Grand Prix motorcycle racing
The FIM Road Racing World Championship Grand Prix is the premier class of motorcycle road racing, held since 1949. Grand Prix motorcycles are purpose-built racing machines that are available for purchase by the general public nor able to be ridden legally on public roads. The championship is divided into three classes, MotoGP, Moto2 and Moto3. All three classes use four-stroke engines, in 2010 the 250cc class was replaced by the new Moto2600 cc four-stroke class. After that, MotoGP gave the four-strokes a 490cc advantage over the two-strokes, a 2 stroke engine produces power with every rotation of the crank, where as the 4 stroke engine produces power every fourth rotation. In theory, a 500cc 2stroke produces the power as a 1000cc 4 stroke. Carburation vs fuel injection, engine mapping, power/torque curves, practice showed the 4 strokes generating 10 to 15 more Hp and turning in much faster lap times their 2 stroke counterparts. 4 stroke engines would be the choice for years to come. Moto2 and 3 are four-stroke only, a FIM Road Racing World Championship Grand Prix was first organized by the Fédération Internationale de Motocyclisme in 1949.
The commercial rights are now owned by Dorna Sports, with the FIM remaining as the sanctioning body. Teams are represented by the International Road Racing Teams Association and manufacturers by the Motorcycle Sport Manufacturers Association and changes to regulations are decided between the four entities, with Dorna casting a tie-breaking vote. In cases of technical modifications, the MSMA can unilaterally enact or veto changes by unanimous vote among its members and these four entities compose the Grand Prix Commission. There have traditionally been several races at each event for various classes of motorcycles, based on engine size, and one class for sidecars. Classes for 50 cc,80 cc,125 cc,250 cc,350 cc, and 500 cc solo machines have existed at some time, up through the 1950s and most of the 1960s, four-stroke engines dominated all classes. In part this was due to rules, which allowed a multiplicity of cylinders, in the 1960s, two-stroke engines began to take root in the smaller classes.
In 1969, the FIM — citing high development costs for non-works teams — brought in new rules restricting all classes to six gears, by this time, two-strokes completely eclipsed the four-strokes in all classes. The 50 cc class was replaced by an 80 cc class, the class was dropped entirely in the 1990s, after being dominated primarily by Spanish, the 350 cc class vanished in the 1980s. Sidecars were dropped from world events in the 1990s, reducing the field to 125s, 250s
Types of motorcycles
There are many systems for classifying types of motorcycles, describing how the motorcycles are put to use, or the designers intent, or some combination of the two. Six main categories are recognized, sport, standard, dual-purpose. Sometimes sport touring motorcycles are recognized as a seventh category, strong lines are sometimes drawn between motorcycles and their smaller cousins, mopeds and underbones, but other classification schemes include these as types of motorcycles. There is no system for classifying all types of motorcycles. There are informal classifications or nicknames used by manufacturers, street motorcycles are motorcycles designed for being ridden on paved roads. They have smooth tires with a tread pattern and engines generally in the 125 cc. Most are capable of speeds up to 100 mph, and many of speeds in excess of 125 mph, called naked bikes or roadsters, are versatile, general-purpose street motorcycles. They are recognized primarily by their upright riding position, partway between the reclining posture of the cruisers and the forward leaning sport bikes.
Footpegs are below the rider and handlebars are high enough to not force the rider to reach far forward, because of their flexibility, lower costs and their engines of moderate output, standards are particularly suited to motorcycle beginners. Standards usually do not come with fairings or windscreens, or if they have them, standard is often a synonym for naked bike, a term that became popular in the 1990s in response to the proliferation of fully faired sport bikes. The standard seemed to have disappeared, fueling nostalgia for the return of the Universal Japanese Motorcycle, which were admired for their simplicity and versatility. Muscle bike is a nickname for a type, derived from either a standard or sport bike design. Roadster is equivalent to standard or naked, cruisers are styled after American machines from the 1930s to the early 1960s, such as those made by Harley-Davidson and Excelsior-Henderson. Harley-Davidsons largely define the category, and large-displacement V-twin engines are the norm, although other engine configurations.
