Anselmus de Boodt
Anselmus de Boodt or Anselmus Boëtius de Boodt was a Flemish humanist, mineralogist and naturalist. Along with the German known as Georgius Agricola, de Boodt was responsible for establishing modern mineralogy, De Boodt was an avid mineral collector who travelled widely to various mining regions in Germany and Silesia to collect samples. His definitive work on the subject was the Gemmarum et Lapidum Historia, De Boodt was a gifted draughtsman who made many natural history illustrations and developed a natural history taxonomy. De Boodt descended from an aristocratic family and his ancestors had come from Dortrecht in the 13th century. His father Anselmus de Boodt was a broker who provided overseas insurance coverage. De Boodt studied artes at the University of Louvain and he left to study canonical and civil law at the University of Orléans from the end of 1572. After completing his studies, he went to study for a while in Padua where his presence is confirmed in 1576, in 1579 he was appointed to the city council of Bruges and was involved in the financial administration of the city of Bruges.
However, he had to leave the city after the Calvinists took power, during his stay at the court of Rosenberg, he likely studied medicine at Heidelberg where he met the Swiss doctor of medicine Thomas Erastus. In 1584 he was appointed canon of St. Donats Church in Bruges and he held the position until 1595 without leaving Prague. In 1586 de Boodt returned to Padua to continue his medicine study, in 1587 the Flemish doctor and pioneering botanist Carolus Clusius left the imperial botanical garden of Emperor Rudolph II in Prague, de Boodt took over his position. De Boodt was appointed the court doctor of the Emperor. De Boodt prepared a Theatrum Instrumentarum Mechanicorum for Emperor Rudolph II, when the court engraver Martino Rota died in 1583 de Boodt obtained an engraving licence in 1588 to complete the third part of Rota’s Last Judgement. The book appeared in 1603 and was reprinted at least 10 times up to 1972, De Boodt made many watercolours of native and exotic animals and plants. He filled twelve volumes with 728 illustrations of quadrupeds, birds, fish and he thus aimed to depict all creatures of the natural world as his compatriot Joris Hoefnagel who was working at Rudolph IIs court had done earlier in his series of the Four Elements.
De Boodts volumes can be regarded as a paper museum and he developed a taxonomy and standardisation, which he added in many languages to his drawings. These drawings predate the Academy of the Lynxes around Galileo Galilei for which usually primacy of such material is claimed, De Boodt made most of the drawings himself but engaged the services of other artists such as his compatriot Elias Verhulst from Mechelen. This Historia Naturalis remained in the hand of his heirs until 1844 and was published in 1989. The principal assignment of de Boodt was the study and cataloguing of all known rocks and he summarized his work in the Gemmarum et Lapidum Historia, the first volume of which appeared in 1609 and was dedicated to the emperor
Franz Joseph I, Prince of Liechtenstein
Franz Joseph I, Prince of Liechtenstein, born Franz de Paula Josef Johann Nepomuk Andreas, was the Prince of Liechtenstein from 1772 until his death. Franz Josef was the eldest of their thirteen children and he was a nephew of Joseph Wenzel I, whom he succeeded on 10 February 1772. Franz Joseph had been recognised heir to Liechtenstein since 1723, when his uncles only son had died, Joseph Wenzel took Franz Joseph under his wing and Franz Joseph accompanied him in a campaign in Northern Italy, fighting with Wenzel at the Battle of Piacenza. The battle was a victory for the Holy Roman Empire, of which Liechtenstein was a part and he was the 802nd Knight of the Order of the Golden Fleece in Austria. In 1763, Franz Josef traveled on behalf of the Emperor to Spain, in 1767, he became Privy Councillor, and in 1771, he received the Order of the Golden Fleece. Once Franz Joseph became Prince of Liechtenstein, he showed great interest in its economic problems, Franz Josef married Marie Leopoldine Gräfin von Sternberg, a member of the Bohemian nobility, on 6 July 1750 in Valtice or Feldsberg
The Liechtenstein Museum in Vienna, Austria contains much of the art collections of its owners, the Princely Family of Liechtenstein, rulers of the principality of Liechtenstein. They include important European works of art, forming one of the leading private art collections. Its highlight used to be Leonardos portrait of Ginevra de Benci and it was reopened on 29 March 2004 and, after battling with low visitor numbers, was closed for regular visiting by the public in November 2011. According to the website, the highlights of the princely collections can be viewed exclusively as part of an event package or a pre-booked guided tour. Objects from the collections have been sent on touring exhibitions to museums in other countries, other works from the collection fill the palaces and residences of the Princely Family in Liechtenstein and Austria. A catalogue of the featured in the Gallery at the time of Prince Joseph Wenzel was compiled by Vicenzo Fanti in 1767. The Gartenpalais was built by Prince Johann Adam Andreas von Liechtenstein, who commissioned its design and construction from Domenico Egidio Rossi, painted decor in the Palais was contributed by Marcantonio Franceschini, Antonio Bellucci, Andrea Pozzo and Johann Michael Rottmayr.
