Republic of German-Austria
The Republic of German-Austria was a country created following World War I as the initial rump state for areas with a predominantly German-speaking population within what had been the Austro-Hungarian Empire. German-Austria demanded an area of 118,311 km², with 10.4 million inhabitants in the area of the present-day Republic of Austria and other areas where most ethnic Germans lived. In Habsburg Austria-Hungary, "German-Austria" was an unofficial term for the areas of the empire inhabited by Austrian Germans. On 12 October 1918, Emperor Charles I met with the leaders of the largest German parties. German Nationalists wanted a constitutional monarchy of free nations. On October 16 1918, Emperor Charles I published a manifesto which offered to change Austria-Hungary into a federation of nationalities; this came too late as Czechs and Southern Slavs were well on their way to creating independent states. However, this gave an impulse to the Reichsrat of German inhabited areas to meet. With the impending collapse of the empire the 208 ethnic German deputies to the Cisleithanian Austrian parliament elected in 1911 met on 21 October 1918 and proclaimed itself to be a "Provisional National Assembly for German-Austria" representing the ethnic Germans in all Cisleithanian lands.
It elected Franz Dinghofer of the German National Movement, Jodok Fink of the Christian Social Party, Karl Seitz of the Social Democratic Workers' Party as assembly presidents. The assembly included representatives from Bohemia and Austrian Silesia who refused to submit to the new state of Czechoslovakia, declared on 28 October 1918, it proclaimed that "the German people in Austria are resolved to determine their own future political organization to form an independent German-Austrian state, to regulate their relations with other nations through free agreements with them". On October 25 Provisional Assembly called on all German inhabited Lands to form their own provisional assemblies. During its second meeting on October 30 the Provisional National Assembly created the basic institutions of the new state; the legislative power was assumed by the Provisional National Assembly while the executive power was entrusted to the newly created German-Austrian State Council. On 11 November 1918, Emperor Charles I in all but name abdicated, by relinquishing his right to take part in Austrian affairs of state.
The next day, 12 November, the National Assembly declared German-Austria a republic, named Social Democrat Karl Renner as provisional chancellor. On the same day it drafted a provisional constitution that stated that "German-Austria is a democratic republic" and "German-Austria is an integral part of the German republic"; the latter provision reflected the deputies' view that felt that Austria would lose so much territory in any peace settlement that it would no longer be economically and politically viable as a separate state, the only course was union with Germany. This was enforced by the refusal of Hungary to sell grain and of Czechoslovakia to sell coal to Austria-Germany; as the Empire collapsed and a ceasefire was announced, the Provisional Assembly sought to forestall socialist revolution by organizing a coalition government led by the minority Social Democrats. Karl Renner became Victor Adler became Foreign Minister; the Social Democrats co-opted newly created soldier and worker councils and used their control over labour unions to implement social policies that blunted the socialist appeal.
Elections to the Constituent Assembly were held on February 16, 1919 and for the first time women were allowed to vote. Out of the 38 German inhabited constituencies only 25 participated and 159 deputies were elected to the 170 seats with Social Democrats as the largest party. Social Democrats won 72 seats, Christians Socials 69 and German Nationalists 26; the Constituent National Assembly first met on 4 March 1919 and on 15 March a new government was formed, once again led by Karl Renner. Austrian Social Democrats, despite being one of the leading Marxist parties with its Austromarxism current, did not attempt to seize power or to institute socialism. However, the majority of conservative, Catholic politicians still distrusted them and this led to the fatal left-right split that plagued the First Republic and led to its downfall by 1934. Social Democrat leader Otto Bauer wrote: "German-Austria is not an organism which has followed the laws of historical growth, it is nothing but the remnant of what remained of the old Empire after other nations had broken away from it.