Their engines are tuned for torque, making them less demanding to ride because it is not necessary to shift as frequently to accelerate or maintain control. The riding position places the feet forward and the hands are up relatively high, cruisers have limited cornering ability due to a lack of ground clearance. Choppers are a type of cruiser, so called because they are a chopped, or cut-down, choppers are usually custom projects that result in a bike modified to suit the owners ideals, and, as such, are a source of pride and accomplishment. Stereotypically, a chopper may have raked-out forks, small fuel tanks, choppers were popularised in the Peter Fonda film Easy Rider
Flag of Italy
The flag of Italy is a tricolour featuring three equally sized vertical pales of green and red, with the green at the hoist side. Its current form has been in use since 18 June 1946 and was adopted on 1 January 1948. The first entity to use the Italian tricolour was the Cisalpine Republic in 1797, a more religious interpretation is that the green represents hope, the white represents faith, and the red represents charity, this references the three theological virtues. The tricolour was used for the first time on November 13–14. The law students defined themselves as patriots and wore tricolour cockades to signal they were insipred by Jacobin revolutionary ideals, standard or flag of three colours, green and red. The flag was maintained until 1802, when it was renamed the Napoleonic Italian Republic, and a new flag was adopted, in 1799, the independent Republic of Lucca came under French influence and adopted as its flag a horizontal tricolour with green uppermost, this lasted until 1801. In 1805 Napoleon installed his sister, Elisa Bonaparte Baciocchi, as Princess of Lucca and this affair is commemorated in the opening of Leo Tolstoys War and Peace.
In the same year, after Napoleon had crowned himself first French Emperor, the flag of the Kingdom of Italy was that of the Republic in rectangular form, charged with the golden Napoleonic eagle. This remained in use until the abdication of Napoleon in 1814, between 1848 and 1861, a sequence of events led to the independence and unification of Italy, this period of Italian history is known as the Risorgimento, or resurgence. During this period, the became the symbol which united all the efforts of the Italian people towards freedom. The Italian tricolour, defaced with the Savoyan coat of arms, was first adopted as war flag by the Kingdom of Sardinia–Piedmont army on 1848, in his Proclamation to the Lombard-Venetian people, Charles Albert said. In order to more clearly with exterior signs the commitment to Italian unification. Have the Savoy shield placed on the Italian tricolour flag, as the arms, blazoned gules a cross argent, mixed with the white of the flag, it was fimbriated azure, blue being the dynastic colour, although this does not conform to the heraldic rule of tincture.
The rectangular civil and state variants were adopted in 1851 and it is worthy of note, that the arms bear the red-white-red flag of Austria, the opponent of Italian unification. This flag lasted from 3 April 1848 until 19 May 1849, the Provisional Government of Sicily, which lasted from 12 January 1848 to 15 May 1849, adopted the Italian tricolour, defaced with the trinacria, or triskelion. These lasted until 6 and 24 August 1849 respectively, in 1849, the new Roman Republic adopted an Italian tricolour, sent from Venice, bearing the legend DIO E POPOLO in red capital letters. This lasted for four months, while the Papal States of the Church was in abeyance, in 1860, the flag of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies was again modified to the defaced Italian tricolour with the House of Bourbon-Two Sicilies coat of arms. On 15 April 1861, the flag of the Kingdom of Sardinia was declared the flag of the newly formed Kingdom of Italy
SpA is a multinational company based in Milan, formerly listed on the Milan Stock Exchange since 1922. It was acquired in 2015 by ChemChina, the company is one of the largest tyre manufacturers behind Bridgestone, Michelin and Goodyear. It is present in over 160 countries, has 20 manufacturing sites in 14 countries, Pirelli has been sponsoring sport competitions since 1907 and is the exclusive tyre supplier for the Formula One Championship for 2011–2019 and for the FIM World Superbike Championship. Pirelli is now a pure tyre manufacturing company, in the past it has launched fashion project and operated in renewable energy and sustainable mobility. Founded in Milan in 1872 by Giovanni Battista Pirelli, the company specialised in rubber and derivative processes. Thereafter, Pirellis activities were focused on the production of tyres and cables. In 2005, Pirelli sold its division to Goldman Sachs. In the 1950s, Alberto Pirelli commissioned the building of a skyscraper, Pirelli Tower, in 1974, Pirelli invented the wide radial tyre, upon a request from the Lancia rally racing team for a tyre strong enough to withstand the power of the new Lancia Stratos.