Sculpture came from Giovanni Giuliani and his studio, and stucco from the stuccator Santino Bussi
Liechtenstein, officially the Principality of Liechtenstein, is a doubly landlocked German-speaking microstate in Central Europe. It is a monarchy with the rank of principality, headed by the Prince of Liechtenstein. Liechtenstein is bordered by Switzerland to the west and south and Austria to the east and it has an area of just over 160 square kilometres and an estimated population of 37,000. Divided into 11 municipalities, its capital is Vaduz and its largest municipality is Schaan, the unemployment rate is one of the lowest in the world at 1. 5%. Liechtenstein has been known in the past as a tax haven, however. An alpine country, Liechtenstein is mainly mountainous, making it a winter sport destination, many cultivated fields and small farms are found both in the south and north. The country has a financial sector centered in Vaduz. Liechtenstein is a member of the European Free Trade Association, and while not being a member of the European Union and it has a customs union and a monetary union with Switzerland.
The oldest traces of human existence in Liechtenstein date back to the Middle Paleolithic era, neolithic farming settlements were founded in the valleys around 5300 BC. Hallstatt and La Tène cultures flourished during the late Iron Age from around 450 BC possibly under influence from the Greek. One of the most important tribal groups in the Alpine region were the Helvetii, in 58 BC, at the Battle of Bibracte, Julius Caesar defeated the Alpine tribes, bringing the region under closer control of the Roman Empire. By 15 BC, who was destined to be the second Roman emperor, Liechtenstein was integrated into the Roman province of Raetia. The area was maintained by the Roman military, which maintained a large legionary camp called Brigantium near Lake Constance, a Roman road ran through the territory. In 259/60 Brigantium was destroyed by the Alemanni, a Germanic people who settled in the area in around 450. In the Early Middle Ages, the Alemanni had settled the eastern Swiss plateau by the 5th century, Liechtenstein was at the eastern edge of Alemannia.
In the 6th century, the region became part of the Frankish Empire following Clovis Is victory over the Alemanni at Tolbiac in 504. The area that became Liechtenstein remained under Frankish hegemony until the empire was divided by the Treaty of Verdun in 843 AD following the death of Charlemagne. The territory of present-day Liechtenstein belonged to East Francia until it was reunified with Middle Francia under the Holy Roman Empire around 1000 AD
Duchy of Troppau
The Principality of Opava or Duchy of Troppau was a historic territory split off from the Margraviate of Moravia before 1269 by King Ottokar II of Bohemia to provide for his natural son, Nicholas I. Its capital was Opava in the modern day Czech Republic, from 1337 onwards, the Přemyslid dukes ruled the adjacent former Piast Duchy of Racibórz, whereupon Opava became united with the Upper Silesian lands. When the Opava branch became extinct in 1464, it fell back to the Bohemian Crown, in the final four centuries of its existence, the duchy was ruled by the House of Liechtenstein. It was dissolved with the Austro-Hungarian Empire in 1918, but the title of Duke of Troppau and Jägerndorf still exists, belonging to a present-day monarch, Prince Hans-Adam II of Liechtenstein. When finally in 1310 the mighty House of Luxembourg ascended to the throne, it was redeemed by King John of Bohemia in 1311. Opava was officially raised to a duchy in 1318 and was confirmed as a fief for Nicholas son Duke Nicholas II by King John, who soon had to fend off the Hungarian troops of King Casimir III of Poland.
