalea was incorporated into Rhododendron and the genus divided into eight sections. Of these Tsutsutsi, Pogonanthum and Rhodora are still used, the other sections being Lepipherum and Chamaecistus; this structure survived till following which the development of molecular phylogeny led to major re-examinations of traditional morphological classifications, although other authors such as Candolle, who described six sections, used different numeration.
Soon, as more species became available in the nineteenth century so did a better understanding of the characteristics necessary for the major divisions. Chief amongst these were Maximovicz's Rhododendreae Asiae Planchon. Maximovicz used flower bud position and its relationship with leaf buds to create eight "Sections". Bentham and Hooker used a similar scheme, but called the divisions "Series", it was not until 1893 that Koehne appreciated the significance of scaling and hence the separation of lepidote and elepidote species. The large number of species that were available by the early twentieth century prompted a new approach when Balfour introduced the concept of grouping species into series; the Species of Rhododendron referred to this series concept as the Balfourian system. That system continued up to modern times in Davidian's four volume The Rhododendron Species; the next major attempt at classification was by Sleumer who from 1934 began incorporating the Balfourian series into the older hierarchical structure of subgenera and sections, according to the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature, culminating in 1949 with his "Ein System der Gattung Rhododendron L.", subsequent refinements.
Most of the Balfourian series are represented by Sleumer as subsections, though some appear as sections or subgenera. Sleumer based his system on the relationship of the flower buds to the leaf buds, flower structure, whether the leaves were lepidote or non-lepidote. While Sleumer's work was accepted, many in the United States and the United Kingdom continued to use the simpler Balfourian system of the Edinburgh group. Sleumer's system underwent many revisions by others, predominantly the Edinburgh group in their continuing Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh notes. Cullen of the Edinburgh group, placing more
Monkstown, County Dublin
Monkstown known as Carrickbrennan, is a suburb in south Dublin, located in Dún Laoghaire–Rathdown, Ireland. It is between Blackrock and Dún Laoghaire; the lands of the Carrickbrennan estate form the greater part of the civil parish of Monkstown. A church was built at Carrickbrennan before the 8th century, dedicated to Saint Mochonna, bishop of Inispatrick or Holmpatrick by Skerries; the grange of Carrickbrennan, otherwise Monkstown, was granted by the King to the Cistercian monks of Saint Mary's Abbey, Dublin, in 1200. The monks built their grange near to the church, the village grew up around it; the lands of which it was a part extended as far south as Bulloch harbour on the outskirts of Dalkey, where the monks constructed a fishing harbour protected by a castle. In 1539, King Henry VIII awarded the Monkstown lands to Sir John Travers, Master of the Ordnance in Ireland. John Travers lived in his Castle at Monkstown from 1557 to his death in 1562 when the property fell to James Eustace 3rd Viscount Baltinglass through his marriage to Mary Travers.
In 1580, the Castle was used as a rebellion stronghold, after which it was awarded to Sir Henry Wallop, Vice-Treasurer of Ireland. The lands were returned to Mary, the widowed Lady Baltinglass, who married Gerald Alymer. On her death in 1610 the Castle was transferred to the Chevers family through the marriage of Mary Travers's sister Catherine to John Chevers, the property passed directly to his second son Henry Chevers, who married Catherine, daughter of Sir Richard Fitzwilliam. Henry and Catherine Chevers lived here with their four children. Upon the death of Henry in 1640, the castle and lands were passed to Walter Cheevers. Walter and family received command to vacate Monkstown in 1653 by the Cromwellian Commissioners, transplanted to Killyan, County Galway. In 1660, Walter Chevers was restored to his estate at Monkstown Castle, until his death in 1678, his death occurred on the 20th day of December 1678, he was buried at Mountoun, two days on 22nd. The Shivers family of America trace their lineage to Thomas Chevers brother of Walter Chevers of Monkstown, through the Cromwellian warrant, authorized on 26 November 1653 for Captain John Whittey to transport the Thomas Chevers family to America.
Monkstown was purchased by the Archbishop of Armagh, Michael Boyle, his son Murrough Boyle, 1st Viscount Blesington enlarged the castle, making it one of the finest residences. Until about 1800, Monkstown was a rural area of open countryside, dotted here and there with large houses owned by the merchants of Dublin; the Monkstown Church had been built – but was smaller than the present church. The two small local rivers met in the area now called Pakenham Road; the river known as Micky Briens originated in Sallynoggin. A lake beside Monkstown Castle had one small island; the coastline was ragged and rocky, with a harbour stretching over 100 yards inland at the mouth of the aforementioned rivers, adjacent to the area now occupied by the West Pier. Dún Laoghaire was a small group of houses in the area of the Purty Kitchen, the present area of Dún Laoghaire was an area of rocky outcrops and quarries. Wednesday, 18 November 1807 a night of disasters in southern Dublin. In an horrific storm, two sailing ships, the Rochdale and the Prince of Wales were blown on to the rocks, one at Seapoint and the other at Blackrock.