At that time, racing tyres were either slick tyres made with the cross ply technique, or radial tyres, both were unusable for the Lancia Stratos, as the radials were destroyed within 10 km, and the slicks too stiff. Lancia asked Pirelli for a solution, and in 1975 Pirelli created a wide tyre with a reduced sidewall height like a slick, Porsche started using the same tyres with the Porsche 911 Turbo. In 1988, Pirelli acquired the Armstrong Rubber Company, which was headquartered in New Haven, Connecticut, in 2002 the company started a range of Pirelli branded clothing and eyewear. In March 2015, it was announced that Pirelli shareholders has accepted a €7.1 billion bid from ChemChina for the company, the transaction was completed and the company was delisted in November 2015. The list of Pirelli main shareholders As of September 2016 The list of Pirelli Board of Directors, the Pirelli Calendar is published annually, and regularly features famous actresses and fashion models. The Pirelli Internetional Award is given annually for the best international multimedia involving the communication of science, power is nothing without control is the well known slogan of Pirelli Tyre Company, and is featured in numerous television and print advertisements.
Pirelli is the main sponsor of Italian football club Inter Milan. Pirelli has a history of sponsoring football teams, Pirelli is well known for its long term primary sponsorship of the Italian football team Inter Milan. Pirelli previously appeared as a sponsor on the shirts of the Maltese football club Valletta for a short time, Pirellis sponsorship of football teams is not limited to Europe, South America is a key market and as a result successful clubs have been sponsored by the tyre company. The Brazilian team Palmeiras, Uruguayan team Peñarol and Argentinian side Vélez Sársfield all had Pirelli as a shirt sponsor, when English Football League One side Burton Albion Football Club built their new stadium in 2005, Pirelli became the title sponsor of the new ground
Motorrad is a German magazine about motorcycles and motorcycling. With an average circulation of approximately 135,000 copies it is Europes largest magazine for this target audience, the magazine is part of Gruner + Jahr. It is published biweekly by the publishing house Motor Presse Stuttgart, a unique feature of the publication is its motorcycle tests over several tens of thousands of kilometers. Other columns include service, using purchase, on the way, the magazine Motorrad has a history spanning more than a century. On October 4,1903 the first issue of Das Motorrad — die illustrierte Zeitschrift für die Gesamtinteressen der Motor-Radfahrer was printed by printing and publishing house Paul Förster, starting in 1907, it was published under the title Der Motor — Gemeinschaftsorgan für Motorrad und Motorwagen. With the outbreak of the First World War in 1914, the magazine was suspended, after some unsuccessful attempts of revival, the Berlin publishing house George Koenig took over with the title Das Motorrad.
Under the direction of Paul Friedmann, the experienced a upswing. In 1924 publication was changed from biweekly to weekly, in 1933, as the publication was subjected to National Socialist Gleichschaltung, Paul Friedmann as editor-in-chief was replaced by the regime-faithful Gustav Müller. Three and a years after the beginning of the Second World War, March 20,1943. In the following year the house moved from Freiburg im Breisgau to Stuttgart. In 1951 publication changed from twice a month to biweekly, in 1954 starting from issue 11 the title changed to Das Motorrad + der Roller — however only until the end of 1954. In 1958 Siegfried Rauch took over as editor-in-chief, starting from the late 1950s, the motorcycle industry generally found itself in a crisis, consumers aspiring to own a comfortable automobile. The circulation of Das Motorrad reached a low point, lasting until the mid-1960s, in 1969, the release of modern four-stroke, four-cylinder engines, especially the Honda CB750, and the film Easy Rider ushered in a new motorcycle boom.