It remained as a loose bundle of divergent Lands." On 13 November 1918, German-Austria asked Germany to start negotiations of union and on 15 November sent a telegram to President Wilson to support union of Germany and Austria. This was grounded in the view. While the Austrian state had existed in one form or another for over 700 years, its only unifying force had been the Habsburgs. Apart from being German-inhabited, these Lands had no common "Austrian" identity, they were Habsburg-ruled lands that had not joined the Prussian-dominated German Empire after the Austrian Empire lost the Austro-Prussian War. On 12 March 1919, the Constituent Assembly re-confirmed an earlier declaration that German-Austria was a constituent part of the German republic. Pan-Germans and Social Democrats supported the union with Germany, while Christian Socialists were less supportive. During spring and summer of 1919, unity talk meetings between Germa
Duchy of Austria
The Duchy of Austria was a medieval principality of the Holy Roman Empire, established in 1156 by the Privilegium Minus, when the Margraviate of Austria was detached from Bavaria and elevated to a duchy in its own right. After the ruling dukes of the House of Babenberg became extinct in male line, there was as much as three decades of rivalry on inheritance and rulership, until the German king Rudolf I took over the dominion as the first monarch of the Habsburg dynasty in 1276. Thereafter, Austria became the patrimony and ancestral homeland of the dynasty and the nucleus of the Habsburg Monarchy. In 1453, the archducal title of the Austrian rulers, invented by Duke Rudolf IV in the forged Privilegium Maius of 1359, was acknowledged by the Habsburg emperor Frederick III; the duchy was comparatively small in area comprising the modern-day Austrian state of Lower Austria. As a former border march, it was located on the eastern periphery of the Empire, on the northern and southern shores of the Danube River, east of the Enns tributary.
Drosendorf, Raabs and other fortifications along the Thaya River, north of the historic Waldviertel and Weinviertel regions and separated by the Manhartsberg range, marked the border with the Duchy of Bohemia and the Moravian lands, both of which were held by the Czech Přemyslid dynasty. In the east, the Imperial border with the Kingdom of Hungary had shifted towards the plains of the Morava River and the eastern rim of the Vienna Basin. On the right shore of the Danube, the lower Leitha River marked the Imperial–Hungarian border for centuries. In the south, Austria bordered the Styrian lands which were elevated to a duchy, unified with Austria in 1192; the territory inhabited by Celts was for centuries crossed in transit by several Germanic tribes and from the 6th century onwards settled by Avars as well as by Slavic tribes, who about 600 founded the independent principality of Carantania in the south. The Avar Khaganate established in 567 comprised most of the Austrian march up to the Enns river, where it bordered on the German stem duchy of Bavaria.
Temporarily part of Samo's Empire from 631 to 658, the territory was under constant attack by the Carolingian forces of Charlemagne from 791 onwards. About 800 Charlemagne, having won several victories against the Avars, established a frontier march in the region between the Enns and Raab rivers, called the Avar March, part of the marcha orientalis; the East Frankish margraviate was again lost to the invading Magyars at the 907 Battle of Pressburg, re-established as the Bavarian March of Austria after King Otto I of Germany's victory at the 955 Battle of Lechfeld. In 976 Emperor Otto II enfeoffed the Babenberg count Leopold the Illustrious with the Austrian margraviate. A large-scale German settlement along the Danube down to the border with Hungary followed, which disrupted the Slavic continuity between the West Slavic and South Slavic lands. Although today associated with the Habsburg dynasty, Austria was, until 1246, a feudal possession of the younger House of Babenberg. Margrave Leopold the Generous was a loyal liensman of the Imperial House of Hohenstaufen in the struggle against the Bavarian Welf dynasty.