The conjunction with Silesia was accomplished when Duke Nicholas II married Anna of Racibórz, sister of the Piast Duke Leszek of Racibórz, a Bohemian vassal since 1327. In 1377, Duke John I again separated Opava from the duchies of Racibórz and Krnov and granted it to his younger brothers Nicholas III, Wenceslaus I, Opava ownership changed several times, mainly due to purchase and partitions. Przemkos sons sold their shares to the Bohemian king George of Poděbrady by 1462, their Přemyslid cousins however retained Racibórz, in 1465 King George gave Opava to his second son Victor, who became Duke of Münsterberg in 1462. Victor in turn had to cede it to the Bohemian anti-king Matthias Corvinus in 1485, Prince Karl I of Liechtenstein was invested with the Duchy of Troppau in 1614 by Emperor Matthias of Habsburg. After the 1620 Battle of White Mountain Prince Karl acquired the Duchy of Krnov, the southern part with Krnov, Bruntál, Fulnek and Opava itself remained part of Austrian Silesia, a crown land of the Austrian Empire from 1804.
The Austrian Duchy of Troppau ceased to exist when the Austro-Hungarian Empire was dissolved in 1918, the Prussian share remained a part of the Silesian province until 1945, when it fell to Poland in accord with the Potsdam Agreement. Dukes of Silesia Seidl, Das Troppauer Land zwischen den fünf Südgrenzen Schlesiens - Grundzüge der politischen und territorialen Geschichte bis zur Mitte des 19, ISBN 3-7861-1626-1 Dynasty of Dukes of Troppau and Ratibor
Imperial Crown of Austria
The Imperial Crown of Austria was made in 1602 in Prague by Jan Vermeyen as the personal crown of Holy Roman Emperor Rudolf II, and therefore is known as the Crown of Emperor Rudolf II. The crown was used as a crown of the Holy Roman Emperors and Kings of Hungary. In 1804 it became the crown of the newly constituted Austrian Empire. After 1867 it remained the crown of the Cisleithanian part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire until 1918. The Imperial Crown consists of three principal elements possessing great symbolic significance, the circlet, the arch, and the mitre. The circlet is dominated by eight large squares of diamonds, forming a crown in itself, between the stones are two large pearls arranged vertically and set within white enamel rosettes surrounded by scrollwork. From the circlet emerge eight lilies, which were inspired by the Bohemian Crown of St. Wenceslas. The lilies are associated with the fleurs-de-lis of the House of Valois, the use of eight elements was taken from the Imperial Crown of the Holy Roman Empire, which includes a circlet made out of eight plates.
In the circlet are precious stones such as spinels, the zircons are cut in such a way that they are flat at the front. Preparing precious stones for mounting in this way was a new technique at the time the crown was made. The mitre symbolises the right to rule, and the spiritual position of the emperor. The mitre fills the left and right sides of the crown, the mitre is made of gold, with a band of enamel work depicting birds and plants. The mitre is divided into four sections representing the high honours of Holy Roman Emperor Rudolf II, the first section shows him kneeling, receiving the Imperial Crown of the Holy Roman Empire in Regensburg as Holy Roman Emperor. The second section shows him riding onto the hill in Pressburg during his coronation as King of Hungary. The third section shows his coronation procession through Prague as King of Bohemia, the fourth section depicts an allegory of his victory over the invading Turks. The Latin inscription inside the arch reads, RVDOLPHVS II ROM IMP AVGVSTUS HVNG ET BOH REX CONSTRVXIT MDCII, the high arch was inspired by the arch of the Imperial Crown of the Holy Roman Empire.
It rises from the front and back of the circlet and is studded with eight diamonds, the emperor was regarded as governor on earth in the name of Christ. At the top of the arch is an emerald, which symbolises heaven
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay.