Motorrad, now without the article Das in the title, reached a circulation of 250,000 in 1976. Further editors-in-chief were Helmut Luckner, Karl Maurer, Hans Joachim Nowitzki, since 1997 the magazine has had a presence on the World Wide Web. Its English language website can be found at www. motorcycle-magazine. com, Official website in German Official website in English
The Ducati 999 superseded the Massimo Tamburini designed Ducati 916, Ducati 996 and Ducati 998 range of superbikes in 2003, and was produced through 2006. The 999 was designed by Pierre Terblanche, amid controversy over its styling. It is known as a performance, race oriented motorcycle. With its traditional Ducati L Twin Desmodromic Valve actuated engine layout, it has a power delivery, with high power. Additionally, with its high spec suspension and trellis chassis, it is one of the finest handling motorcycles for its time. Subsequently, more powerful 999S and 999R versions were introduced, both capable of 0-62 mph in three seconds, and a top speed of over 170 mph. The 2005 Ducati 999S won the Maxisport category for the prestigious international Masterbike 2005 comparison, motorcycleUSA. com described it as stupendous and the epitome of V-Twin power
Macau Grand Prix
The Macau Grand Prix is a motor-racing event held annually in Macau, one of Chinas Special Administrative Regions. It is known for being the street circuit racing event in which both car and motorcycle races are held. The first Macau Grand Prix event was held in 1954, as a car event. In 1961, the race became an open-wheel Formula Libre event. The event has had a variety of races in its duration. Production cars joined the event in 1957, which were superseded by touring cars in 1972, the event received world championship status from 2005 to 2014 as the final round of the World Touring Car Championship. In 1976, the Macau Motorcycle Grand Prix was introduced, in 2008, a GT3 race was added to the event, which became known as the FIA GT World Cup. Many current or former Formula One drivers have participated in the event early in their careers, the race continued as an amateur race until 1966, when Belgian driver Mauro Bianchi entered the race in an Alpine A220. Alpine Renault had sent engineer Jean-Paul Castilleux to assist Bianchi with technical aspects of the car, bianchis victory and exposure led to more professional racing teams entering the Grand Prix in the following years.
The motorcycle race was introduced in 1967, and in year the first fatal tragedy struck the race, double champion Dodjie Laurel was killed when he lost control of his car. This raised the alarm for more safety improvements for the race, teddy Yip was one of the main forces behind the Macau Grand Prix back in the 1970s and 1980s, leading this Grand Prix to be one of the worlds most famous motor racing events. The Macau Grand Prix parties he hosted for years at his home became a central part of the social aspect of the Grand Prix. In 1983, it was decided by the organisers that since Formula Pacific was becoming obsolete, at the same time, Yokohama Tire was officially designated as the sole supplier of control tires for the competitors. This decision has seen the reputation of the event in the world increase rapidly, with the event attracting the best young drivers from Europe. The first F3 race was won by a young Ayrton Senna, the race in 1990 was a memorable one, as Michael Schumacher and Mika Häkkinen were involved in an incident when they were in positions 1 and 2 going into the final lap.