In 1139, after King Conrad III of Germany deposed the Welf duke Henry the Proud, he gave the Bavarian duchy to his half-brother Margrave Leopold. Leopold's brother and successor Henry Jasomirgott was enfeoffed with Bavaria in 1141. In 1156 the Hohenstaufen Emperor Frederick Barbarossa approached a settlement with the Welfs. At the 1156 Imperial Diet in Regensburg, Henry Jasomirgott had to renounce the Bavarian duchy in favour of Henry the Lion. In compensation, the Babenberg margraviate was elevated to an equal duchy, confirmed by numerous privileges granted by the Privilegium Minus on 17 September; the new Austrian duke took his residence at Vienna at the site of the Hofburg Palace. He founded Schottenstift Abbey as the Babenberg proprietary church, settled with Irish monks; the Austrian lands prospered, due to their favourable location on the Danube, as an important trade route from Krems and Mautern via Vienna down to Hungary and the Byzantine Empire. For a short time, the Babenbergs came to be one of the most influential ruling families in the Empire, peaking under the reign of Leopold V the Virtous and Leopold VI the Glorious.
In 1186, they signed the Georgenberg Pact with the first and last Otakar duke Ottokar IV of Styria and, upon his death in 1192, acquired the adjacent Styrian lands in the south, which were ruled with Austria in personal union until 1918. They expanded their territory into the old Bavarian lands west of the Enns River, along the Traun to the city of Linz, the future capital of Upper Austria. In 1191 Duke Leopold V joined the Siege of Acre. Once the city was conquered and occupied, he picked a fierce quarrel with King Richard the Lionheart over Leopold's raising of his Babenberg banner beside the royal flags of Richard and Philip II of France; when the English king passed through Austria on his way home, Leopold had him abducted and arrested at Dürnstein Castle. Handed over to Emperor Henry VI, Richard was only released after paying an enormous ransom, the duke used his share to lay out the Wiener Neustadt fortification near the Hungarian border. According to legend, the emperor granted him permission to bear the red-white-red colours that became the flag of Austria.
His son Leopold VI, sole ruler of the Austrian and Styrian lands from 1198, married the Byzantine princess Theo
Samo founded the first recorded political union of Slavic tribes, known as Samo's Empire, stretching from Silesia to present-day Slovenia, ruling from 623 until his death in 658. According to Fredegarius, the only contemporary source, Samo was a Frankish merchant who unified several Slavic tribes against robber raids and violence by nearby settled Avars, showing such bravery and command skills in battle that he was elected as the "Slavic king". In 631, Samo defended his realm against the Frankish Kingdom in the three-day Battle of Wogastisburg; the dates for Samo's rule are based on Fredegar, who says that he went to the Slavs in the fortieth year of Chlothar II and reigned for thirty five years. The interpretation that places the start of Samo's reign in the year of Fredegar's arrival has been questioned on the basis that the Wends would have most rebelled after the defeat of the Avar khagan at the First Siege of Constantinople in 626; the Avars first subdued the local Slavs in the 560s. Samo may have been one of the merchants.
Whether he became king during a revolt of 623–24 or during one that followed the Avar defeat in 626, he took advantage of the latter to solidify his position. A string of victories over the Avars proved his utilitas to his subjects and secured his election as rex. Samo went on to secure his throne by marriage into the major Wendish families, wedding at least twelve women and fathering twenty-two sons and fifteen daughters; each year, the Huns came to the Slavs. But the sons of the Huns, who were raised with the wives and daughters of these Wends could not endure this oppression anymore and refused obedience to the Huns and began, as mentioned, a rebellion; when now the Wendish army went against the Huns, the merchant Samo accompanied the same. And so the Samo’s bravery proved itself in wonderful ways and a huge mass of Huns fell to the sword of the Wends; the most well-documented event of Samo's career was his victory over the Frankish royal army under Dagobert I in 631 or 632. Provoked to action by a "violent quarrel in the Pannonian kingdom of the Avars or Huns" during his ninth year, Dagobert led three armies against the Wends, the largest being his own Austrasian army.