The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker
Gouache, body color, opaque watercolor, or guache, is one type of watermedia, paint consisting of pigment, water, a binding agent, and sometimes additional inert material. Gouache is designed to be used with methods of painting. The term, derived from the Italian guazzo, refers to using this opaque method. Gouache has a history going back over 600 years. It is similar to watercolor because it can be rewet and the paint can become infused with its paper support and it can form a superficial layer like acrylic or oil paint. Also like watercolor, gouache dries to a matte finish and it is similar to acrylic or oil paints in that it is normally used in an opaque painting style. Many manufacturers of watercolor paints produce gouache and the two can easily be used together, Gouache paint is similar to watercolor modified to make it opaque. Just as in watercolor, an agent is present. This was traditionally gum arabic but since the nineteenth century cheaper varieties use yellow dextrin. When the paint is sold as a paste, e. g. in tubes, to improve the adhesive and hygroscopic qualities of the paint, as well as the flexibility of the rather brittle paint layer after drying, often propylene glycol is added.
This makes gouache heavier and more opaque, with greater reflective qualities, Gouache generally dries to a different value than it appears when wet, which can make it difficult to match colors over multiple painting sessions. Its quick coverage and total hiding power mean that gouache lends itself to more direct painting techniques than watercolor, en plein air paintings take advantage of this, as do the works of J. M. W. Gouache is used most consistently by commercial artists for works such as posters, comics, most 20th-century animations used it to create an opaque color on a cel with watercolor paint used for the backgrounds. Using gouache as poster paint is desirable for its speed as the paint layer dries completely by the relatively quick evaporation of the water, the use of gouache is not restricted to the basic opaque painting techniques using a brush and watercolor paper. It is often applied with an airbrush, as with all types of paint, gouache has been used on unusual surfaces from Braille paper to cardboard.
A variation of traditional application is the used in the gouaches découpées created by Henri Matisse. His Blue Nudes series is an example of the technique. Guazzo, Italian for mud, was originally a term applied to the early 16th century practice of applying oil paint over a tempera base, during the eighteenth century gouache was often used in a mixed technique, for adding fine details in pastel paintings
Monarchy of Liechtenstein
The Sovereign Prince of Liechtenstein is the monarch and head of state of Liechtenstein. It is the only remaining European monarchy that practises strict agnatic primogeniture, without any territory held immediately from the Imperial crown, the Liechtenstein family, although noble, did not qualify for a seat in the Diet of the Holy Roman Empire. The Prince of Liechtenstein has broad powers, which include the appointment of judges, the dismissal of ministers or government, veto power, the right of the parishes that make up the principality to secede was simultaneously recognised. Prince Hans-Adam had warned that he and his family would remove to Austria if the referendum were rejected, despite opposition from Mario Frick, a former Liechtenstein prime minister, the Princes referendum was approved by the electorate in 2003. Opponents accused Hans-Adam of engaging in emotional blackmail to achieve his goal and constitutional experts from the Council of Europe branded the event as a retrograde move, a proposal to revoke the Princes new veto powers was rejected by 76% of voters in a 2012 referendum.
On 15 August 2004 Prince Hans-Adam II formally delegated most of his authority to his son and heir. Formally, Hans-Adam remains head of state, according to their house law, the monarch bears the titles, Reigning Prince of Liechtenstein, Duke of Troppau and Jägerndorf, Count of Rietberg, Sovereign of the House of Liechtenstein. List of monarchs of Liechtenstein The Princely House of Liechtenstein
Rudolf II, Holy Roman Emperor
Rudolf II was Holy Roman Emperor, King of Hungary and Croatia, King of Bohemia and Archduke of Austria. He was a member of the House of Habsburg, Rudolf was born in Vienna on 18 July 1552. Rudolf spent eight years, from age 11 to 19, in Spain. Rudolf would remain for the rest of his reserved, secretive. He suffered from bouts of melancholy, which was common in the Habsburg line. These became worse with age, and were manifested by a withdrawal from the world, like his contemporary, Elizabeth I of England, Rudolf dangled himself as a prize in a string of diplomatic negotiations for marriages, but never in fact married. It has been proposed by A. L. Rowse that he was homosexual, during his periods of self-imposed isolation, Rudolf reportedly had affairs with his court chamberlain, Wolfgang von Rumpf, and a series of valets. One of these, Philip Lang, ruled him for years and was hated by those seeking favour with the emperor, in addition, Rudolf was known to have had a succession of affairs with women, some of whom claimed to have been impregnated by him.