At the main straight just after the Mandarin Oriental Bend, Häkkinen hit the back of Schumachers car, Schumachers car was able to continue with its rear wing damaged and eventually won the race with the best aggregate time. Other notable winners include Formula One drivers David Coulthard, Ralf Schumacher, since the introduction of F3 races, the Macau GP has gradually become a stepping stone for many F3 drivers to higher class motor-racing competitions such as the GP2 Series and Formula One. Along with the New Zealand Grand Prix, the race is one of only two non-Formula One events to receive the Grand Prix title, the Macau Grand Prix race weekend normally starts on the Thursday and ends on the Sunday on the second or third week of November
A clutch is a mechanical device which engages and disengages power transmission especially from driving shaft to driven shaft. In the simplest application, clutches connect and disconnect two rotating shafts, in these devices, one shaft is typically attached to an engine or other power unit while the other shaft provides output power for work. While typically the motions involved are rotary, linear clutches are possible, in a torque-controlled drill, for instance, one shaft is driven by a motor and the other drives a drill chuck. The clutch connects the two shafts so they may be locked together and spin at the speed, locked together but spinning at different speeds, or unlocked. This type of clutch has protruding circular edge and a hole for them that engages and disengages during operation and this type is less effective since human foot or hand power on clutching reaches about 10 KN or 1,000 kg. The vast majority of clutches ultimately rely on frictional forces for their operation, the purpose of friction clutches is to connect a moving member to another that is moving at a different speed or stationary, often to synchronize the speeds, and/or to transmit power.
Usually, as little slippage as possible between the two members is desired, various materials have been used for the disc-friction facings, including asbestos in the past. Modern clutches typically use an organic resin with copper wire facing or a ceramic material. Ceramic materials are used in heavy applications such as racing or heavy-duty hauling, though the harder ceramic materials increase flywheel. In the case of wet clutches, composite materials are very common. Since these wet clutches typically use an oil bath or flow-through cooling method for keeping the disc pack lubricated and cooled, friction-disc clutches generally are classified as push type or pull type depending on the location of the pressure plate fulcrum points. In a pull-type clutch, the action of pressing the pedal pulls the release bearing, pulling on the spring and disengaging the vehicle drive. The opposite is true with a type, the release bearing is pushed into the clutch disengaging the vehicle drive. In this instance, the bearing can be known as a thrust bearing. A clutch damper is a device that softens the response of the clutch engagement/disengagement, in automotive applications, this is often provided by a mechanism in the clutch disc centres.
In addition to the damped disc centres, which reduce driveline vibration and these weaker springs are compressed solely by the radial vibrations of an idling engine. They are fully compressed and no longer in use once the main damper springs take up drive, mercedes truck examples, A clamp load of 33 kN is normal for a single plate 430. The 400 Twin application offers a clamp load of a mere 23 kN, bursts speeds are typically around 5,000 rpm with the weakest point being the facing rivet
A catalytic converter is an emissions control device that converts toxic gases and pollutants in exhaust gas to less toxic pollutants by catalyzing a redox reaction. Catalytic converters are used with internal combustion engines fueled by either petrol or diesel—including lean-burn engines as well as kerosene heaters, the first widespread introduction of catalytic converters was in the United States automobile market. These two-way converters combined oxygen with carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbons to produce carbon dioxide, in 1981, two-way catalytic converters were rendered obsolete by three-way converters that reduce oxides of nitrogen, two-way converters are still used for lean-burn engines. This is because three-way-converters require either rich or stoichiometric combustion to successfully reduce NOx and they are used on some wood stoves to control emissions. This is usually in response to government regulation, either through direct environmental regulation or through health, the catalytic converter was invented by Eugene Houdry, a French mechanical engineer and expert in catalytic oil refining, who moved to the United States in 1930.
Houdry first developed catalytic converters for smoke stacks called cats for short, in the mid-1950s, he began research to develop catalytic converters for gasoline engines used on cars. He was awarded United States Patent 2,742,437 for his work, widespread adoption of catalytic converters did not occur until more stringent emission control regulations forced the removal of the anti-knock agent tetraethyl lead from most types of gasoline. Lead is a catalyst poison and would disable a catalytic converter by forming a coating on the catalysts surface. Pfefferle developed a catalytic combustor for gas turbines in the early 1970s, allowing combustion without significant formation of nitrogen oxides, the catalytic converters construction is as follows, The catalyst support or substrate. For automotive catalytic converters, the core is usually a ceramic monolith with a honeycomb structure, metallic foil monoliths made of Kanthal are used in applications where particularly high heat resistance is required.