The Franks were routed near Wogastisburg, an unidentified location meaning "fortress/castle of Vogast." The majority of the besieging armies were slaughtered, while the rest of the troops fled, leaving weapons and other equipment lying on the ground. In the aftermath of the Wendish victory, Samo invaded Frankish Thuringia several times and undertook looting raids there; the Sorbian prince Dervan abandoned the Franks and "placed himself and his people under Samo's realm". In 641, the rebellious duke of Thuringia, sought an alliance with Samo against his sovereign, Sigebert III. Samo maintained long-distance trade relationships. On his death, his title was not inherited by his sons. Samo can be credited with forging a Wendish identity by speaking on behalf of the community that recognised his authority; the main source of written information on Samo and his empire is the Fredegarii Chronicon, a Frankish chronicle written in the mid-7th century. Though theories of multiple authorship once abounded, the notion of a single "Fredegar" is now common scholarly fare.
The last or only Fredegar was the author of a brief account of the Wends including the best, only contemporary, information on Samo. According to Fredegar, "Samo a Frank by birth from the pago Senonago", which could be present-day Soignies in Belgium or present-day Sens in France. Although he was of Frankish origin, Samo demanded that an ambassador of Dagobert I put on Slavic clothes before entering his castle. All other sources for Samo are much more recent; the Gesta Dagoberti I regis. The Conversio Bagoariorum et Carantanorum from Salzburg, written in 871–72, is a tendentious source, as its name suggests. According to the Conversio, Samo was a Karantanian merchant; the sources "Fredegar" used to compile his Wendish account are unknown. A few scholars have attacked the entire account as fictitious, but Fredegar displays a critical attitude and a knowledge of detail that suggest otherwise, it is possible that he had an eyewitness in the person of Sicharius, the ambassador of Dagobert I to the Slavs.
According to Fredegar, the "Wends" had long been befulci of the Avars. Befulci is a term, cognate with the word fulcfree found in the Edict of Rothari, signifying "entrusted ", from the Old German root felhan, falh and Middle German bevelhen. Fredegar appears to have envisaged the Wends as a military unit of the Avar host, he based his account on "native" Wendish accounts. Fredegar records the story of the origo gentis of the Wends; the Wends were Slavs. It has been suggested that Fredegar's sources may have been the reports of Christian missionaries disciples of Columbanus and the Abbey of Luxeuil. If this is correct, it may explain why he is remarka
Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand
The assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, heir presumptive to the Austro-Hungarian throne, his wife Sophie, Duchess of Hohenberg, occurred on 28 June 1914 in Sarajevo when they were mortally wounded by Gavrilo Princip. Princip was one of a group of six assassins coordinated by Danilo Ilić, a Bosnian Serb and a member of the Black Hand secret society; the political objective of the assassination was to break off Austria-Hungary's South Slav provinces so they could be combined into a Yugoslavia. The assassins' motives were consistent with the movement that became known as Young Bosnia; the assassination led directly to World War I when Austria-Hungary subsequently issued an ultimatum to the Kingdom of Serbia, rejected. Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia, triggering actions leading to war between most European states. In charge of these Serbian military conspirators was Chief of Serbian Military Intelligence Dragutin Dimitrijević, his right-hand man Major Vojislav Tankosić, the spy Rade Malobabić.
Tankosić trained them. The assassins were given access to the same clandestine network of safe-houses and agents that Malobabić used for the infiltration of weapons and operatives into Austria-Hungary; the assassins, the key members of the clandestine network, the key Serbian military conspirators who were still alive were arrested, tried and punished. Those who were arrested in Bosnia were tried in Sarajevo in October 1914; the other conspirators were arrested and tried before a Serbian court on the French-controlled Salonika Front in 1916–1917 on unrelated false charges. Much of what is known about the assassinations comes from related records. Under the 1878 Treaty of Berlin, Austria-Hungary received the mandate to occupy and administer the Ottoman Vilayet of Bosnia, while the Ottoman Empire retained official sovereignty. Under this same treaty, the Great Powers gave official recognition to the Principality of Serbia as a sovereign state, which four years transformed into a kingdom under Prince Milan IV Obrenović who thus became King Milan I of Serbia.