About 400 lives in total were lost on that many of them washed up on the shore at Monkstown. The disaster was one of the factors. Most of the victims were buried in Carrickbrennan Churchyard; the building of Dún Laoghaire harbour gave an impetus to the area, Montpelier Terrace was the first of many terraces built in the area. The coming of the railway in 1837 had a much greater impact. Firstly, it changed the topology of the coast, secondly, it led to Monkstown becoming a commuter suburb of the city of Dublin. Most of the houses along Monkstown Road and the avenues north of that road were constructed over the next 30 years; the maps of 1870 show this phase completed, but the rest of Monkstown consists of mansions surrounded by extensive gardens. For the following 50 years there was little change; the post-war developments of Castle Park, Windsor, etc. and the more recent developments of Brook Court, Monkstown Valley, Carrickbrennan Lawn mean that there is little opportunity for further development.
The diaries of the Rev John Thomas Hynes, a Catholic bishop who retired to Monkstown in 1861-68, provide a valuable insight into daily life in Monkstown in that period. Hynes lived at Bloomwood, Monkstown Avenue, moved to Uplands, The Hill, Monkstown; the Hynes Diaries recount such details as the coming of gas lighting, the postal and travel facilities, church affairs, lots of local gossip. The Hynes diaries are now preserved in Melbourne. Monkstown is first mentioned in 1450. Carrickbrennan, or "Carigbrenna", features on the 1598 map "A Modern Depiction of Ireland, One of the British Isles" by Abraham Ortelius. Records of the Abbey of the Blessed Virgin Mary 1640. Forfeiting Proprietors under the Cromwellian Settlement 1657. In James Joyce's "The Dead," Gabriel Conroy and his wife Gretta live in Monkstown. Monkstown has two old established churches, Saint Mary's Church of Ireland and Saint Patrick's Catholic Church, both on Carrickbrennan Road. S
The coast known as the coastline or seashore, is the area where land meets the sea or ocean, or a line that forms the boundary between the land and the ocean or a lake. A precise line that can be called a coastline cannot be determined due to the Coastline paradox; the term coastal zone is a region where interaction of the land processes occurs. Both the terms coast and coastal are used to describe a geographic location or region. Edinburgh for example is a city on the coast of Great Britain. A pelagic coast refers to a coast which fronts the open ocean, as opposed to a more sheltered coast in a gulf or bay. A shore, on the other hand, can refer to parts of land adjoining any large body of water, including oceans and lakes; the somewhat related term "" refers to the land alongside or sloping down to a river or body of water smaller than a lake. "Bank" is used in some parts of the world to refer to an artificial ridge of earth intended to retain the water of a river or pond. While many scientific experts might agree on a common definition of the term "coast", the delineation of the extents of a coast differ according to jurisdiction, with many scientific and government authorities in various countries differing for economic and social policy reasons.
According to the UN atlas, 44% of people live within 150 kilometres of the sea. Tides determine the range over which sediment is deposited or eroded. Areas with high tidal ranges allow waves to reach farther up the shore, areas with lower tidal ranges produce deposition at a smaller elevation interval; the tidal range is influenced by the shape of the coastline. Tides do not cause erosion by themselves. Waves erode coastline. Coastlines with longer shores have more room for the waves to disperse their energy, while coasts with cliffs and short shore faces give little room for the wave energy to be dispersed. In these areas the wave energy breaking against the cliffs is higher, air and water are compressed into cracks in the rock, forcing the rock apart, breaking it down. Sediment deposited by waves comes from eroded cliff faces and is moved along the coastline by the waves; this forms an cliffed coast. Sediment deposited by rivers is the dominant influence on the amount of sediment located on a coastline.
Today riverine deposition at the coast is blocked by dams and other human regulatory devices, which remove the sediment from the stream by causing it to be deposited inland. Like the ocean which shapes them, coasts are a dynamic environment with constant change; the Earth's natural processes sea level rises and various weather phenomena, have resulted in the erosion and reshaping of coasts as well as flooding and creation of continental shelves and drowned river valleys. The coast and its adjacent areas on and off shore are an important part of a local ecosystem: the mixture of fresh water and salt water in estuaries provides many nutrients for marine life. Salt marshes and beaches support a diversity of plants and insects crucial to the food chain; the high level of biodiversity creates a high level of biological activity, which has attracted human activity for thousands of years. More and more of the world's people live in coastal regions. Many major cities have port facilities; some landlocked places have achieved port status by building canals.
The coast is a frontier that nations have defended against military invaders and illegal migrants. Fixed coastal defenses have long been erected in many nations and coastal countries have a navy and some form of coast guard. Coasts those with beaches and warm water, attract tourists. In many island nations such as those of the Mediterranean, South Pacific and Caribbean, tourism is central to the economy. Coasts offer recreational activities such as swimming, surfing and sunbathing. Growth management can be a challenge for coastal local authorities who struggle to provide the infrastructure required by new residents. Coasts face many human-induced environmental impacts; the human influence on climate change is thought to contribute to an accelerated trend in sea level rise which threatens coastal habitats. Pollution can occur from a number of sources: industrial debris. Fishing has declined due to habitat degradation, trawling and climate change. Since the growth of global fishing enterprises after the 1950s, intensive fishing has spread from a few concentrated areas to encompass nearly all fisheries.
The scraping of the ocean floor in bottom dragging is devastating to coral and other long-lived species that do not recover quickly. This destruction alters the functioning of the ecosystem and can permanently alter species composition and biodiversity. Bycatch, the capture of unintended species in the course of fishing, is returned to the ocean only to die from injuries or exposure. Bycatch represents about a quarter of all marine catch. In the case of shrimp capture, the bycatch is five times larger, it is believed that melting Arctic ice will cause sea levels to rise and flood coas