Either material is designed to provide a surface area. A washcoat is a carrier for the materials and is used to disperse the materials over a large surface area. Aluminum oxide, titanium dioxide, silicon dioxide, or a mixture of silica, the catalytic materials are suspended in the washcoat prior to applying to the core. Washcoat materials are selected to form a rough, irregular surface and this in turn maximizes the catalytically active surface available to react with the engine exhaust. The coat must retain its surface area and prevent sintering of the metal particles even at high temperatures. These oxides are added as oxygen storage promoters. The catalyst itself is most often a mix of precious metal, platinum is the most active catalyst and is widely used, but is not suitable for all applications because of unwanted additional reactions and high cost. Palladium and rhodium are two precious metals used
In general mechanical terms, the word desmodromic is used to refer to mechanisms that have different controls for their actuation in different directions. A desmodromic valve is an engine valve that is positively closed by a cam and leverage system. The valves in a typical four-stroke engine allow the mixture into the cylinder at the beginning of the cycle. In a conventional four-stroke engine valves are opened by a cam, an engine using desmodromic valves has two cams and two actuators, each for positive opening and closing without a return spring. The word comes from the Greek words desmos and dromos and this denotes the major characteristic of the valves being continuously bound to the camshaft. The common valve spring system is satisfactory for traditional mass-produced engines that do not rev highly and are of a design that requires low maintenance, at the period of initial desmodromic development, valve springs were a major limitation on engine performance because they would break from metal fatigue.
Vacuum melt processes developed in the 1950s helped remove impurities in the used to make valve springs. The desmodromic system was devised to remedy this problem, fully controlled valve movement was conceived during the earliest days of engine development, but devising a system that worked reliably and was not overly complex took a long time. Desmodromic valve systems are first mentioned in patents in 1896 by Gustav Mees, the 1914 Grand Prix Delage and Nagant used a desmodromic valve system. The Mercedes-Benz W196 Formula One racing car of 1954-1955, and the Mercedes-Benz 300SLR sports racing car of 1955 both had desmodromic valve actuation. In 1956, Fabio Taglioni, a Ducati engineer, developed a desmodromic valve system for the Ducati 125 Grand Prix and he was quoted to say, The specific purpose of the desmodromic system is to force the valves to comply with the timing diagram as consistently as possible. In this way, any lost energy is negligible, the curves are more uniform. The engineers that came after him continued that development, and Ducati held a number of patents relating to desmodromics, Desmodromic valve actuation has been applied to top-of-the-range production Ducati motorcycles since 1968, with the introduction of the widecase Mark 3 single cylinders.
In 1959, the Maserati brothers introduced one of their final designs, in modern engines, valve spring failure at high RPM has been mostly remedied. The main benefit of the system is the prevention of valve float at high rpm. In traditional sprung-valve actuation, as speed increases, the momentum of the valve will eventually overcome the springs ability to close it completely before the piston reaches TDC. This can lead to several problems and most damaging, the piston collides with the valve and both are destroyed. Second, the valve does not completely return to its seat before combustion begins and this allows combustion gases to escape prematurely, leading to a reduction in cylinder pressure which causes a major decrease in engine performance
Cycle World is a motorcycling magazine in the United States. It was founded in 1962 by Joe Parkhurst, who was inducted to the Motorcycle Hall of Fame as, as of 2001 Cycle World was the largest motorcycling magazine in the world. The magazine is headquartered in Irvine, regular contributors include Peter Egan and Nick Ienatsch. Occasional contributors have included Hunter S. Thompson and professional riding coach Ken Hill, Parkhurst sold Cycle World to CBS in 1971. CBS executive Peter G. Diamandis and his associates bought CBS Magazines from CBS in 1987, forming Diamandis Communications, in 2011, Hachette sold the magazine to Hearst Corporation, which in turn sold Cycle World to Bonnier Corporation the same year