Serbia's monarchs, at the time from the royal House of Obrenović that maintained close relations with Austria-Hungary, were content to reign within the borders set by the treaty. This changed in May 1903, when Serbian military officers led by Dragutin Dimitrijević stormed the Serbian Royal Palace. After a fierce battle in the dark, the attackers captured General Laza Petrović, head of the Palace Guard, forced him to reveal the hiding place of King Alexander I Obrenović and his wife Queen Draga; the King and Queen opened the door from their hiding place. The King was shot thirty times. MacKenzie writes that "the royal corpses were stripped and brutally sabred." The attackers threw the corpses of King Alexander and Queen Draga out of a palace window, ending any threat that loyalists would mount a counterattack." General Petrović was killed too. The conspirators installed Peter I of the House of Karađorđević as the new king; the new dynasty was friendlier to Russia and less friendly to Austria-Hungary.
Over the next decade, disputes between Serbia and its neighbors erupted, as Serbia moved to build its power and reclaim its 14th century empire. These conflicts included a customs dispute with Austria-Hungary beginning in 1906. Serbia's military successes and Serbian outrage over the Austro-Hungarian annexation of Bosnia-Herzegovina emboldened Serbian nationalists in Serbia and Serbs in Austria-Hungary who chafed under Austro-Hungarian rule and whose nationalist sentiments were stirred by Serb "cultural" organizations. In the five years leading up to 1914, lone assassins – Serb citizens of Austria-Hungary – made a series of unsuccessful assassination attempts in Croatia and Bosnia-Herzegovina against Austro-Hungarian officials; the assassins received sporadic support from Serbia. On 15 June 1910, Bogdan Žerajić attempted to kill the iron-fisted Governor of Bosnia and Herzegovina, General Marijan Varešanin. Žerajić was a 22-year-old Orthodox Serb from Nevesinje, a student at the Faculty of Law at the University of Zagreb and made frequent trips to Belgrade..
The five bullets Žerajić fired at Varešanin and the fatal bullet he put in his own brain made Žerajić an inspiration to future assassins, including Princip and Princip's accomplice Čabrinović. Princip said; when I was seventeen I passed whole nights at his grave, reflecting on our wretched condition and thinking of him. It is there that I made up my mind sooner or to perpetrate an outrage."In 1913, Emperor Franz Joseph commanded Archduke Franz Ferdinand to observe the military maneuvers in Bosnia scheduled for June 1914. Following the maneuvers and his wife planned to visit Sarajevo to open the state museum in its new premises there. Duchess Sophie, according to their eldest son, Duke Maximili
First Austrian Republic
The First Austrian Republic was created after the signing of the Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye on 10 September 1919—the settlement after the end of World War I which ended the Habsburg rump state of Republic of German-Austria—and ended with the establishment of the Austrofascist Federal State of Austria based upon a dictatorship of Engelbert Dollfuss and the Fatherland's Front in 1934. The Republic's constitution was enacted in 1 October 1920 and amended on 7 December 1929; the republican period was marked by violent strife between those with left-wing and right-wing views, leading to the July Revolt of 1927 and the Austrian Civil War of 1934. In September 1919, the Habsburg rump state of German-Austria was given reduced borders by the Treaty of Saint Germain, which ceded German-populated regions in Sudetenland to Czechoslovakia, German-populated South Tyrol to Italy and a portion of Alpine provinces to the Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes. Despite Austrian protests this treaty forbade Anschluss, or union of Austria with Germany, without League of Nations consent.