He had several children with his mistress Catherina Strada. Their eldest son, Don Julius Caesar dAustria, was born between 1584 and 1586 and received an education and opportunities for political and social prominence from his father. In 1607, Rudolf sent Julius to live at Český Krumlov in Bohemia castle, Julius lived at Český Krumlov when in 1608 he reportedly abused and murdered the daughter of a local barber, who had been living in the castle, and disfigured her body. Rudolf condemned his sons act and suggested that he should be imprisoned for the rest of his life, Julius died in 1609 after showing signs of schizophrenia, refusing to bathe, and living in squalor, his death was apparently caused by an ulcer that ruptured. Many artworks commissioned by Rudolf are unusually erotic, the emperor was the subject of a whispering campaign by his enemies in his family and the Catholic Church in the years before he was deposed. Sexual allegations may well have formed a part of the campaign against him, historians have traditionally blamed Rudolfs preoccupation with the arts, occult sciences, and other personal interests as the reason for the political disasters of his reign.
Although raised in his uncles Catholic court in Spain, Rudolf was tolerant of Protestantism and he largely withdrew from Catholic observances, even in death denying last sacramental rites. He had little attachment to Protestants either, except as counter-weight to repressive Papal policies and he put his primary support behind conciliarists and humanists. His conflict with the Ottoman Empire was the cause of his undoing. Unwilling to compromise with the Turks, and stubbornly determined that he could all of Christendom with a new Crusade, he started a long
Franz Joseph II, Prince of Liechtenstein
Franz Joseph II, Prince of Liechtenstein was the reigning Prince of Liechtenstein from 1938 until his death. Franz Joseph was the son of Prince Aloys of Liechtenstein and Archduchess Elisabeth Amalie of Austria and he succeeded his childless grand-uncle, Prince Franz I, after his father renounced his right of succession in his favour in 1923. During his reign women received voting rights for the first time, Franz Joseph was an extremely popular sovereign in Liechtenstein. He was the first ruling prince to live full-time in the principality and he oversaw the economic development of Liechtenstein from a poor agricultural backwater into one of the richest countries in the world. Liechtenstein remained neutral throughout World War II, and its neutrality was not violated by any of the combatants, just before the end of the war the Prince granted political asylum for 494 First Russian National Army pro-Axis pro-emperor Vladimir White emigres led by General Boris Smyslovsky. On 7 March 1943, at Vaduz, Franz Joseph II married Countess Georgina von Wilczek and they had five children, Hans-Adam II, Prince of Liechtenstein, married Countess Marie Aglaë of Wchinitz and Tettau and had four children and fifteen grandchildren.
Married in Brussels on 11 September 1971 Isabelle Fernande Ghislaine Guillemette Elisabeth de LArbre de Malander, daughter of Jean Baptiste de LArbre de Malander and they have three sons and four grandchildren, Prince Alexander Wilhelm Hans Adam of Liechtenstein. Married civilly in Vaduz on 24 January 2003 and religiously in Salzburg on 8 February 2003 Astrid Barbara Kohl, daughter of Theodor Kohl and they had one daughter, Princess Theodora Alexandra Isabella Antonia Nora Marie of Liechtenstein, founder of the Green Teen Team wildlife project. He used to date model Adriana Lima, married in Istanbul on 20 April 2012 Miss Tilsim Tanberk. Prince Franz Josef Wenceslas of Liechtenstein, known as Wenzel, Franz Joseph handed over most of his powers to his son, Hans-Adam, on 26 August 1984. Franz Joseph II died on 13 November 1989, a mere days after his wife. Ruling Liechtenstein for 51 years, he was among the sovereigns in Europe
House of Liechtenstein
The Liechtenstein dynasty, from which the principality takes its name, is the family which reigns by constitutional, hereditary right over the nation of Liechtenstein. The family comes from Castle Liechtenstein in Lower Austria, which the family possessed from at least 1140 to the 13th century, and from 1807 onwards. Thus, and without any territory held directly under the Imperial throne, the head of the family was able to arrange the purchase from the Hohenems family of the minuscule Lordship of Schellenberg in 1699, and the County of Vaduz in 1712. Schellenberg and Vaduz indeed had no feudal lord other than their comital sovereign, on this date Liechtenstein became a member state of the Holy Roman Empire. The Princes of Liechtenstein did not set foot in their new principality for several decades, the numbers represent the positions in the line of succession