The new Republic was created by the will of Allies who did not want the defeated Germany to expand its borders. The new state managed to prevent two land claims from being taken by their neighbours; the first was the south-eastern part of Carinthia, inhabited by Slovenians. It was prevented from being taken over by the new SHS-state through a Carinthian plebiscite on October 10, 1920, in which the majority of population chose to remain with Austria; the second prevented land-claim was Hungary's claim to Burgenland, under the name "Western Hungary", had been part of the Hungarian kingdom since 907. It was inhabited by a German-speaking population, but had Croat- and Hungarian-speaking minorities. Through the Treaty of St. Germain it became part of the Austrian Republic in 1921. However, after a plebiscite, disputed by Austria, the provincial capital city of Sopron remained in Hungary; the treaty of Saint Germain angered the German population in Austria who claimed that it violated the Fourteen Points laid out by United States President Woodrow Wilson during peace talks the right to "self-determination" of all nations.
Many of them felt that with the loss of 60% of the territory of the prewar empire, Austria was no longer economically and politically viable as a separate state without union with Germany. In a now small country of 6.5 million people, with its population of 2 million, was left as an imperial capital without an empire to feed it, as only 17.8% of Austrian land was arable. For much of the early 1920s, Austria's survival was much in doubt; this was because Austria had never been a German/Austrian nation state in the true sense of the term. Although the Austrian state had existed in one form or another for 700 years, it had no real unifying force other than the Habsburg dynasty and the provincial identities of Tyroleans and others were much stronger; the new constitution created bi-cameral legislature with upper house Bundesrat formed by representatives from federal Lands and lower house Nationalrat, where deputies were elected in universal elections. The Federal President was elected for a four-year term in a full session of both houses, while the Chancellor was elected by the Nationalrat.
As no political party gained parliamentary majority, Austria was governed by coalitions of conservative Christian Social Party and right-wing Greater German People's Party or Landbund which were more conservative than the first government of Social Democrat Karl Renner of 1919–20, that had established a number of progressive socioeconomic and labour legislations. After 1920, Austria's government was dominated by the anti-Anschluss Christian Social Party which retained close ties to the Roman Catholic Church; the party's first Chancellor Ignaz Seipel came to power in May 1922 and attempted to forge a political alliance between wealthy industrialists and the Roman Catholic Church. After the legislative elections of October 17, 1920 Social Democrats lost parliamentary majority and remained in the opposition until 1934, when they were banned by Dollfuss. Christian Socials won Social Democrats 69, Greater Germany Party 20 and Peasants Union 8 seats. Michael Hainisch was elected Federal President.
After October 1923 elections Ignaz Seipel stayed in power and resigned in November 1924 when he was succeeded by Rudolf Ramek. In December 1928 Cristian Social Wilhelm Miklas was elected to the post of Federal President and on 7 December 1929 Constitution was amended, reducing the rights of parliament, making the Federal President electable by a popular vote and giving him the right to appoint the federal government and to issue emergency laws. After the 1930 legislative elections Social Democrats emerged as the largest party with 72 seats, but Christian Social Chancellor Otto Ender created a coalition government without them. Despite the nation having a steady political party in power, the politics of the nation were fractious and violent, with both Social Democrat and right-wing political paramilitary forces clashing with each other; the country was divided between the conservative countryside population and Social Democrat controlled Red Vienna. In 1927, during a political clash in Schattendorf, an old man and a child were shot and killed by Heimwehr.
On 14 July 1927 the shooters were acquitted and left-wing supporters began a massive protest during which the Ministry of Justice building was burned. To restore order police and army shot and killed 89 people and injured 600; the huge protest is known as the July Revolt of 1927. Social Democrats called for a general strike which la
Cisleithania was a common yet unofficial denotation of the northern and western part of Austria-Hungary, the Dual Monarchy created in the Compromise of 1867—as distinguished from Transleithania, i.e. the Hungarian Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen east of the Leitha River. The Cisleithanian capital was the residence of the Austrian emperor; the territory had a population of 28,571,900 in 1910. It reached from Vorarlberg in the west to the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria and the Duchy of Bukovina in the east, as well as from the Kingdom of Bohemia in the north to the Kingdom of Dalmatia in the south, it comprised the current States of Austria, as well as most of the territories of the Czech Republic and Slovenia, southern Ukraine and parts of Italy and Montenegro. The Latin name Cisleithania derives from that of the Leitha River, a tributary of the Danube forming the historical boundary between the Archduchy of Austria and the Hungarian Kingdom in the area southeast of Vienna. Much of its territory lay west of the Leitha.
After the constitutional changes of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867, the Cisleithanian crown lands continued to constitute the Austrian Empire, but the latter term was used to avoid confusion with the era before 1867, when the Kingdom of Hungary had been a constituent part of that empire. The somewhat cumbersome official name was Die im Reichsrat vertretenen Königreiche und Länder; the phrase was used by politicians and bureaucrats, but it had no official status until 1915. In general, the lands were just called Austria, but the term "Austrian lands" did not apply to the Lands of the Bohemian Crown or to the territories annexed in the 18th-century Partitions of Poland or the former Venetian Dalmatia. From 1867, the Kingdom of Hungary, the Kingdom of Croatia, the Kingdom of Slavonia and the Principality of Transylvania were no longer "Austrian" crown lands. Rather, they constituted an autonomous state called the "Lands of the Holy Hungarian Crown of St Stephen" and known as Transleithania or just Hungary.
The Condominium of Bosnia and Herzegovina, occupied in 1878, formed a separate part. Both the "Austrian" and "Hungarian" lands of the Dual Monarchy had large Slavic-settled territories in the north as well as in the south. Cisleithania consisted of 17 crown lands which had representatives in the Imperial Council, the Cisleithanian parliament in Vienna; the crown lands centered on the Archduchy of Austria were not states, but provinces in the modern sense. However, they were areas with unique historic political and legal characteristics and were therefore more than mere administrative districts, they have been conceived of as "historical-political entities". Each crown land had a regional assembly, the Landtag, which enacted laws on matters of regional and minor importance; until 1848, the Landtage had been traditional diets. They were disbanded after the Revolutions of 1848 and reformed after 1860; some members held their position as ex officio members. There was a mixture of privilege and limited franchise.
The executive committee of a Landtag was called Landesausschuss and headed by a Landeshauptmann, being president of the Landtag as well. From 1868 onwards Emperor Franz Joseph himself and his Imperial–Royal government headed by the Minister-President of Austria were represented at the capital cities of the crown lands—except for Vorarlberg, administered with Tyrol, Istria and Gorizia-Gradisca which were adminstred together with Trieste under the common name of Austro-Illyrian Littoral— by a stadtholder, in few crown lands called Landespräsident, who acted as chief executive. Kingdom of Bohemia Kingdom of Dalmatia Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria Archduchy of Austria above the Enns Archduchy of Austria below the Enns Grand Duchy of Cracow Duchy of Bukovina Duchy of Carinthia Duchy of Carniola Duchy of Salzburg Duchy of Silesia Duchy of Styria Margraviate of Istria Margraviate of Moravia Princely County of Gorizia and Gradisca Princely County of Tyrol Princely County of Vorarlberg Free City of Trieste Condominium of Bosnia and Herzegovina According to the "December Constitution", a redraft of the emperor's 1861 February Patent, the Austrian government was respons
History of Austria
The history of Austria covers the history of Austria and its predecessor states, from the early Stone Age to the present state. The name Ostarrîchi has been in use since 996 AD when it was a margravate of the Duchy of Bavaria and from 1156 an independent duchy of the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation. Austria was dominated by the House of Habsburg and House of Habsburg-Lorraine from 1273 to 1918. In 1808, when Emperor Francis II of Austria dissolved the Holy Roman Empire, Austria became the Austrian Empire, was part of the German Confederation until the Austro-Prussian War of 1866. In 1867, Austria formed a dual monarchy with Hungary: the Austro-Hungarian Empire; when this empire collapsed after the end of World War I in 1918, Austria was reduced to the main German-speaking areas of the empire, adopted the name The Republic of German-Austria. However the union and name were forbidden by the Allies at the Treaty of Versailles; this led to the creation of the First Austrian Republic. Following the First Republic, Austrofascism tried to keep Austria independent from the German Reich.
Engelbert Dollfuss accepted that most Austrians were German and Austrian, but wanted Austria to remain independent from Germany. In 1938, Austrian-born Adolf Hitler annexed Austria to the German Reich with the Anschluss, supported by a large majority of the Austrian people. Ten years after the Second World War Austria again became an independent republic as the Second Republic in 1955. Austria joined the European Union in 1995. Since the territory understood by the term'Austria' underwent drastic changes over time, dealing with a History of Austria raises a number of questions, eg. whether it is confined to the current or former Republic of Austria, or extends to all lands ruled by the rulers of Austria. Furthermore, should an Austrian history include the period 1938–1945, when it nominally did not exist? Of the lands now part of the second Republic of Austria, many were added over time – only two of the nine provinces or Bundesländer are strictly'Austria', while other parts of its former sovereign territory are now part of countries like e.g. Italy, Hungary or the Czech Republic.
Accordingly, within Austria there are regionally and temporally varying affinities to adjacent countries. Human habitation of current Austria can be traced back to the first farming communities of the early Stone Age. In the late Iron Age it was occupied by people of the Hallstatt Celtic culture, one of the first Celtic cultures besides the La Tène Culture in France; the people first organised as a nation state as a Celtic kingdom referred to by the Romans as Noricum, dating from c. 800 to 400 BC. At the end of the 1st century BC the lands south of the Danube became part of the Roman Empire, was incorporated as the Province of Noricum around 40 AD; the most important Roman settlement was at Carnuntum, which can still be visited today as an excavation site. In the 6th century, Germanic people, the Bavarii occupied these lands until it fell to the Frankish Empire in the 9th century. Around 800 AD, Charlemagne established the outpost of Avar March in what is now Lower Austria, to hold back advances from Slavs and Avars.
In the 10th century an eastern outpost of the Duchy of Bavaria, bordering Hungary, was established as the Marchia orientalis or'Margraviate of Austria' in 976, ruled by the Margraves of Babenberg. This'Eastern March', in German was known as Ostarrîchi or'Eastern Realm', hence'Austria'; the first mention of Ostarrîchi occurs in a document of that name dated 996 CE. From 1156 the Emperor Frederick Barbarossa created an independent duchy under the House of Babenberg, until its extinction in 1246, corresponding to modern Lower Austria. Following the Babenberg dynasty and a brief interregnum, Austria came under the rule of the German king Rudolf I of Habsburg, beginning a dynasty that would last through seven centuries becoming progressively distinct from neighbouring Bavaria, within the Holy Roman Empire; the 15th and early 16th century saw considerable expansion of the Habsburg territories through diplomacy and marriages to include Spain, the Netherlands and parts of Italy. This expansionism, together with French aspirations and the resultant Habsburg-French or Bourbon-Habsburg rivalry were important factors shaping European History for 200 years.
By the Edict of Worms of 28 April 1521, the Emperor Charles V split the dynasty, bestowing the hereditary Austrian lands on his brother, Ferdinand I and the first central administrative structures were established. By 1526 Ferdinand had inherited the kingdoms of Bohemia, Hungary after the Battle of Mohács which partitioned the latter; however the Ottoman Empire now lay directly adjacent to the Austrian lands. After the unsuccessful first Siege of Vienna by the Turks in 1529, the Ottoman threat persisted for another one and a half centuries; the 16th Century saw the spread of the Reformation. From around 1600 the Habsburg policy of recatholicisation or Catholic Renewal led to the Thirty Years' War. A religious war, it was a struggle for power in central Europe the French opposition to the Habsburg Holy Roman Empire; the pressure of the anti-Habsburg coalition of France and most Protestant German states contained their authority to the Austrian and Czech lands in 1648. In 1683, the Ottoman forces were beaten back from Vi